Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2024 Bourbon, E. 2/22/2024 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2024 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2024 and January 15, 2024, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 66 cents from $3.72 to $3.06; diesel decreased 58 cents from $4.52 to $3.94; CNG increased 10 cents from $2.85 to $2.95; ethanol (E85) decreased 50 cents from $3.05 to $2.55; propane increased 20 cents from $3.29 to $3.49; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 59 cents from $4.42 to $3.83.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 11 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 26 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Electric Vehicle Fire Primer for Fleet Managers 2/16/2024 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Despite heightened media attention, the risk of an EV fire is statistically very low. Fleet managers considering EVs can learn about the potential for EV fires and measures to help reduce fire risk.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2023 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 2/1/2024 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

Electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure continues to rapidly change and grow. Using data from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator, this report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2023 by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with a federal infrastructure requirement scenario. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the fifteenth report in a series.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2022 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C.; Wilson, A. 1/29/2024 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) works with local Clean Cities coalitions across the country as part of its Technology Integration Program. These efforts help businesses and consumers make smarter and more informed transportation energy choices that can save energy, lower costs, provide resilience through fuel diversification, and reduce emissions. This report summarizes the success and impact of coalition activities based on data and information provided in their annual reports.

Electric Mobility Opportunities for Brooklyn Park, Minnesota Weigl, D; Bopp, K; Rosner, N 1/1/2024 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report outlines steps that Brooklyn Park, Minnesota can take through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Communities Local Energy Action Program in order to expand electric mobility access for its residents, particularly those residents who are most historically underserved. The report provides an overview of different options for increasing mobility for residents, including personal electric vehicles, electric carshares, electric micro mobility, and on demand services. The report additionally highlights the importance of ongoing community engagement and education.

Model Year 2024: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2024 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles.

Corridor-Level Impacts of Battery-Electric Heavy-Duty Trucks and the Effects of Policy in the United States McNeil, W; Tong, F; Harley, R; Auffhammer, M; Scown, C 12/18/2023 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkely, California, The University of California at Berkeley, Berkely, California, Beihang University, Beijing, University

Electrifying freight trucks will be key to alleviating air pollution burdens on disadvantaged communities and mitigating climate change. The United States plans to pursue this aim by adding vehicle charging infrastructure along specific freight corridors. This study explores the coevolution of the electricity grid and freight trucking landscape using an integrated assessment framework to identify when each interstate and drayage corridor becomes advantageous to electrify from a climate and human health standpoint.

AFLEET Assesses Vehicle, Fuel, and Infrastructure Impacts 12/13/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemony, Illinois

AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET fact sheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

A Deep Decarbonization Framework for the United States Economy – a Sector, Sub-Sector, and End-Use Based Approach Kar, S; Hawkins, T; Zaimes, G; Oke, D; Singh, U; Wu, X; Kwon, H; Zhang, S; Zang, G; Zhou, Y; Elgowainy, A; Wang, M; Ma, O 12/8/2023 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

Using the recently developed Decarbonization Analysis Model, this report analyzes the estimated greenhouse gas mitigation potential for projected energy demand based on several sector-level and cross-sectoral decarbonization pathways, including electrification, low-carbon fuels, and the reduction of fugitive emissions. The report analyzes the remaining projected emissions and highlights the need for developing low-carbon and carbon-negative alternatives to mitigate the fossil-based carbon emissions resulting from the fossil-based fuels in heavy-duty transportation.

Conceptos básicos sobre los vehículos eléctricos (Electric Vehicles) 12/5/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Los vehículos eléctricos (EV, por su sigla en inglés) usan la electricidad como combustible principal o para mejorar la efciencia de los diseños de vehículos convencionales. Los EV incluyen vehículos todo eléctrico, también denominados vehículos eléctricos de batería (BEV, por su sigla en inglés), y vehículos eléctricos híbridos enchufables (PHEV, por su sigla en inglés). <a href="https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/electric_vehicles.pdf?4efbe6d174">Accede a esta publicación en inglés aquí</a>

Evaluating EV Charger Reliability and Performance Blongewicz, K; Di Filippo, J; Latham, S 12/1/2023 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, District of Columbia

This report analyzes processes for measuring, verifying, and evaluating charger reliability and performance, including gaps in current processes. The report discusses the importance of easily obtainable charger reliability data as well as consistency and standardization of collecting and processing this data.

Electric Vehicle Program Designs and Strategies to Enhance Equitable Deployment Ball, J; Forrester, S; Grayson, A; Satchwell, A 12/1/2023 Reports

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

This report synthesizes and categorizes information from more than five dozen sources published between 2015 and 2023 – including national, regional, and state-level electric vehicle charging station program summaries, as well as updates, policy briefs, proposals, whitepapers, and reports – and describes three key activities to support informed decision-making for equitable electric vehicle charging station programs: cultivating partnerships, identifying a community’s unique needs, and developing an iterative program design.

Charging Ahead: How Government Agencies Can Support the Electrification of Private Fleet Vehicles 12/1/2023 Reports

U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

This toolkit is a resource for government agencies seeking ways to encourage private fleet operators and private sector stakeholders to transition to electric vehicles. It is designed to help government agencies consider, plan, coordinate, and support this adoption. Government agencies can use the toolkit to identify key partners, advance high-impact policy tools, and assist firms in pursuing or advancing fleet electrification.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2023 Bourbon, E. 11/29/2023 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2023 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2023 and October 15, 2023, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 13 cents from $3.59 to $3.72; diesel increased 64 cents from $3.88 to $4.52; CNG decreased 1 cent from $2.86 to $2.85; ethanol (E85) increased 10 cents from $2.95 to $3.05; propane increased 4 cents from $3.25 to $3.29; and biodiesel (B20) increased 65 cents from $3.77 to $4.42.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 87 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 24 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Grid Capacity – What is it, What Determines it, Does One Number Work, and How Does it Relate to Electric Vehicles? Tuffner, F 11/1/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

Electrical power is used in many facets of modern life and electricity demand continues to grow. The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), migration from natural gas to electric heat pumps, and other decarbonization efforts are expected to grow this demand even further. With this increased demand, questions arise on if the power grid can handle this load and questions of “grid capacity” emerge. This report discusses common questions about what grid capacity is and how EVs impact grid capacity.

Cold Weather Impacts on Electric School Buses 11/1/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Joint Office of Energy and Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

School bus fleets considering electric school buses (ESBs) can start here to learn how cold weather impacts ESBs and considerations for optimizing bus performance when temperatures drop. ESBs are proven to operate effectively in cold weather; however, cold temperatures will impact their range and efficiency. School bus fleets can effectively manage these impacts on ESB operations by considering effective safeguards during deployment planning.

Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2020) and Future (2030-2035) Technologies Kelly, J.C.; Elgowainy, A.; Isaac, R.; Ward, J.; Islam, E.; Rousseau, A.; Sutherland, I.; Wallington, T.J.; Alexander, M.; Muratori, M.; Franklin, M.; Adams, J.; Rustagi, N. 11/1/2023 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; General Motors, Flint, Michigan; Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan; Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, California

This study provides a comprehensive life cycle analysis (LCA), or cradle-to-grave (C2G) analysis, of the cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of vehicle-fuel pathways, the levelized cost of driving (LCD) and cost of avoided GHG emissions. The C2G analysis assesses light duty midsize sedans and small sport utility vehicles (SUVs) across a variety of vehicle-fuel technology pathways, including conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), flexible hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs) with varying vehicle ranges, and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs).

Exploring Decarbonization Pathways for USA Passenger and Freight Mobility Hoehne, C; Muratori, M; Judan, P; Bush, B; Yip, A; Ledna, C; Vimmerstedt, L; Podkaminer, K; Ma, O 10/30/2023 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Passenger and freight travel account for 28% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions today. This report explores pathways to reduce transportation emissions under bounding assumptions on future travel behavior, technology advancement, and policies. Results show diverse routes to 80% or more well-to-wheel GHG reductions by 2050. Rapid adoption of zero-emission vehicles coupled with a clean electric grid is essential for deep decarbonization. Increased sustainable biofuel usage is also essential for decarbonizing aviation and to support legacy vehicles during the transition. Managing travel demand growth can ease this transition by reducing the need for clean electricity and sustainable fuels.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2023 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 10/16/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

Electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure continues to rapidly change and grow. Using data from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator, this report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2023 by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with a federal infrastructure requirement scenario. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the fourteenth report in a series.

Clean Cities Coalitions Overview 10/10/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Office Clean Cities Coalition Network, which boosts the country's economic vitality, energy security, and quality of life by advancing the deployment of affordable, efficient, and clean transportation fuels and technologies. Coalitions provide the technical expertise local decision makers and fleets need to understand and implement alternative and renewable fuels, electric vehicles, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, new mobility choices, and emerging transportation technologies.

Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Sixth Edition) McCormick, R; Moriarty, K. 9/22/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2023 Bourbon, E. 9/21/2023 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2023 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2023 and July 15, 2023, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 10 cents from $3.69 to $3.59; diesel decreased 37 cents from $4.25 to $3.88; CNG decreased 13 cents from $2.99 to $2.86; ethanol (E85) decreased 3 cents from $2.98 to $2.95; propane decreased 38 cents from $3.63 to $3.25; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 25 cents from $4.02 to $3.77.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 73 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 25 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Un vistazo a los vehículos eléctricos (At A Glance: Electric Vehicles) 9/15/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Los vehículos eléctricos (EV, por su sigla en inglés) incluyen los vehículos todo eléctrico, también denominados vehículos eléctricos de batería (BEV), y los vehículos eléctricos híbridos enchufables (PHEV). <a href="https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/electric-drive_vehicles.pdf?46ed6d7f2c">Accede a esta publicación en inglés aquí</a>.

Recommendations for Minimum Required Error Codes for Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure 9/13/2023 Reports

This report proposes a set of Minimum Required Error Codes (MRECs) for electric vehicle (EV) chargers and recommends that the industry implement these uniformly across the North American EV charging ecosystem to streamline error reporting, interpretability, and diagnostics. The purpose of this document is to simplify the troubleshooting process and increase charging reliability for all EV users. This report serves as a recommendation for industry stakeholders, encouraging a unified methodology to define and classify a minimum required set of error codes.

Fast Charging Infrastructure for Electrifying Road Trips to and from National Parks in the Western United States Lee, D-Y; Bopp, K.; Moniot, M.; Kandt, A. 9/12/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

National parks in the Western United States draw over 80 million visitors every year, and most visitors rely on personal cars for their road trips (or long-distance travels). Travel to national parks represents distinct travel demand, as they are typically located in remote areas necessitating long-distance trips. This study investigates the quantity and locations of on-route fast charging infrastructure needed by 2030 to enable seamless travel to/from national parks using electric vehicles in seven target states in the region, employing unprecedented high-resolution spatial and temporal analysis.

Recommendations for Minimum Required Error Codes for Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure 9/1/2023 Reports

Charge X Consortium, Washington, District of Columbia

Standardizing error reporting across electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure is critical for improving EV charging reliability. This report reviews current industry error reporting and provides recommendations for standardized EV charger error codes and analyzes why a standardized code system could allow for quick detection, reporting, and addressing of errors that influence EV charger performance and reliability.

Customer Experience at Public Charging Stations and Its Effects on the Purchase and Use of Electric Vehicles 9/1/2023 Reports

Charge X Consortium, Washington, District of Columbia

This report evaluates how consumer experiences at public fast charging stations influence electric vehicle (EV) adoption, including how it impacts the likelihood of current EV drivers purchasing EVs in the future. This report discusses how a better understanding about how the customer experience impacts the adoption of EVs could help create performance metrics for public EV charging stations and ensure that EV adoption meets federal and state goals in coming years.

At A Glance: Electric Vehicles (Un vistazo a los vehículos eléctricos) 8/29/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. Electric vehicles (EVs) include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). <a href="https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/vehiculos-electricos.pdf?aa2cb6edac">Access this publication in Spanish here</a>.

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Electric Vehicles (Conceptos básicos sobre los vehículos eléctricos) 8/29/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into two categories: All-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Together, EVs and PHEVs can also be referred to as electric vehicles (EVs). <a href="https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/basicos-vehiculos-electricos.pdf?b5eee8be5b">Access this publication in Spanish here</a>.

Streetlight Charging in the City Right-of-Way: A Community Perspective Blomqvist, A; Francis, S; Bouallage, M 8/1/2023 Reports

EVNoire

The Streetlight Charging in the City Right-of-Way project seeks to substantially increase access to electric vehicle (EV) charging in Kansas City, Missouri by combining charging stations with existing streetlight infrastructure. This report is an account of the community research conducted by the project team to engage residents in decision-making for charging station siting. The report details the current transportation concerns among residents, feedback from community members on the proposed charging sites, and community recommendations for additional sites.

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Usage and Owner Demographics in New York State Pan, M; Uddin, M; Biehl, A; Hwang, H 8/1/2023 Reports

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

With mounting concerns over climate change and the environmental impact of fossil fuels, the United States has witnessed a growing interest in alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). This report presents the results of an analysis of AFV adoption patterns in New York State and the rest of the United States based on data from the 2017 National Household Travel Survey. Overall, the report reveals the demographics and mobility factors (e.g., household income, homeownership, and trip length) that contribute to the adoption of AFVs. The insights identified in this report can inform policy decisions aimed at promoting sustainable transportation solutions.

Electric Vehicle Managed Charging: Estimating the Potential Bulk Power System Value 8/1/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Numerous studies have estimated the potential value of EV managed charging. In this study, NREL leveraged more detailed modeling of EV adoption, use, charging, and bulk power system operations to understand the potential value. Unique to this study, NREL modeled different charging flexibility types and dispatch mechanisms—as well as participation rates among drivers in having their EV charging managed—starting from vehicle-specific descriptions of charging flexibility.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2023 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 7/26/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

Electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure continues to rapidly change and grow. Using data from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator, this report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2023 by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with a federal infrastructure requirement scenario. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the thirteenth report in a series.

Community Engagement Tips for EV Infrastructure Deployment 7/1/2023 Reports

Joint Office of Energy and Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

This guidance document provides tips for conducting community engagement to support electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure planning and deployment.

National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Formula Program Annual Report: Plan Year 2022-2023 Chu, J; Gilmore, B; Hassol, J; Jenn, A; Lommele, S; Myers, L; Richardson, H; Schroeder, A; Shah, M 7/1/2023 Reports

Joint Office of Energy and Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

The National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (NEVI) Formula Program was launched in February 2022, providing nearly $5 billion over 5 years to help states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico create a network of electric vehicle charging stations beginning with designated Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Alternative Fuel Corridors, emphasizing the Interstate Highway System. All states submitted deployment plans which were reviewed by the Joint Office of Energy and Transportation and FHWA and certified by FHWA in September 2022. This document provides an individual and collective overview of the first-year deployment plans, presents key findings from the first round of NEVI plans, and summarizes the key activities of the Joint Office.

Public EV Charging Station Site Selection Checklist 7/1/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Joint Office of Energy and Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

The Joint Office of Energy and Transportation (Joint Office) provides technical assistance on planning and implementation of a national network of electric vehicle (EV) chargers and zero-emission fueling infrastructure, as well as zero-emission transit and school buses. There are several considerations that should be addressed when selecting a site for EV charging stations. This document is a checklist to assist with site selection for publicly available EV charging stations.

Multi-Unit Dwelling Plug-in EV Charging Innovation Pilots Teebay, R 7/1/2023 Reports

Center for Sustainable Energy, San Diego, California

Nearly one-third of residences in the U.S. are multi-unit dwellings (MUDs), e.g., apartments and condominiums, and multi-family housing buildings with five or more units account for approximately 45% of rental households. While 80% of electric vehicle (EV) charging takes place at home, less than 5% of home charging takes place at multi-family housing buildings. With public EV charging still underdeveloped, lack of access to reliable home charging is a major barrier to EV adoption for multi-family housing residents. Project partners led a three-year project to address barriers to EV charging at MUDs by developing an online toolkit geared toward residents, homeowner associations (HOAs), and property managers. The project engaged stakeholders across the country to identify real and perceived barriers to EV charging at multi-family housing buildings and explored innovative technologies that attempt to alleviate the identified barriers, which are discussed in this report.

Sample Cybersecurity Clauses for EV Charging Infrastructure Procurements Ross O'Neil, L; Carroll, T; Abdelhadi, E; Watson, M; Hammer, C; Psarakis, M 6/30/2023 Reports

Joint Office of Energy and Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

Electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure exhibits character traits of cloud computing, Internet of Things, and operational technology. Critically, high-level communications and interconnectedness underlie it all. The benefits of connected technologies also come with cybersecurity risks, which must be managed and are managed most effectively early in the systems engineering process. States and other EV charging infrastructure purchasers can reduce their exposure to cybersecurity risks by including sample cybersecurity procurement language clauses that clearly communicate cybersecurity requirements. This document is a tool and an informative resource to be used in conjunction with other general procurement guidance for assisting state departments of transportation in defining cybersecurity-related procurement specifications.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2023 Bourbon, E. 6/14/2023 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2023 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2023 and April 15, 2023, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 38 cents from $3.31 to $3.69; diesel decreased 33 cents from $4.58 to $4.25; CNG decreased 26 cents from $3.25 to $2.99; ethanol (E85) increased 21 cents from $2.77 to $2.98; propane decreased 3 cents from $3.66 to $3.63; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 44 cents from $4.46 to $4.02.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 70 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 19 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

The 2030 National Charging Network: Estimating U.S. Light-Duty Demand for EV Charging Infrastructure Wood, E; Borlaug, B; Moniot, M; Lee, D-Y; Ge, Y; Yang, F; Liu, Z 6/1/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As established by the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act of 2021, also known as the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, the Joint Office of Energy and Transportation (Joint Office) is setting the vision for a national electric vehicle (EV) charging network that is convenient, affordable, reliable, and equitable to enable a future where everyone can ride and drive electric. This report supports the vision of the Joint Office by presenting a quantitative needs assessment for an EV charging network capable of supporting 30–42 million EVs on the road by 2030.

Charging Forward with Electric Trucks 6/1/2023 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency

This report covers charging considerations for commercial battery electric vehicles (BEVs) currently in production for freight delivery. Because most BEVs currently are being deployed in the goods movement sector in the medium-duty urban delivery and heavy-duty drayage sectors, many of the best practices and lessons learned come from these applications. And while the report touches on considerations for long-haul BEVs, much of this information is speculative; although battery electric truck deployment for long-haul usage is rapidly expanding, it is still in its pilot phase.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through North American Council for Freight Efficiency's website.

Road to Zero: Research and Industry Perspectives on Zero-Emission Commercial Vehicles Muratori, M; Borlaug, B; Ledna, C; Jadun, P; Kailas, A 5/19/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Volvo Group North America, Washington, District of Columbia

Medium-and heavy-duty vehicles comprise only a small fraction of on-road vehicles, yet disproportionately contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. This report provides an overview of the status, opportunities, challenges, and uncertainties for commercial zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs). A bright outlook for ZEVs is identified, and the report discusses remaining ZEV barriers and uncertainties around fleet decisions and changes to vehicle operation, infrastructure, manufacturing, and future fuel and technology trends that can be informed through analysis.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 5/16/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2022 (Q4). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the twelfth report in a series.

Electric Vehicles for Consumers 5/2/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

More consumers are choosing electric vehicles (EVs) as new, competitively priced models with longer ranges hit the market. More public charging stations are also rapidly becoming available, and some offer quick charges to get drivers back on the road in minutes. New EVs are released all the time, with models designed to meet a wider variety of needs. To learn whether an EV is right for you, assess your driving requirements, available vehicles, and cost considerations. Easily compare costs and benefits of specific vehicles using the FuelEconomy.gov vehicle comparison tool.

New York City Department of Transportation Curbside Level 2 EV Charging Pilot: Evaluation Report 5/1/2023 Reports

New York City Department of Transportation, New York, New York

In June 2021, New York City Department of Transportation, in partnership with Con Edison, launched the city’s first curbside electric vehicle (EV) charging pilot program. This pilot includes 100 public on-street Level 2 charging stations distributed across 35 locations in the five boroughs. This report provides one of the first comprehensive evaluations of a curbside Level 2 EV charging program in the world. By benchmarking usage patterns and performance, this report provides valuable insights for policymakers and stakeholders in major cities. Overall, charging station performance in the first eighteen months exceeded initial expectations.

Charging Forward: A Toolkit for Planning and Funding Urban Electric Mobility Infrastructure 5/1/2023 Reports

Department of Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

This toolkit is meant to be a one-stop resource to help urban communities scope, plan, and fund electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure for light-duty electric passenger vehicles. Urban stakeholders, including states, local communities, transportation providers, nonprofits, businesses, and individuals, can use the toolkit to identify key partners for a project, take advantage of relevant planning tools, and identify available funding or financing to help make that project a reality. Armed with the resources in this toolkit, urban communities will have the tools and information they need to start planning and implementing EV infrastructure projects and ultimately realize the benefits of electric mobility.

State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Fleet Compliance Annual Report - Model Year 2021, Fiscal Year 2022 4/25/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2021/fiscal year 2022.

Clean Cities: A Model of Collaborative Technology Innovation Built Over 30 Years Romero-Lankao, P.; Rosner, N.; Reichelt, L.; Allerhand, J. 4/19/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Clean Cities Coalition Network is an example of successful government-sponsored efforts to address challenges and facilitate collaborative governance across sectors and levels of government within the transportation sector. In 1993, under what is now the Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established Clean Cities in response to a requirement in the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 to implement voluntary alternative fuel deployment activities.1 VTO’s Technology Integration Program is responsible for the Clean Cities Coalition Network and many other activities. DOE created a collaborative governance effort that has translated higher-level policy goals into multiple local collaborative practices for more than 30 years.

Global EV Outlook 2023 4/1/2023 Reports

International Energy Agency

The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to 2030, the report examines key areas of interest such as EV and charging infrastructure deployment, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions, battery demand, and related policy developments. The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate lessons learned from leading markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders with regard to policy frameworks and market systems for EV adoption.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Energy Agency’s website.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2023 Bourbon, E. 3/20/2023 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2023 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2023 and January 15, 2023, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 74 cents from $4.05 to $3.31; diesel decreased 59 cents from $5.17 to $4.58; CNG increased 37 cents from $2.88 to $3.25; ethanol (E85) decreased 41 cents from $3.18 to $2.77; propane increased 11 cents from $3.55 to $3.65; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 43 cents from $4.89 to $4.46.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 6 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 29 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 3/9/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2022 (Q3). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the eleventh report in a series.

Home Charging Access and the Implications for Charging Infrastructure Costs in the United States Pierce, L.; Slowik, P. 3/1/2023 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

As the electric vehicle market expands, substantial investment in home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure will be necessary. This analysis shows how additional efforts to expand home charging access can lead to overall reductions in the total costs required to deploy the necessary charging ecosystem.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Electric Vehicle Efficiency Ratios for Light-Duty Vehicles Registered in the United States Singer, M; Johnson, C; Rose, E; Nobler, E; Hoopes, L 3/1/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric vehicles (EVs) are more energy efficient than gasoline vehicles, a primary attribute enabling other benefits such as improved torque and reduced operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions. An EV efficiency ratio (EVER) represents the distance a given amount of energy propels an EV divided by the distance it propels a gasoline vehicle, which is important when calculating the financial and environmental benefits of EVs. Researchers have been indirectly estimating EVERs since at least 2007, but most estimates came from small fleets or vehicle simulators. This paper improves upon these estimates by calculating the EVER for all 2021 light-duty vehicles registered in the United States and benchmarks EVERs across various vehicle classes, drive systems, drive cycles, and horsepower-to-weight ratios.

Charging for Heavy-Duty Electric Trucks Bohn, T. 3/1/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This fact sheet provides answers to frequently asked questions about the Megawatt Charging System and SAE J3271 for heavy-duty electric trucks.

The Costs and Challenges of Installing Corridor DC Fast Chargers in California Gamage, T; Tal, G; Jenn, A 2/13/2023 Reports

University of California, Davis, California

This study investigates the feasibility and cost considerations associated with establishing a national network of direct current (DC) fast charging infrastructure to support long-distance travel using electric vehicles (EVs). Specifically, it focuses on the optimal placement of these charging facilities along major transportation corridors in California, aiming to ensure convenient access for EV drivers without significant deviations from their planned routes. The study delves into the diverse project costs involved in installing and commissioning 54 DC fast charging stations at 36 distinct sites, highlighting significant cost variations influenced by various factors. Additionally, the research explores the unique challenges and complexities of infrastructure investments in remote, underserved communities adjacent to highways, as opposed to more conventional urban settings with shared utility infrastructure. It also examines the potential cost reduction strategies, such as early collaboration with local electrical utilities and the cost-effectiveness of grid-connected DC fast charging designs compared to off-grid solar-powered alternatives with onsite storage.

Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle Management Pesaran, A; Roman, L; Kincaide, J 2/1/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As the key component powering electric vehicles (EVs), batteries are poised to play a major role in making cleaner transportation while addressing climate change and improving environmental quality. Lithium-ion batteries are currently the default choice for EV batteries, a trend that is predicted to remain well into the future. The objective of this report is to inform all EV battery stakeholders of global initiatives, challenges, and opportunities for optimum EV battery life cycle management and to encourage collaboration to support a sustainable EV battery industry well into the future. This report is divided into two major sections: (1) technical aspects of recycling and reuse and (2) regulations, initiatives, and stakeholder perspectives.

Impacts of Regional Air Mobility and Electrified Aircraft on Airport Electricity Infrastructure and Demand Cox, J.; Harris, T.; Krah, K.; Morris, J.; Li, X.; Cary, S. 2/1/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. aviation system is an important part of the nation’s economy, transporting hundreds of millions of passengers and billions of pounds of freight annually. In the coming decades, air transportation of people and cargo is set to expand; however, several challenges currently face the aviation sector, including achieving greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals, serving larger populations through regional and local airports, managing aircraft noise, and reducing the cost of operations. This report summarizes an analysis of the electrical infrastructure that might be necessary to serve electric aircraft at a subset of airports where potential electric aircraft flight demand has been provided. Additionally, an estimate for the amount of on-site distributed energy resources that could be used to serve electric aircraft in cost-effective scenarios is provided.

Propane Fueling Infrastructure Trends: A Decade in Review Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A..; White, E.; Carlson, D. 1/31/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

This report provides information on propane fueling infrastructure and industry trends over the last 10 years. It is informed primarily by propane fueling station location data collected through the Alternative Fuels Data Center's Alternative Fueling Station Locator from 2011 through 2021. Industry stakeholders, including the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and other members of the Alternative Fuels Data Center Station Locator Propane Working Group, also provided data and additional context around trends seen in the data.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2021 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C.; Wilson, A. 1/24/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) works with local Clean Cities coalitions across the country as part of its Technology Integration Program. These efforts help businesses and consumers make smarter and more informed transportation energy choices that can save energy, lower costs, provide resilience through fuel diversification, and reduce air emissions. This report summarizes the success and impact of coalition activities based on data and information provided in their annual progress reports.

E85 Fueling Infrastructure Trends: A Decade in Review Brown, A.; Erickson, H.; White, E. 1/12/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

This report provides information on ethanol fueling infrastructure and industry trends over the last 10 years. It is informed primarily by ethanol fueling station location data collected through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) Station Locator from 2011 through 2021 (AFDC 2021a). Industry stakeholders, including the Renewable Fuels Association and Growth Energy, also provided data and additional context around trends seen in the data.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2022 Bourbon, E. 1/11/2023 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2022 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2022 and October 15, 2022, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 65 cents from $4.70 to $4.05; diesel decreased 47 cents from $5.64 to $5.17; CNG increased 12 cents from $2.76 to $2.88; ethanol (E85) decreased 75 cents from $3.93 to $3.18; propane decreased 24 cents from $3.79 to $3.55; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 45 cents from $5.34 to $4.89.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $1.17 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 8 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Connecting Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure to Commercial Buildings 1/2/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Electric vehicles (EVs) are growing in popularity and gaining meaningful market share with record sales year over year in the last decade. EV charging equipment must proportionally match the growing number of new EVs on the road for a comparable experience to gas-powered vehicles. The majority of EV charging currently happens at residential buildings. However, demand for EV charging at commercial buildings will significantly increase with wider mainstream EV adoption and as businesses return to more normal operation following COVID-19 pandemic disruptions. This document describes how EV charging equipment can be connected to commercial buildings, including considerations for facility managers, and the effects that charging will have on the buildings electrical distribution system.

The EPA Automotive Trends Report: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Technology since 1975 1/2/2023 Reports

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

This annual report summarizes information about new light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel economy, technology data, and auto manufacturers' performance in meeting the agency’s GHG emissions standards.

Road Map to a U.S. Hydrogen Economy 1/2/2023 Reports

Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington D.C.

Since 1969, America has remained a leader in fuel cell and hydrogen technology, commercializing a wide range of technologies that produce, deliver, store, and utilize hydrogen across applications and sectors. Today, the hydrogen industry as well as the US are at a crossroads as the country’s energy future is determined. Hydrogen is a unique energy carrier with applications across sectors, and its use in the United States could provide many benefits.

The U.S. National Blueprint for Transportation Decarbonization 1/2/2023 Reports

Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. National Blueprint for Transportation Decarbonization provides a roadmap for how the United States can address the climate crisis to provide better transportation options, expand affordable and accessible options to improve efficiency, and transition to zero-emission vehicles and fuels. It offers a whole-of-government approach to transform the transportation sector and sets forth an interagency call to action to coordinate and work effectively together.

2022 Public Transportation Fact Book Dickens, M. 1/1/2023 Reports

American Public Transportation Association

The Public Transportation Fact Book, published annually, contains national aggregate statistical data covering all aspects of the transit industry in the United States and Canada. Major sections include an overview of U.S. transit facts, transit finances and operating statistics by modes of travel, transit vehicle characteristics and deliveries, facts and numbers relating to federal grants and the Federal Transit Act.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the American Public Transportation Association's website.

Model Year 2023: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles.

Estimating the Breakeven Cost of Delivered Electricity To Charge Class 8 Electric Tractors Bennett, J.; Mishra, P.; Miller, E.; Borlaug, B.; Meintz, A.; Birky, A. 12/30/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As electrification of transportation expands, it is important for owners and operators of class 8 tractors to understand the wide range of impacts that may result from this momentous change. These considerations include operational implications, such as energy requirements and charging power needs as well as financial impacts such as the initial capital investments and operational and maintenance costs. This study considers, under a select number of specific scenarios, how all these factors can be accounted for and summarized in a breakeven cost to charge class 8 tractors.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 12/23/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2022 (Q2). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the tenth report in a series.

Public Electric Vehicle Charging Station Utilization in the United States Borlaug, B.; Yang, F.; Pritchard, E.; Wood, E., Gonder, J. 12/12/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Energetics, Columbia, Maryland

The utilization of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment is a key driver of charging station economics, but current trends and factors related to the utilization of public charging infrastructure in the United States are not well understood. This study analyzes EV charging data from 3,705 nationwide public Level 2 and direct current fast charging stations over 2.5 years (2019–2022), observing utilization patterns over time. This study fills a critical research gap by reporting updated public charging station utilization statistics and analysis for the U.S. market.

Florida Alternative Transportation Fuel Resilience Plan Johnson, C.; Cappellucci, J.; Spath Luhring, L.; St. Louis-Sanchez, M.; Yang, F.; Brown, A.; Sipiora, A.; Kolpakov, A.; Li, X.; Li, Q.; White, S.; Gonzales, J.; Erin Nobler, E.; Wood, E. 12/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Tampa, Florida; Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Tallahassee, Florida

Many counties and cities in Florida are developing resilience plans to help them minimize damage from hurricanes and accelerate recovery. Fuel diversification can add to Florida’s transportation resilience because if the supply of one fuel gets disrupted during a hurricane, there is a good chance that the supplies of other fuels are still available. The Florida Alternative Transportation Fuel Resilience Plan aims to address these factors and create a strategy for how three alternative fuels (natural gas, propane, and electricity) can best be employed to improve transportation resilience in Florida. It does this through a combination of literature review and stakeholder engagement for best practices, vehicle technology recommendations, the creation of three tools (with descriptions and brief guides included), and charting how stakeholders coordinate to overcome these hurdles.

Electric Vehicle Batteries and Recycling Argonne National Laboratory 12/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Demand for electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing. Electricity is cheaper and cleaner than conventional fuel, and EV maintenance costs are low. Also attractive are EVs' instant torque and quiet operation. In addition to advantages for individual drivers and for fleets, the multiple fuel sources used to generate the electricity that powers EVs create more energy resilience for the transportation sector, which supports national security. With this uptick in EV demand comes questions about their batteries, how they are made, their safety, and what happens to them at the end of a vehicle's life.

United States EV Market Summary: Q1 and Q2 2022 Lepre, N. 12/1/2022 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

Atlas Public Policy presents a market summary report for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Clean Cities network. This report summarizes major developments in transportation electrification in the United States with a focus on activities during the first and second quarters of 2022.

Environmental Justice Impacts of Zero Emission Vehicles 12/1/2022 Reports

ZEV Alliance, Washington, DC; ICF, Reston, Virginia; Forth; Cenex, Loughborough, Leicestershire

Zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) have great potential to improve public health, air quality, energy independence, and sustainability; however, challenges do exist with respect to affordability of ZEVs and equitable access to charging infrastructure. In addition to technological and infrastructure challenges, there is the question of how to best align policy interventions with equity (e.g., ensuring access for lower income groups), environmental justice (EJ), and global public good (e.g., emissions reductions).The goals of this research are to highlight the existing disparity in ZEV ownership, quantify the EJ benefits of ZEVs, and provide policy and program recommendations that various government agencies can implement to enhance the EJ outcomes of their ZEV policies.

NREL Fleet Analysis Support Through Technology Integration Collaboration Lynch, L.; Payne, G. 11/7/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This study leveraged the partnership between the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities Coalition Network and the Association for the Work Truck Industry (NTEA) to launch a vehicle and fleet analysis project that assisted fleets in identifying opportunities to save energy, improve efficiency, reduce costs, and meet environmental goals via short term data logging and analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) sought to establish a process that included initial data acquisition, provided data storage, and developed analytic methods to inform fleets of areas of opportunity based on approximately 30 days of in use vehicle performance data. However, long-term the project will require ongoing funding to fully develop and maintain the data sharing platform and to produce more complex analysis.

Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010 – 2021 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, X.; Courtney, C. 11/1/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report examines properties of electric vehicles (EVs) sold in the United States from 2010 to 2021, evaluating range, energy efficiency, costs, and performance. Given the vehicle characteristics, this report estimates miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and greenhouse gas emissions attributable to EVs. It also explores vehicle manufacturing and battery production, considering supply chains from battery cells to assembly.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2022 Bourbon, E. 10/13/2022 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2022 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2022 and July 15, 2022, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 57 cents from $4.13 to $4.70; diesel increased 58 cents from $5.06 to $5.64; CNG increased 17 cents from $2.59 to $2.76; ethanol (E85) increased 39 cents from $3.54 to $3.93; propane increased 26 cents from $3.53 to $3.79; and biodiesel (B20) increased 72 cents from $4.62 to $5.34.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $1.94 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 40 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

No Fleet Left Behind: Barriers and Opportunities for Small Fleet Zero-Emission Trucking Brito, J. 10/3/2022 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This paper evaluates the zero-emission truck market and suggests actions to overcome barriers for adoption for small fleets. Failing to support small fleets would put them at risk of being unable to transition to zero-emission vehicles, in turn putting jurisdictions at risk of failing to achieve emissions reduction targets.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Assessment of Light-Duty EV Costs and Consumer Benefits in the United States in the 2022–2035 Time Frame Slowik, P.; Isenstadt, A.; Pierce, L.; Searle, S. 10/3/2022 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This paper analyzes bottom-up vehicle component-level costs to assess average battery electric vehicle, plug-in hybrid vehicle, and conventional vehicle prices across major U.S. light-duty vehicle classes through 2035. These cost estimates are used to evaluate broader consumer benefits, as well as to discuss the implications for vehicle emission regulations in the United States.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Techno-Economic, Feasibility, and Life Cycle Analysis of Renewable Propane: Final Report Robert M. Baldwin, Mark R. Nimlos, and Yimin Zhang 10/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

The Propane Education and Research Council (PERC) has engaged with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop information that is critical to understanding the current and future landscape for renewable propane (RP) and the value proposition for recovery of RP from existing and planned HEFA biorefineries. In summary the following outcomes are identified from this study: (1) production of incremental RP by increasing the severity of the hydroisomerization step is insignificant to the overall propane yield from a HEFA biorefinery, however production of renewable butane (or LPG2) is quite significant thus suggesting alternate strategies for valorizing these fractions; (2) the value proposition for recovering RP and renewable LPG is quite strong, with capital recovery payback periods of 14 months for a small biorefinery producing 3.5 million gallons per year RP to as short as 2 months for a large biorefinery producing 87 million gallons per year RP. Paybacks for renewable LPG are as much as 50% shorter; and (3) current and projected expansions of renewable diesel will greatly expand the potential availability of RP as a by-product. Several promising new pathways are under development but will not significantly increase production of RP for the next decade.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; Schayowitz, A.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 9/21/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2022 (Q1). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the ninth report in a series.

2022 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2022 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Duluth Transit Authority Battery-Electric Bus Evaluation Jeffers, M.; Eudy, L.; Bigelow, E.; Olberding, G.; Posner, A. 9/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Center for Transportation and the Environment

In 2018, Duluth Transit Authority (DTA) began operating a fleet of seven battery-electric buses (BEBs) in its service area of Duluth, Minnesota. DTA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of the evaluation is to compare performance and cost of the BEBs to that of conventional technology in similar service and track progress over time. DTA enlisted the help of the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) to manage the project and provide technical services with the BEB fleet and infrastructure. This report contains a combination of analyses performed by NREL and by CTE.

Title Utility Transportation Electrification Planning— Emerging Practices to Support EV Deployment Huether, P.; Cohn, C.; Jennings, B. 9/1/2022 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C.

Utilities are expecting millions of new electric vehicles (EVs) to hit the road over the next decade. To accelerate and adapt to this shift, they are planning increased investments in the grid, greater outreach to customers, special rates for EV charging, and direct investments in transportation electrification (e.g., charging infrastructure and vehicle purchases). This report examines a select sample of utility transportation electrification planning efforts to identify emerging trends and make recommendations on the planning process.

Cracking the Code to EV Readiness in New Buildings Banwell, P.; Steiner, K.; Miller, K.; Kelly, E.; Kay, S.; Noblet, S. 9/1/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington D.C.

While incentives for electric vehicles (EVs) and charging infrastructure have contributed to growth in EV adoption, building codes are effective tools to advance “EV-readiness” by requiring new construction to support convenient EV charging. This paper presents considerations, guidance, and examples for municipalities and other jurisdictions establishing policies for EV readiness in new buildings. It provides an introduction to EV readiness in building codes and discusses best practices in infrastructure development such as intelligent load sharing. It presents an overview of why and how EV readiness was incorporated into the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system. Further, it includes case studies of municipal codes and a utility program that partners with builders to incentivize EV readiness in new homes. Finally, it summarizes key opportunities for advancing transportation electrification through EV-ready building codes.

Design Recommendations for Accessible EV Charging Stations 8/11/2022 Reports

U.S. Access Board, Washington, D.C.

This technical assistance document covers Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) accessibility requirements applicable to electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. It provides multiple recommendations for designing accessible EV charging stations by offering guidance on elements not addressed in the current ADA and ABA. This technical assistance will aid in the development of a national network of EV charging stations that is accessible to everyone, including people with disabilities. The technical assistance document is a valuable resource for those involved in the planning, designing, building, installing, and use of EV charging stations, including state and local governments, designers and developers, electrical and construction professionals, equipment manufacturers, automakers, utility providers, charge point operators and e-mobility service providers, EV owners, and people with disabilities.

Ethanol Blends: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice 8/10/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

More than 21 million vehicles on U.S. roads are flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). These vehicles can operate on either gasoline or blends of gasoline and ethanol up to E85 (a gasoline-ethanol blend containing 51% to 83% ethanol). As a renewable fuel, ethanol offers significant advantages. It is produced predominantly in the United States, made from home-grown feedstocks, and burns cleaner than gasoline.

U.S. Renewable Diesel Fuel and Other Biofuels Plant Production Capacity U.S. Energy Information Administration 8/8/2022 Reports

This report is intended to measure estimated gallons of renewable diesel fuel, renewable heating oil, renewable jet fuel, renewable naphtha and gasoline, and other biofuels (excluding fuel ethanol and biodiesel) and biointermediates that a plant is capable of producing over a period of one year (365 consecutive days) starting on the first day of each report month.

Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Fifth Report to Congress: Highlights of the Diesel Emissions Reduction Program 8/1/2022 Reports

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality administers the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) program. EPA awarded the first DERA grants in 2008, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act grants in 2009, and grants from funds appropriated in Fiscal Years (FY) 2009 through 2018. This Fifth Report to Congress summarizes final results from FY 2008-2018.

The Automated Mobility District Implementation Catalog, 2nd Edition Young, S.; Lott, J. 8/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The first edition of the Automated Mobility District Implementation Catalog was published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to document insights gained from monitoring 10 early deployment sites of automated vehicle (AV) technology. Since the publishing of the first edition, NREL has tracked the effects the 2020 pandemic and the progress of the demonstration pilot projects beyond the initial deployment phase has generated important new information. The objective of this second edition is to provide an update to the status of the 10 early deployment sites to assess common trends of technology development and deployment. Drawing from that new insight, this report documents the natural maturing of the AV technology industry. This second edition reports on the framework of “cardinal principles” that the research team has defined for the safest and most efficient application of AV technology in managed fleet deployment within automated mobility districts of the future.

Grand Teton National Park Federal Fleet Tiger Team EVSE Site Assessment Boyce, L; Bennett, J; Desai, R 8/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In developing and implementing federal zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) fleet strategy, agencies should focus on evaluating electric vehicle (EV) deployment opportunities at individual fleet locations, which have unique site, vehicle operating, and utility service characteristics. This is best achieved through site assessments to evaluate opportunities for ZEV acquisitions, identify optimal ZEV candidates, and determine optimal electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment strategies. This site report supports the development of a ZEV deployment plan for the Grand Teton National Park that can ultimately be incorporated into the overall U.S. Department of the Interior ZEV fleet strategy.

Electric Vehicle Charger Deployment Optimization 8/1/2022 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

As consumers begin to purchase electric vehicles (EVs) in greater volumes, the need for charging stations will increase. A one-size-fits-all deployment strategy of EV charging stations will not satisfy all needs or economic considerations. This study investigates how many charging stations and outlets may be required at various stages of the EV market development in different regions of the United States to satisfy actual demand and to instill within end users the confidence that availability will be sufficient. In addition, this study aims to better understand what types of chargers will be required at different locations to optimize deployment while reducing overall infrastructure costs and accelerating the business case for charger installation.

Charged Up! TLC Electrification Report 7/1/2022 Reports

New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission, New York City, New York

The New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission (TLC) is committed to transitioning the majority of its licensed fleet to electric vehicles (EVs) by 2030. Charged Up! is TLC’s roadmap to support this movement, outlining ways to support TLC’s EV drivers, incentivize more EVs, and support the for-hire industry’s charging needs. New York City’s for-hire transportation landscape presents distinct challenges to electrification, with high daily mileage driven due to high trip volumes, drivers living in the outer boroughs and in environmental justice communities, as well as the various charging needs of industry stakeholders. Given these considerations, the report identifies policy levers and formulates recommendations to address three major barriers that currently impede the expansion of for-hire EVs.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2022 Bourbon, E. 6/28/2022 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2022 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2022 and April 15, 2022, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 85 cents from $3.28 to $4.13; diesel increased by $1.44 from $3.62 to $5.06; CNG increased 10 cents from $2.49 to $2.59; ethanol (E85) increased 57 cents from $2.97 to $3.54; propane increased 11 cents from $3.42 to $3.53; and biodiesel (B20) increased by $1.20 from $3.42 to $4.62.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $1.54 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 47 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Community Impacts: Accessible Electric Vehicle Carshare Programs Herman, C. 6/6/2022 Reports

Forth, Portland, Oregon

Having abundant and affordable access to transportation affects an individual’s ability to live a healthy and fulfilling life. To date, a majority of carshare models have been implemented in urban, affluent areas, and have not focused on electric vehicles (EVs). A variety of EV carshare programs were evaluated with the goal of identifying and understanding best practices and challenges associated with implementing these programs in underserved locations, specifically in low-income and rural areas. This paper shares the design and results to date of several of these programs, as well as a framework for designing a carshare program.

Deploying Charging Infrastructure for Electric Transit Buses Lepre, N.; Burget, S.; McKenzie, L. 6/1/2022 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

This study is aimed at assisting transit agencies as they begin to plan for significant electrification of their bus fleets. It focuses on battery electric technologies and is limited in scope to charging technologies, designs, and choices. It incorporates learnings from 28 industry interviews completed between January and April 2022 by Atlas Public Policy staff. These interviews sought to understand latest developments, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned in battery electric bus charging, and to compile specific examples, anecdotes and on-the-ground experiences from those at the forefront of deployment.

Electric School Bus U.S. Market Study and Buyers Guide Huntington, A.; Wang, J.; Burgoyne-Allen, P.; Werthmann, E.; Jackson, E. 6/1/2022 Reports

World Resources Institute, Washington, DC

This guide offers school districts and others an overview of the electric school bus market. It presents electric school bus models available today with detailed vehicle specifications allowing users to compare various models and weigh important considerations.

Mini Guide on Transportation Electrification: State-Level Roles and Collaboration among Public Utility Commissions, State Energy Offices, and Departments of Transportation Dixon, D.; Powers, C.; McAdams, J.; Stephens, S.; Sass Byrnett. D.; Peters, D. 6/1/2022 Reports

National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, Virginia; National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, D.C.; American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C.

Many states across the country have set ambitious electric vehicle (EV) adoption goals and are working to establish policies and programs to support transportation electrification. State energy offices, public utility commissions, and departments of transportation, among other important state-level partners each have a unique and vital role to support EV rollout. This guide explores roles among state agencies and partners in planning and implementing EV charging infrastructure. This mini guide is part of a series that features collaborative approaches, lessons learned, and interviews with leading state and local decision makers.

EV Sales and the Charging Infrastructure Required Through 2030 Satterfield, C.; Schefte, K. 6/1/2022 Reports

Edison Electric Institute, Washington, D.C.

This report estimates the number of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment needed to support the EV market through 2030. It projects the number of EVs on U.S. roads to reach 26.4 million in 2030 and that nearly 12.9 million charge ports will be needed to support the projected number of EVs. Approximately 140,000 direct current fast charging ports will be needed to support the level of EVs expected to be on U.S. roads in 2030.

Review of Electric Vehicle Charger Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities, Potential Impacts, and Defenses Johnson, J.; Berg, T.; Anderson, B.; Wright, B. 5/26/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Worldwide growth in electric vehicle use is prompting new installations of private and public electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). EVSE devices support the electrification of the transportation industry but also represent a cornerstone for power systems and transportation infrastructures. Cybersecurity researchers have recently identified several vulnerabilities that exist in EVSE devices, communications to electric vehicles (EVs), and upstream services, such as EVSE vendor cloud services, third party systems, and grid operators. The potential impact of attacks on these systems stretches from localized, relatively minor effects to long-term national disruptions. Fortunately, there is a strong and expanding collection of information technology and operational technology cybersecurity best practices that may be applied to the EVSE environment to secure this equipment. This paper summarizes publicly disclosed EVSE vulnerabilities, the impact of EV charger cyberattacks, and proposed security protections for EV charging technologies.