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Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

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Clean Cities Coalitions 2016 Activity Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/10/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) national network of Clean Cities Coalitions advance the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to promote the use of domestic fuels within transportation. The nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, bring together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to use alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. To ensure success, coalitions leverage a robust set of expert resources and tools provided by national laboratories and DOE. Each year, Clean Cities coordinators submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online tool that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels; use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs); IR initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the submitted data to determine how broadly energy use in the U.S. has shifted due to coalition activities, which are summarized in this report.

State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2017, 8th Edition Curtin, S.; Gangi, J. 5/23/2018 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, D.C.

This January 2018 report, the eighth in a series, provides a comprehensive analysis of state activities supporting fuel cell and hydrogen technology, including profiles of all 50 states with a catalog of recent installations, policies, funding, and deployments around the country.

Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report 2016 Curtin,S.; Gangi, J. 12/4/2017 Reports

Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, D.C.

This report examines global fuel cell and hydrogen trends during 2016, covering business and financial activities, federal programs, and aspects of the various market sectors for fuel cells which include transportation. The report also covers 2016 activities related to hydrogen production, power-to-gas, energy storage, and components used by fuel cell and hydrogen technologies.

Considerations for Corridor and Community DC Fast Charging Complex System Design Francfort, J.; Salisbury, S.; Smart, J.; Garetson, T.; Karner, D. 6/15/2017 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls Idaho; Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, Arizona

This report focuses on direct current fast charger (DCFC) systems and how they can be deployed to provide convenient charging for plug-in electric vehicle drivers. First, the report shares lessons learned from previous DCFC deployment and data collection activities. Second, it establishes considerations and criteria for designing and upgrading DCFC complexes. Third, it provides cost estimates for hypothetical high-power DCFC complexes that meet simplified design requirements. Finally, it presents results for a business case analysis that shed light on the financial challenges associated with DCFCs.

Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/28/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

The Development of Vocational Vehicle Drive Cycles and Segmentation Duran, A.; Phillips, C.; Konan, A.; Kelly, K. 9/12/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Under a collaborative interagency agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed a series of in-depth analyses to characterize the on-road driving behavior including distributions of vehicle speed, idle time, accelerations and decelerations, and other driving metrics of medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicles operating within the United States. As part of this effort, NREL researchers segmented U.S. medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicle driving characteristics into three distinct operating groups or clusters using real world drive cycle data collected at 1 Hz and stored in NREL's Fleet DNA database. The Fleet DNA database contains millions of miles of historical real-world drive cycle data captured from medium- and heavy vehicles operating across the United States. The data encompass data from existing DOE activities as well as contributions from valued industry stakeholder participants. For this project, data captured from 913 unique vehicles comprising 16,250 days of operation were drawn from the Fleet DNA database and examined. The Fleet DNA data used as a source for this analysis has been collected from a total of 30 unique fleets/data providers operating across 22 unique geographic locations spread across the United States. This includes locations with topology ranging from the foothills of Denver, Colorado, to the flats of Miami, Florida. The range of fleets, geographic locations, and total number of vehicles analyzed ensures results that include the influence of these factors. While no analysis will be perfect without unlimited resources and data, it is the researchers understanding that the Fleet DNA database is the largest and most thorough publicly accessible vocational vehicle usage database currently in operation. This report includes an introduction to the Fleet DNA database and the data contained within, a presentation of the results of the statistical analysis performed by NREL, review of the logistic model developed to predict cluster membership, and a discussion and detailed summary of the development of the vocational drive cycle weights and representative transient drive cycles for testing and simulation. Additional discussion of known limitations and potential future work are also included in the report content.

Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition) Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.; Christensen, E.D.; Fioroni, G.; Moriarty. K.; Yanowitz, J. 11/8/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Eco Engineering, Cincinnati, Ohio

This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/22/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

Designing a Successful Transportation Project: Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects Kelly, K.; Singer, M. 9/27/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The largest source of funding for alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program's history came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act). In 2009, the 25 cost-share projects totaled nearly $300 million in federal government investment. This effort included the involvement of 50 Clean Cities coalitions and their nearly 700 stakeholder partners who provided an additional $500 million in matching funds to support projects in their local communities. In total, those 25 projects established 1,380 alternative fueling stations and put more than 9,000 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles on the road. Together, these projects displaced 154 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) of petroleum and averted 254,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while supporting U.S. energy independence and contributing to regional economic development. During post-project interviews, project leaders consistently cited a number of key components - ranging from technical and logistical factors, to administrative capabilities - for accomplishing an effective and impactful project. This report summarizes the high-level project design and administrative considerations for conducting a successful transportation project.

Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis Francfort, J.; Bennett, B.; Carlson, R.; Garretson, T.; Gourley, L.; Karner, D.; Kirkpatrick, M.; McGuire, P.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Salisbury, S.; Schey, S.; Smart, J.; White, S.; Wishart, J. 9/29/2015 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, Arizona; Intertek Center for the Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology, Phoenix, Arizona

Widespread adoption of PEVs has the potential to significantly reduce the United States transportation petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, barriers to adoption remain. One of the most commonly cited barriers is the need for public charging infrastructure that would allow PEV drivers to recharge their vehicles. Questions include: how many and what kind of charging stations are needed and where and how often will PEV drivers choose to charge? </p><p> To answer those questions, the Department of Energy launched five American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) projects: 1.) ChargePoint America - PEV Charging Infrastructure Demonstration; 2. Chrysler Ram PEV Pickup - PEV Demonstration; 3.) General Motors Chevrolet Volt - PEV Demonstration; 4.) The EV Project - PEV and PEV Charging Infrastructure Demonstration; and 5.) South Coast Air Quality Management District/Electric Power Research Institute/Via Motors - PEV Demonstration. </p><p> This report was designed to describe the scope and objectives for the five ARRA Transportation Electrification projects; describe technologies used in each project; document each projects' deployment and data collection rates; document how reporting occurred; document results; summarize results; and document lessons learned from each project.

What were the "Best Practices" Identified for Residential Charger Installations? 4/1/2015 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

This lessons learned white paper is based on data from the EV Project which enrolled 8,000 residential participants to install and use residential electric vehicle supply equipment. Along with background information and key conclusions, this paper describes observations regarding permitting practices and best installation conditions.

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Progress Report: Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles - Version 2.0 11/3/2014 Reports

American National Standards Institute, Washington, DC

In January 2014, the American National Standards Institute Electric Vehicles Standards Panel (ANSI EVSP) resumed work to assess existing and needed standards and conformity assessment solutions to enable electric vehicles and charging infrastructure to be deployed throughout the United States. This report assesses progress to address the standardization gaps identified in the Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles - Version 2.0 (May 2013). It also includes updates on significant standardization activity related to the issues identified in the roadmap.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

A Guide to the Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities Community Electric Vehicle Readiness Projects Frades, M. 1/1/2014 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions

This report summarizes the activities, outputs, and lessons of a series of projects that are intended to advance the deployment of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) that was launched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2011.

Advanced Biofuel Market Report 2013; Capacity through 2016 Solecki, M.; Scodel, A.; Epstein, B. 9/1/2013 Reports

Environmental Entrepreneurs (E2), San Francisco, California; Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

This report catalogs the growth and challenges of the advanced biofuel industry and provides updates on developments since the publication of last year's report in 2012. The scope of this work includes active advanced biofuel projects in the United States and Canada. Each project included in this report achieves at least a 50% reduction in carbon intensity relative to a petroleum baseline, using the direct and indirect effects as measured by the California Air Resources Board.

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M. 2/1/2013 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 10/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted to an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report. Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P. 8/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

Thirty-Six Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans Lammert, M., Walkowicz, K. 3/1/2012 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This 36-month follow-up evaluation is part of a series of evaluations by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Using an established and documented evaluation protocol, DOE - through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)- has been tracking and evaluating new propulsion systems in transit buses and trucks for more than 10 years. The DOE/NREL vehicle evaluations are a part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), which supports DOE's Vehicle Technologies Program.<p>This report focuses on a parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system currently being operated by United Parcel Service (UPS). The hybrid propulsion system is an alternative to the standard diesel system and allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately reduces petroleum use.

Electric Vehicle Policies, Fleet, and Infrastructure: Synthesis Lindquist, K.; Lindquist, K.; Wendt, M. 11/1/2011 Reports

Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, Washington

Transportation Synthesis Reports (TSRs) are brief summaries of currently available information on topics of interest to WSDOT staff. Online and print sources may include newspaper and periodical articles, NCHRP and other TRB programs, AASHTO, the research and practices of other state DOTs and related academic and industry research. Internet hyperlinks in the TSRs are active at the time of publication, but host server changes can make them obsolete.

Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised) Johnson, C. 8/10/2011 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted to an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven. NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis Pathways with GREET Han, J.; Elgowainy, A.; Palou-Rivera, I.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.Q. 11/1/2011 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

The pyrolysis of biomass can help produce liquid transportation fuels with properties similar to those of petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel. Argonne National Laboratory conducted a life-cycle (i.e., well-to-wheels [WTW]) analysis of various pyrolysis pathways by expanding and employing the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The WTW energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pyrolysis pathways were compared with those from the baseline petroleum gasoline and diesel pathways. Various pyrolysis pathway scenarios with a wide variety of possible hydrogen sources, liquid fuel yields, and co-product application and treatment methods were considered. At one extreme, when hydrogen is produced from natural gas and when bio-char is used for process energy needs, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is high (32% of the dry mass of biomass input). The reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used, however, is modest, at 50% and 51%, respectively, on a per unit of fuel energy basis. At the other extreme, when hydrogen is produced internally via reforming of pyrolysis oil and when bio-char is sequestered in soil applications, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is low (15% of the dry mass of biomass input), but the reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions are large, at 79% and 96%, respectively, relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used. The petroleum energy use in all scenarios was restricted to biomass collection and transportation activities, which resulted in a reduction in WTW petroleum energy use of 92-95% relative to that found when baseline petroleum fuels are used. Internal hydrogen production (i.e., via reforming of pyrolysis oil) significantly reduces fossil fuel use and GHG emissions because the hydrogen from fuel gas or pyrolysis oil (renewable sources) displaces that from fossil fuel na

Transportation's Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions 4/1/2010 Reports

U.S. Department of Transportation, Center for Climate Change and Envrionmental Forecasting, Washington, DC

This U.S. Department of Transportation report is submitted in response to the requirements of Section 1101(c) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. It is intended to help inform the debate on surface transportation reauthorization and climate change legislation.</p><p>The report examines greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels and trends from the transportation sector and analyzes the full range of strategies available to reduce these emissions. These strategies include: introducing low-carbon fuels, increasing vehicle fuel economy, improving transportation system efficiency, and reducing carbon-intensive travel activity. While the report does not provide recommendations, it does analyze five categories of policy options for implementing the strategies: an economy-wide price signal, efficiency standards, market incentives, transportation planning and funding programs and research and development.

Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008 Bergeron, P.; Johnson, C. 9/1/2009 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Approximately 412 million gallons of gasoline were displaced through the Clean Cities efforts in 2008?14% more than in 2007. This displacement represents the combined results of the activities reported by coalitions (as analyzed by NREL) and the impacts of the Fuel Economy Guide and related activities (as estimated by ORNL). Three major changes were made to the Clean Cities survey this year: E10 is no longer counted toward petroleum displacement goals, coordinators no longer relied on a default assumption for the percent of time flex-fueled vehicles used alternative fuel, and B20 was moved from the AFV to the blends category. The first of these changes substantially reduced the reported petroleum displacement by blends from what they otherwise would have been in 2008. AFVs still accounted for the largest share (48%) of the total 412-million-gallon displacement. Fuel economy impacts (combined impacts of coalition and ORNL activity) were responsible for displacing 129 million gallons. The use of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) as fuels for AFVs and in low-level biodiesel blends displaced 100 million gallons, or 24% of the total, and idle reduction and HEV technologies combined to displace 20 million gallons. 2008 was the first year that greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions were estimated for Clean Cities activities. The program kept a total of 2.7 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) from being emitted to the atmosphere?the equivalent of removing over 507,000 passenger cars from U.S. roads.

Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance Barack Obama 10/5/2009 Reports

White House, Washington, D.C.

In order to create a clean energy economy that willincrease our Nation?s prosperity, promote energy security, protect the interests of taxpayers, and safeguard the health of our environment, the Federal Government must lead by example. It is therefore the policy of the United States that Federal agencies shall increase energy efficiency; measure, report, and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from direct and indirect activities; conserve and protect water resources through efficiency, reuse, andstormwater management; eliminate waste, recycle, and prevent pollution;leverage agency acquisitions to foster markets for sustainable technologiesand environmentally preferable materials, products, and services; design,construct, maintain, and operate high performance sustainable buildingsin sustainable locations; strengthen the vitality and livability of the communities in which Federal facilities are located; and inform Federal employees about and involve them in the achievement of these goals.

Investigation of Biodistillates as Potential Blendstocks for Transportation Fuels 6/1/2009 Reports

Coordinating Research Council, Inc., Alpharetta, Georgia

Project was initiated by CRC to assess the state-of-knowledge regarding biofuels as blending materials for ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel in transportation applications. Topics investigated include policy drivers, biofuel feedstocks, fuel production technologies, fuel properties andspecifications, in-use handling and performance, exhaust emissions effects, and life-cycle impacts. Data gaps were identified and areas for further work were recommended. Policy drivers include the specific, volumetricrequirements contained in the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) established for biomass-based diesel fuel of 500 million gallons/year (mg/y) by 2009, ramping up to 1 billion gallons/year (bg/y) by 2012. Several U.S. States are also actively pursuing policies to promote greater use of biofuels.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review Morrow, K.; Karner, D.; Francfort, J. 11/1/2008 Reports

Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, Phoenix, Arizona; Electric Transportation Applications, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by the U.S.Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program?s Advanced VehicleTesting Activity and other various stakeholders to better understand theircapability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PHEVs could allow usersto significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicle,and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design,PHEVs may have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for dailyvehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charging infrastructure forPHEVs, along with costs for onboard power electronics and the batteriesassociated with PHEV technology, will be key factors in the success of PHEVs.This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in singlefamily residential, multi-family residential, and commercial situations. Costsassociated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of theinfrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2007 Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P. 9/1/2008 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2007, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues Yacobucci, B. 4/24/2008 Reports

Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, Resources, Science, and Industry Division, Washington, D.C.

This report provides background concerning various aspects of fuel ethanol and a discussion of the current related policy issues. Topics include ethanol and the agricultural economy; ethanol refining and production; fuel consumption; research and development in cellulosic feedstocks; costs and benefits of fuel ethanol; and policy concerns and congressional activity.

BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit Barnitt, R. 1/1/2008 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report is part of a series of evaluation from the U.S. Department of Energy through the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) at NREL. The role of AVTA is to bridge the gap between research and development and the commercial availability for advanced vehicle technologies that reduce petroleum use while meeting air quality standards.</p><p> DOE/NREL evaluated the original 10 prototype diesel-hybrid buses from Orion and BAE Systems operated by the New York City Transit Co. (NYCT) The next report focused on 10 new compressed natural gas (CNG) and 10 next generation diesel hybrid electric buses. In the present evaluation, the focus is on hybrid-electric transit buses (equipped with BAE Systems' HybriDrive propulsion system) purchased by NYCT in an order group of 200 (Gen II), and their performance during their first year of service.

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current Status Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C. 9/1/2007 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C.

This report reviews past and present fuel cell bus technology development and implementation, specifically focusing on experiences and progress in the United States. Table 1 is an overview of many of the fuel cell transit bus development projects in the U.S., Canada, Europe, and elsewhere, from early development activities to current demonstration efforts focused on bringing the technology toward commercialization.

Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006 Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V. 7/1/2007 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coordinators submit an annual report of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions as well as data about sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities. NREL analyzes the data and translates them into gasoline reduction impacts.</p><p>Survey results indicate that about 375 million gallons of gasoline were displaced through Clean Citiew efforts in 2006, 50 percent more than in 2005. Alternative fuel vehicles accounted for 71 percent of the reduction. Biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) used in AFVs displaced 128 million gallons, 34 percent of the total 375 million.

Executive Order 13423: Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management Bush, G.W. 1/24/2007 Reports

White House, Washington, D.C.

Executive Order 13423, titled Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, makes it policy that Federal agencies conduct their transportation, and energy-related activities under the law in an environmentally, economically, and fiscally sound manner. Specifically regarding transportation, "ensure that, if the agency operates a fleet of at least 20 motor vehicles, the agency, relative to agency baselines for fiscal year 2005, (i) reduces the fleet's total consumption of petroleum products by 2 percent annually through the end of fiscal year 2015; (ii) increases the total fuel consumption that is non-petroleum-based by 10 percent annually; and (iii) uses plug-in hybrid (PIH) vehicles when PIH vehicles are commercially available at a cost reasonably comparable on the basis of life-cycle cost to non-PIH vehicles."

Notes: Executive Order 13423 specifically revokes E.O. 13101; E.O. 13123; E.O. 13134; E.O. 13148; and E.O. 13149.

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing Francfort, J.; Karner, D.; Harkins, R.; Tardiolo, J. 4/3/2006 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Electric Transportation Applications, Phoenix, Arizona; Electric Transportation Applications, Phoenix, Arizona; Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Menlo Park, California

The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on 7 HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. Tested models include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV's fuel economy and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model were driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, fuel economy tests were rerun and each HEV battery pack was tested. The paper discusses the testing methods and results.

Notes: Paper is available for purchase from SAE.

FAA Inherently Low Emission Airport Vehicle Pilot Program 1/1/2006 Reports

Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C.

This document is the Federal Aviation Administration's final report for the Inherently Low Emissions Airport Vehicle Pilot Program (ILEAV). The report describes the current level of ILEAV project activity based on information provided by participating airport sponsors in their progress reports of Sept. 30, 2005. The ILEAV program produced a total investment of over $14 million in airport low-emission technology, including federal grant and local matching contributions. The lessons learned from the ILEAV program have been valuable to the FAA and its development of new air quality initiatives.

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions Brinkman, Norman; Wang, Michael; Weber, Trudy; Darlington, Thomas 5/30/2005 Reports

General Motors Corporation; Argonne National Laboratory; Air Improvement Resource, Inc.

An accurate assessment of future fuel/propulsion system options requires a complete vehicle fuel-cycle analysis, commonly called a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis. In this WTW study, we analyzed energy use and emissions associated with fuel production (or well-to-tank [WTT]) activities and energy use andemissions associated with vehicle operation (or tank-to-wheels [TTW])activities. Energy resources, such as petroleum, natural gas (NG), coal, and biomass, as well as the energy carrier, electricity, are considered as feedstocks to produce various transportation fuels, including gasoline, diesel fuel, hydrogen (H2), ethanol (EtOH), compressed natural gas (CNG), methanol (MeOH), and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The propulsion systems evaluated were spark-ignition (SI) engines, compression-ignition (CI) engines, hydrogen fuel cells, and fuel processor fuel cells, all in non-hybrid and hybrid electric configurations.This study updates and supplements a previous (2001) North American study, conducted by GM and others (General Motors [GM] et al. 2001), of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with advanced vehicle/fuel systems (GM Phase 1 North American study). The primary purposeof this Phase 2 study is to address criteria pollutant emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 10 microns (PM10), and sulfur oxide emissions (SOx). We also updated the vehicle modeling for energyconsumption with the latest powertrain maps and added some additional propulsion systems, such as hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs).As in the previous study, the vehicle modeled was a 2010-model-year, full-sized GM pickup truck. The truck was selected because it is a high seller among light-duty vehicles (cars and trucks) in the U.S. market, and light-duty trucks account for a large proportion of the fuel used in the U.S. vehicle fleet. In our study, we attempted

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Overview of Advanced Technology Transportation Update for CY 2003 Eudy, L. 6/1/2003 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Since fiscal year (FY) 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), formally the Field Operations Program, has produced an annual overview of the transportation market. The document, which covers energy use, vehicle sales, emissions, potential partners, advanced technology vehicle availability, and other factors, offers a 'snapshot' of current vehicle technologies and trends. DOE program managers use this document to plan test and evaluation activities that focus resources where they have the greatest impact.

Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development Anastasia, O.; Checklick, N.; Couts, V.; Doherty, J.; Findsen, J.; Gehlin, L.; Radoff, J. 9/1/2002 Reports

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), 8301 Greensboro Drive, E-5-7, McLean, Virginia 22102

In response to the significant growth in transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods of addressing this trend. However, do to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions related to the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world's roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emission from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. These activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as natural gas vehicles (NGVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities.

Notes: Copies of this document are available from the NETL Web site: http://www.netl.doe.gov/products/ccps/pubs/NGV_guide.PDF

FreedomCAR Partnership Plan 9/5/2002 Reports

United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

United States Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham and senior executives of DaimlerChrysler, Ford, and General Motors announced the FreedomCAR Partnership on January 9, 2002. FreedomCAR is a research initiative focused on collaborative, pre-competitive, high-risk research to develop the component technologies necessary to provide a full range of affordable cars and light trucks that will free the nation's personal transportation system for petroleum dependence and from harmful vehicle emissions, without sacrificing freedom of mobility and freedom of vehicle choice. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), representing DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation are the partners in the initiative. The partners will jointly conduct strategic planning, determine technical requirements, identify needed resources, establish research and development priorities, and execute oversight of the R&D activities necessary to achieve the goals of the partnership. In addition, the partners will jointly develop a technical roadmap that outlines the technology-specific R&D goals (including cost targets) and milestones required to demonstrate progress.

Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource Guide for Project Development 7/1/2002 Reports

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC),McLean,Virginia

This report provides national and international project developers with a guide on how to estimate and document the GHG emission reduction benefits and/or penalties for battery-powered and hybrid-electric vehicle projects. This primer also provides a resource for the creation of GHG emission reduction projects for the Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) Pilot Phase and in anticipation of other market based project mechanisms proposed under the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change (UNFCC). Though it will be necessary for project developers and other entities to evaluate the emission benefits of each project on a case-by-case basis, this primer will provide a guide for determining which data and information to include during the process of developing the project proposal.

U.S. Postal Service Fountain Valley Electric Carrier Route Vehicle Testing Francfort, J. 1/1/2002 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

The United States Postal Service (USPS) has ordered 500 light-duty electric carrier route vehicles (ECRV) mostly for their delivery carriers to use in several California locations. The 500 ECRVs have been defined as a demonstration fleet to support a decision on potentially ordering 5,500 additional ECRVs. Several different test methods are being used by the USPS to evaluate the 500-vehicle deployment. One of these test methods is the ECRV Customer Acceptance Test Program at Fountain Valley, California. Two newly manufactured ECRVs were delivered to the Fountain Valley Post Office and eighteen mail carriers primarily drove the ECRVs on ?park and loop? mail delivery routes for a period of 2 days each. This ECRV testing consisted of 36 route tests, 18 tests per vehicle. The 18 mail carriers testing the ECRVs were surveyed for their opinions on the performance of the ECRVs. The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Field Operations Program, is supporting the USPS?s ECRV testing activities both financially and with technical expertise.

Fuel Cell Power for Vehicles 4/1/2001 Reports

United States Fuel Cell Council

The world's leading automakers, fuel cell developers, material and component suppliers, national laboratories and universities are in a race to bring fuel cell vehicles to the marketplace. The goal of this pursuit is to offer an alternative to the internal combustion engine that provides all the performance consumers have come to demand, and at the same time is more efficient and cleaner, increases our fuel diversity, and is ultimately less expensive to manufacture, maintain and operate. Many of the leaders of this competition are members of the U.S. Fuel Cell Council, the business association dedicated to commercializing fuel cell technology. This report identifies these pioneers, and provides detailed descriptions of their fuel cell vehicle activities. The report concludes with a Fuel Cell Vehicle Glossary of Terms that is a valuable tool for understanding this emerging technology.

Notes: This report is available on the Fuel Cell Council Web Site http://www.usfcc.com/USFCC-TransportationBrochure.pdf

Waste Management LNG Truck Fleet Final Data Report 8/1/2000 Reports

United States Department of Energy

Waste Management, Inc., based in Houston, Texas, is the largest waste management service company in North America. This report addresses activities at one of Waste Management's facilities in Washington, Pennsylvania, south of Pittsburgh. This site has been operating seven heavy duty LNG refuse trucks (Mack trucks with E7G engines) with the first LNG truck starting operation in August 1997. The following document describes the results of data collection and evaluation of five of the seven heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks compared to three similar heavy-duty diesel refuse trucks operating in the Washington, Pennsylvania area.

Heavy-Duty Truck Demonstration with a 400-HP DDC Series 60G LNG Engine, and Support for the Downtown Los Angeles LNG Station 6/9/2000 Reports

ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller, Inc. 555 Clyde Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043

The Trucking industry has taken an active interest in the use of engines powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG) to reduce NOx and PM emissions. However, major barriers exist to widespread use of LNG in trucking applications, including reduced performance and higher initial capital costs compared to diesel-fueled vehicles, as well as a limited fueling infrastructure. To help address these barriers, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, joined with the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD)to contract with a team led by the San Jose Transportation Technology Group of ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller. The focus of the contract was to upgrade a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) Series 60G (S60G) engine for increased power and torque, and demonstrate this engine in an LNG-fueled semi-tractor.

Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental Management Clinton, W.J. 4/21/2000 Reports

Office of the President of the United States, the White House, Washington, DC

Executive Order 13148 directs that he head of each Federalagency is responsible for ensuring that all necessary actions are taken tointegrate environmental accountability into agency day-to-day decisionmakingand long-term planning processes, across all agency missions, activities,and functions. Consequently, environmental management considerationsmust be a fundamental and integral component of Federal Government policies,operations, planning, and management. The head of each Federal agency is responsible for meeting the goals and requirements of this order.

Notes: Revoked by E.O. 13423.

A Full Fuel Cycle Analysis of Energy and Emissions Impacts of Transportation Fuels Produced from Natural Gas Wang, M.;Huang, H. 12/1/1999 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

Because of its abundance and because it offers significant energy and envirnomental advantages, natural gas has been promoted for use in motor vehicles. A number of transportation fuels are produced from natural gas: each is distinct in terms of upstream production activities and vehicle usage. In this study, researchers evaluated eight fuels produced from natural gas - compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and electricity - for use in five types of motor vehicles - spark-ignition vehicles, compression-ignition vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, battery-powered electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles. Because of great uncertainties associated with advances in both fuel production and vehicle technologies, near-term and long-term fuels and vehicle technologies were evaluated separately. The study reveals that, in general, the use of petroleum-based fuels reduces energy use and emissions relative to use of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel, although different natural gas-based fuels in different vehicle technologies can have significantly different energy and emissions impacts.

Notes: This document is available on the Argonne National Laboratory Transportation Technology Research and Development Center Web Site - http://www.transportation.anl.gov/ttrdc/pdfs/TA/13.pdf

EPACT Initiatives for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: An Integrated Approach for Implementing the Energy Policy Act 3/1/1995 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

The Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992 gave the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) the means to expand research and development in the transportation sector and to create programs for accelerating the large-scale introduction of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Through these programs, DOE - together with other Federal agencies - is actively building partnerships to fortify our nation's transportation system with the fuels and technologies it will need for the future. This booklet presents background on the Energy Policy Act as it relates to transportation and an overview of DOE's integrated, five-point approach to fulfilling the EPACT mandates.

Perspectives on AFVs: State and City Government Fleet Manager Survey 2/1/1999 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

In an effort to reduce national dependence on imported oil and to improve urban air quality, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development and deployment of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop and conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs compared to similar gasoline vehicles. As part of this effort, NREL has undertaken a number of evaluation projects, including conducting telephone surveys with fleet managers and drivers of AFVs in the federal fleet. This report summarizes the results of the survey of state and city government fleet managers.

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program: 16th Annual Report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1992 8/1/1993 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Washington, DC

This report describes the progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY 1992. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY 1992 in the areas of battery, fuel cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. This Annual Report also contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components, as well as a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program: 19th Annual Report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1995 6/1/1996 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC

This nineteenth annual report serves to inform the United States Congress of the progress in fiscal year 1995 and the plans of the Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Research and Development Program. This annual report describes the progress made in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies. Highlights of accomplishments in fiscal year 1995 are summarized and then followed by detailed descriptions of program activities in the areas of advanced battery fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories are provided. Also presented in this report is the status of incentives and use of foreign components, and a list of publications resulting from sponsored research and development.

Public Law 102-486 - October 24, 1992: Energy Policy Act of 1992 10/24/1992 Reports

This act is intended to provide for improved energy efficiency. It includes provisions for the following: energy efficiency; alternative fuels - general; alternative fuels - non-federal programs; availability and use of replacement fuels, alternative fuels, and alternative fueled private vehicles; electric motor vehicles; electricity; high-level radioactive waste; United States enrichment corporation; remedial action and uranium revitalization; uranium enrichment health, safety, and environment; renewable energy; coal; strategic petroleum reserve; octane display and disclosure; global climate change; additional federal power act provisions; oil pipeline regulatory reform; general provisions - reduction of oil vulnerability; energy and environment; energy and economic growth; policy and administrative provisions; non-federal power act hydropower provisions; coal, oil, and gas; Indian energy resources; insular areas energy security; nuclear plant licensing; and additional nuclear energy provisions.

Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Program - Light Duty Federal Vehicles, Trucks, and Buses: Third Annual Report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993 9/1/1994 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington DC

This annual report to Congress details the Federal light-duty alternative fuel vehicle operations from October 1992 through September 1993. Also included are the results of the first year of the Alternative Fuels Truck Commercial Application Program and the Alternative Fuels Bus Program activities. Significant expansion of the Alternative Motor Fuels Program data collection efforts occurred during fiscal year 1993 with the addition of more alternative fuel vehicles, test sites, and Federal agency involvement. In addition, the heavy-duty and bus projects required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act have developed to the point where data are available for reporting.

Perspectives on AFVs: 1996 Federal Fleet Manager Survey 7/1/1997 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

In an effort to reduce national dependence on imported oil and to improve urban air quality, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development and deployment of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop and conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs compared to similar gasoline vehicles. As part of this effort, NREL has undertaken a number of evaluation projects, including conducting telephone surveys with fleet managers and drivers of AFVs in the federal fleet. This report summarizes the results of the survey of fleet managers.

Perspectives on AFVs: 1996 Federal Fleet Driver Survey 9/15/1997 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

In an effort to reduce national dependence on imported oil and to improve urban air quality, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development and deployment of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop and conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs compared to similar gasoline vehicles. As part of this effort, NREL has undertaken a number of evaluation projects, including conducting telephone surveys with fleet managers and drivers of AFVs in the federal fleet. This report summarizes the results of the survey of fleet managers.

A Look Back at the U.S. Department of Energy Aquatic Species Program: Biodiesel from Algae Sheehan, J.; Dunahay, T.; Benemann, J.; Roessler, P. 7/1/1998 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) was a relatively small research effort intended to look at the use of aquatic plants as sources of energy. While its history dates back to 1978, much of the research from 1978 to 1982 was focused on using algae to produce hydrogen. The program switched emphasis to other transportation fuels, in particular biodiesel, beginning in the early 1980s. This report provides a summary of the research activities carried out from 1980 to 1996 (when the program ended), with an emphais on algae for biodiesel production.</p><p> As a result of the program, researchers collected over 3,000 strains of organisms that were winnowed down to around 300 viable species appropriate to their research. The researchers were able to study the physiology and biochemistry of algae and, through genetic engineering, were able to make algae over-express the ACCase gene. Finally, the program experimented with open pond systems for mass production of algae. The group concluded that production costs for producing biodiesel from algae must be below the costs of petro diesel.