Charging Electric Vehicles in Public
For fleet drivers and consumers to charge their electric vehicles (EVs)—which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)—in public, charging stations must be deployed and integrated based on local community needs.
Public charging stations make EVs more convenient. Although the majority of EV owners charge at home, public charging and workplace charging stations can increase the daily useful range of all-electric vehicles and reduce the amount of gasoline consumed by PHEVs.
General public charging uses Level 2 or DC fast charging. Level 1 and 2 charging stations should typically be located where vehicle owners are highly concentrated and parked for long periods of time, such as shopping centers, airports, hotels, government offices, and other businesses. Public charging should also be located along highway corridors or at urban charging hubs.
Learn about charging infrastructure development and operation and maintenance, and read a case study on public charging station procurement. For more information about infrastructure costs and charging infrastructure development, refer to Costs Associated With Non-Residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment and a review of charging infrastructure costs by the International Council on Clean Transportation.
Fleets that choose to incorporate EVs into their operations must consider several factors when planning for charging stations. Peak demand, duty cycles, garaging locations, vehicle models, and availability of off-site public charging stations can all factor into decisions about the number, location, and type(s) of charging units. City planners, fleet managers, and utilities can work together with installers to determine the best charging solutions.
Fleets around the country are adopting EVs for light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle applications. Transit agencies, municipalities, and commercial fleets are also poised to make a significant transition to EVs. To prepare for and support this transition, several utilities have published fleet electrification guidance, such as Pacific Gas and Electric’s Take Charge: A Guidebook to Fleet Electrification and Infrastructure.
Zoning, Codes, and Parking Ordinances
Zoning, codes (including permitting), and parking ordinances are all regulatory tools at the disposal of state and local officials to further the EV readiness of communities. Each has a different potential role to play and can be used in tandem to encourage the adoption of vehicle charging infrastructure.
- Zoning: Appropriate zoning will not restrict the adoption of charging infrastructure and may actually be used as a municipal planning tool to incentivize or require charger installations.
- Codes: Codes can specify scoping requirements for certain features in new construction, such as requiring the installation of charging infrastructure or electrical conduit, and can provide guidelines for new permitting or inspection protocols. Refer to the National Institute of Science and Technology's (NIST) Handbook 44 Device Code Requirements for Electric Vehicle Fueling
Jurisdictions that have not yet developed a specific permitting process for charging equipment installations can refer to the permitting template (PDF).
For more information, see the Transportation and Climate Initiative Georgetown Climate Center reports on Creating EV-Ready Towns and Cities: A Guide to Planning and Policy Tools and EV-Ready Codes for the Built Environment.