Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Clean Cities Coalitions Overview 2/3/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Office Clean Cities Coalition Network, which advances affordable, domestic transportation fuels and technologies nationwide. More than 75 active coalitions serve as the foundation of Clean Cities, working in communities across the country to help local decision makers and fleets understand and implement alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, new mobility choices, and emerging transportation technologies. At the national level, VTO develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources to support coordinators. At the local level, coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Propane Fueling Infrastructure Trends: A Decade in Review Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A..; White, E.; Carlson, D. 1/31/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

This report provides information on propane fueling infrastructure and industry trends over the last 10 years. It is informed primarily by propane fueling station location data collected through the Alternative Fuels Data Center's Alternative Fueling Station Locator from 2011 through 2021. Industry stakeholders, including the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and other members of the Alternative Fuels Data Center Station Locator Propane Working Group, also provided data and additional context around trends seen in the data.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2021 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 1/24/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) works with local Clean Cities coalitions across the country as part of its Technology Integration Program. These efforts help businesses and consumers make smarter and more informed transportation energy choices that can save energy, lower costs, provide resilience through fuel diversification, and reduce air emissions. This report summarizes the success and impact of coalition activities based on data and information provided in their annual progress reports.

E85 Fueling Infrastructure Trends: A Decade in Review Brown, A.; Erickson, H.; White, E. 1/12/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

This report provides information on ethanol fueling infrastructure and industry trends over the last 10 years. It is informed primarily by ethanol fueling station location data collected through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) Station Locator from 2011 through 2021 (AFDC 2021a). Industry stakeholders, including the Renewable Fuels Association and Growth Energy, also provided data and additional context around trends seen in the data.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2022 Bourbon, E. 1/11/2023 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2022 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2022 and October 15, 2022, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 65 cents from $4.70 to $4.05; diesel decreased 47 cents from $5.64 to $5.17; CNG increased 12 cents from $2.76 to $2.88; ethanol (E85) decreased 75 cents from $3.93 to $3.18; propane decreased 24 cents from $3.79 to $3.55; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 45 cents from $5.34 to $4.89.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $1.17 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 8 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Model Year 2023: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles.

Estimating the Breakeven Cost of Delivered Electricity To Charge Class 8 Electric Tractors Bennett, J.; Mishra, P.; Miller, E.; Borlaug, B.; Meintz, A.; Birky, A. 12/30/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As electrification of transportation expands, it is important for owners and operators of class 8 tractors to understand the wide range of impacts that may result from this momentous change. These considerations include operational implications, such as energy requirements and charging power needs as well as financial impacts such as the initial capital investments and operational and maintenance costs. This study considers, under a select number of specific scenarios, how all these factors can be accounted for and summarized in a breakeven cost to charge class 8 tractors.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 12/23/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2022 (Q2). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the tenth report in a series.

Public Electric Vehicle Charging Station Utilization in the United States Borlaug, B.; Yang, F.; Pritchard, E.; Wood, E., Gonder, J. 12/12/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Energetics, Columbia, Maryland

The utilization of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment is a key driver of charging station economics, but current trends and factors related to the utilization of public charging infrastructure in the United States are not well understood. This study analyzes EV charging data from 3,705 nationwide public Level 2 and direct current fast charging stations over 2.5 years (2019–2022), observing utilization patterns over time. This study fills a critical research gap by reporting updated public charging station utilization statistics and analysis for the U.S. market.

The 2022 EPA Automotive Trends Report: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Executive Summary Fuel Economy, and Technology since 1975 12/1/2022 Reports

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

This annual report summarizes information about new light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel economy, technology data, and auto manufacturers' performance in meeting the agency’s GHG emissions standards. (EPA publication # EPA-420-S-22-001)

United States EV Market Summary: Q1 and Q2 2022 Lepre, N. 12/1/2022 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

Atlas Public Policy presents a market summary report for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Clean Cities network. This report summarizes major developments in transportation electrification in the United States with a focus on activities during the first and second quarters of 2022.

Environmental Justice Impacts of Zero Emission Vehicles 12/1/2022 Reports

ZEV Alliance, Washington, DC; ICF, Reston, Virginia; Forth; Cenex, Loughborough, Leicestershire

Zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) have great potential to improve public health, air quality, energy independence, and sustainability; however, challenges do exist with respect to affordability of ZEVs and equitable access to charging infrastructure. In addition to technological and infrastructure challenges, there is the question of how to best align policy interventions with equity (e.g., ensuring access for lower income groups), environmental justice (EJ), and global public good (e.g., emissions reductions).The goals of this research are to highlight the existing disparity in ZEV ownership, quantify the EJ benefits of ZEVs, and provide policy and program recommendations that various government agencies can implement to enhance the EJ outcomes of their ZEV policies.

Electric Vehicle Batteries and Recycling Argonne National Laboratory 12/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Demand for electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing. Electricity is cheaper and cleaner than conventional fuel, and EV maintenance costs are low. Also attractive are EVs' instant torque and quiet operation. In addition to advantages for individual drivers and for fleets, the multiple fuel sources used to generate the electricity that powers EVs create more energy resilience for the transportation sector, which supports national security. With this uptick in EV demand comes questions about their batteries, how they are made, their safety, and what happens to them at the end of a vehicle's life.

NREL Fleet Analysis Support Through Technology Integration Collaboration Lynch, L.; Payne, G. 11/7/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This study leveraged the partnership between the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities Coalition Network and the Association for the Work Truck Industry (NTEA) to launch a vehicle and fleet analysis project that assisted fleets in identifying opportunities to save energy, improve efficiency, reduce costs, and meet environmental goals via short term data logging and analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) sought to establish a process that included initial data acquisition, provided data storage, and developed analytic methods to inform fleets of areas of opportunity based on approximately 30 days of in use vehicle performance data. However, long-term the project will require ongoing funding to fully develop and maintain the data sharing platform and to produce more complex analysis.

Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010 – 2021 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, X.; Courtney, C. 11/1/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report examines properties of electric vehicles (EVs) sold in the United States from 2010 to 2021, evaluating range, energy efficiency, costs, and performance. Given the vehicle characteristics, this report estimates miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and greenhouse gas emissions attributable to EVs. It also explores vehicle manufacturing and battery production, considering supply chains from battery cells to assembly.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2022 Bourbon, E. 10/13/2022 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2022 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2022 and July 15, 2022, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 57 cents from $4.13 to $4.70; diesel increased 58 cents from $5.06 to $5.64; CNG increased 17 cents from $2.59 to $2.76; ethanol (E85) increased 39 cents from $3.54 to $3.93; propane increased 26 cents from $3.53 to $3.79; and biodiesel (B20) increased 72 cents from $4.62 to $5.34.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $1.94 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 40 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Assessment of Light-Duty EV Costs and Consumer Benefits in the United States in the 2022–2035 Time Frame Slowik, P.; Isenstadt, A.; Pierce, L.; Searle, S. 10/3/2022 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This paper analyzes bottom-up vehicle component-level costs to assess average battery electric vehicle, plug-in hybrid vehicle, and conventional vehicle prices across major U.S. light-duty vehicle classes through 2035. These cost estimates are used to evaluate broader consumer benefits, as well as to discuss the implications for vehicle emission regulations in the United States.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

No Fleet Left Behind: Barriers and Opportunities for Small Fleet Zero-Emission Trucking Brito, J. 10/3/2022 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This paper evaluates the zero-emission truck market and suggests actions to overcome barriers for adoption for small fleets. Failing to support small fleets would put them at risk of being unable to transition to zero-emission vehicles, in turn putting jurisdictions at risk of failing to achieve emissions reduction targets.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; Schayowitz, A.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 9/21/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2022 (Q1). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the ninth report in a series.

Duluth Transit Authority Battery-Electric Bus Evaluation Jeffers, M.; Eudy, L.; Bigelow, E.; Olberding, G.; Posner, A. 9/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Center for Transportation and the Environment

In 2018, Duluth Transit Authority (DTA) began operating a fleet of seven battery-electric buses (BEBs) in its service area of Duluth, Minnesota. DTA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of the evaluation is to compare performance and cost of the BEBs to that of conventional technology in similar service and track progress over time. DTA enlisted the help of the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) to manage the project and provide technical services with the BEB fleet and infrastructure. This report contains a combination of analyses performed by NREL and by CTE.

2022 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2022 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Cracking the Code to EV Readiness in New Buildings Banwell, P.; Steiner, K.; Miller, K.; Kelly, E.; Kay, S.; Noblet, S. 9/1/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington D.C.

While incentives for electric vehicles (EVs) and charging infrastructure have contributed to growth in EV adoption, building codes are effective tools to advance “EV-readiness” by requiring new construction to support convenient EV charging. This paper presents considerations, guidance, and examples for municipalities and other jurisdictions establishing policies for EV readiness in new buildings. It provides an introduction to EV readiness in building codes and discusses best practices in infrastructure development such as intelligent load sharing. It presents an overview of why and how EV readiness was incorporated into the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system. Further, it includes case studies of municipal codes and a utility program that partners with builders to incentivize EV readiness in new homes. Finally, it summarizes key opportunities for advancing transportation electrification through EV-ready building codes.

Title Utility Transportation Electrification Planning— Emerging Practices to Support EV Deployment Huether, P.; Cohn, C.; Jennings, B. 9/1/2022 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C.

Utilities are expecting millions of new electric vehicles (EVs) to hit the road over the next decade. To accelerate and adapt to this shift, they are planning increased investments in the grid, greater outreach to customers, special rates for EV charging, and direct investments in transportation electrification (e.g., charging infrastructure and vehicle purchases). This report examines a select sample of utility transportation electrification planning efforts to identify emerging trends and make recommendations on the planning process.

Design Recommendations for Accessible EV Charging Stations 8/11/2022 Reports

U.S. Access Board, Washington, D.C.

This technical assistance document covers Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) accessibility requirements applicable to electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. It provides multiple recommendations for designing accessible EV charging stations by offering guidance on elements not addressed in the current ADA and ABA. This technical assistance will aid in the development of a national network of EV charging stations that is accessible to everyone, including people with disabilities. The technical assistance document is a valuable resource for those involved in the planning, designing, building, installing, and use of EV charging stations, including state and local governments, designers and developers, electrical and construction professionals, equipment manufacturers, automakers, utility providers, charge point operators and e-mobility service providers, EV owners, and people with disabilities.

Ethanol Blends: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice 8/10/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado

More than 21 million vehicles on U.S. roads are flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). These vehicles can operate on either gasoline or blends of gasoline and ethanol up to E85 (a gasoline-ethanol blend containing 51% to 83% ethanol). As a renewable fuel, ethanol offers significant advantages. It is produced predominantly in the United States, made from home-grown feedstocks, and burns cleaner than gasoline.

U.S. Renewable Diesel Fuel and Other Biofuels Plant Production Capacity U.S. Energy Information Administration 8/8/2022 Reports

This report is intended to measure estimated gallons of renewable diesel fuel, renewable heating oil, renewable jet fuel, renewable naphtha and gasoline, and other biofuels (excluding fuel ethanol and biodiesel) and biointermediates that a plant is capable of producing over a period of one year (365 consecutive days) starting on the first day of each report month.

Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Fifth Report to Congress: Highlights of the Diesel Emissions Reduction Program 8/1/2022 Reports

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality administers the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) program. EPA awarded the first DERA grants in 2008, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act grants in 2009, and grants from funds appropriated in Fiscal Years (FY) 2009 through 2018. This Fifth Report to Congress summarizes final results from FY 2008-2018.

The Automated Mobility District Implementation Catalog, 2nd Edition Young, S.; Lott, J. 8/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The first edition of the Automated Mobility District Implementation Catalog was published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to document insights gained from monitoring 10 early deployment sites of automated vehicle (AV) technology. Since the publishing of the first edition, NREL has tracked the effects the 2020 pandemic and the progress of the demonstration pilot projects beyond the initial deployment phase has generated important new information. The objective of this second edition is to provide an update to the status of the 10 early deployment sites to assess common trends of technology development and deployment. Drawing from that new insight, this report documents the natural maturing of the AV technology industry. This second edition reports on the framework of “cardinal principles” that the research team has defined for the safest and most efficient application of AV technology in managed fleet deployment within automated mobility districts of the future.

Electric Vehicle Charger Deployment Optimization 8/1/2022 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

As consumers begin to purchase electric vehicles (EVs) in greater volumes, the need for charging stations will increase. A one-size-fits-all deployment strategy of EV charging stations will not satisfy all needs or economic considerations. This study investigates how many charging stations and outlets may be required at various stages of the EV market development in different regions of the United States to satisfy actual demand and to instill within end users the confidence that availability will be sufficient. In addition, this study aims to better understand what types of chargers will be required at different locations to optimize deployment while reducing overall infrastructure costs and accelerating the business case for charger installation.

Charged Up! TLC Electrification Report 7/1/2022 Reports

New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission, New York City, New York

The New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission (TLC) is committed to transitioning the majority of its licensed fleet to electric vehicles (EVs) by 2030. Charged Up! is TLC’s roadmap to support this movement, outlining ways to support TLC’s EV drivers, incentivize more EVs, and support the for-hire industry’s charging needs. New York City’s for-hire transportation landscape presents distinct challenges to electrification, with high daily mileage driven due to high trip volumes, drivers living in the outer boroughs and in environmental justice communities, as well as the various charging needs of industry stakeholders. Given these considerations, the report identifies policy levers and formulates recommendations to address three major barriers that currently impede the expansion of for-hire EVs.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2022 Bourbon, E. 6/28/2022 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2022 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2022 and April 15, 2022, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 85 cents from $3.28 to $4.13; diesel increased by $1.44 from $3.62 to $5.06; CNG increased 10 cents from $2.49 to $2.59; ethanol (E85) increased 57 cents from $2.97 to $3.54; propane increased 11 cents from $3.42 to $3.53; and biodiesel (B20) increased by $1.20 from $3.42 to $4.62.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $1.54 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 47 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Deploying Charging Infrastructure for Electric Transit Buses Lepre, N.; Burget, S.; McKenzie, L. 6/1/2022 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

This study is aimed at assisting transit agencies as they begin to plan for significant electrification of their bus fleets. It focuses on battery electric technologies and is limited in scope to charging technologies, designs, and choices. It incorporates learnings from 28 industry interviews completed between January and April 2022 by Atlas Public Policy staff. These interviews sought to understand latest developments, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned in battery electric bus charging, and to compile specific examples, anecdotes and on-the-ground experiences from those at the forefront of deployment.

Mini Guide on Transportation Electrification: State-Level Roles and Collaboration among Public Utility Commissions, State Energy Offices, and Departments of Transportation Dixon, D.; Powers, C.; McAdams, J.; Stephens, S.; Sass Byrnett. D.; Peters, D. 6/1/2022 Reports

National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, Virginia; National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, D.C.; American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C.

Many states across the country have set ambitious electric vehicle (EV) adoption goals and are working to establish policies and programs to support transportation electrification. State energy offices, public utility commissions, and departments of transportation, among other important state-level partners each have a unique and vital role to support EV rollout. This guide explores roles among state agencies and partners in planning and implementing EV charging infrastructure. This mini guide is part of a series that features collaborative approaches, lessons learned, and interviews with leading state and local decision makers.

EV Sales and the Charging Infrastructure Required Through 2030 Satterfield, C.; Schefte, K. 6/1/2022 Reports

Edison Electric Institute, Washington, D.C.

This report estimates the number of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment needed to support the EV market through 2030. It projects the number of EVs on U.S. roads to reach 26.4 million in 2030 and that nearly 12.9 million charge ports will be needed to support the projected number of EVs. Approximately 140,000 direct current fast charging ports will be needed to support the level of EVs expected to be on U.S. roads in 2030.

Electric School Bus U.S. Market Study and Buyers Guide Huntington, A.; Wang, J.; Burgoyne-Allen, P.; Werthmann, E.; Jackson, E. 6/1/2022 Reports

World Resources Institute, Washington, DC

This guide offers school districts and others an overview of the electric school bus market. It presents electric school bus models available today with detailed vehicle specifications allowing users to compare various models and weigh important considerations.

Review of Electric Vehicle Charger Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities, Potential Impacts, and Defenses Johnson, J.; Berg, T.; Anderson, B.; Wright, B. 5/26/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Worldwide growth in electric vehicle use is prompting new installations of private and public electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). EVSE devices support the electrification of the transportation industry but also represent a cornerstone for power systems and transportation infrastructures. Cybersecurity researchers have recently identified several vulnerabilities that exist in EVSE devices, communications to electric vehicles (EVs), and upstream services, such as EVSE vendor cloud services, third party systems, and grid operators. The potential impact of attacks on these systems stretches from localized, relatively minor effects to long-term national disruptions. Fortunately, there is a strong and expanding collection of information technology and operational technology cybersecurity best practices that may be applied to the EVSE environment to secure this equipment. This paper summarizes publicly disclosed EVSE vulnerabilities, the impact of EV charger cyberattacks, and proposed security protections for EV charging technologies.

State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Fleet Compliance Annual Report - Model Year 2020, Fiscal Year 2021 5/19/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2020/fiscal year 2021.

Electric Vehicles for Fleets 5/17/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric vehicles can fulfill many daily driving needs, making them a great solution for fleets. They offer several benefits and can fill roles in light-duty, medium-/heavy-duty (MD/HD), and even off-road applications. The unique fleet environment presents considerations beyond those that consumers must address before going electric. For example, fleet managers must understand the impacts of charging multiple vehicles while maintaining fleet operations. Larger MD/HD vehicles bring additional factors to consider.

U.S. DRIVE 2021 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments 5/16/2022 Reports

U.S. DRIVE Partners, Southfield, Michigan

The U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) 2021 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments report summarizes key technical accomplishments in the development of advanced automotive and related energy infrastructure technologies achieved in 2021 by the U.S. DRIVE partnership. Each one-page summary represents what Partnership experts collectively consider to be significant progress in the development of advanced automotive and infrastructure technologies.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2022 Bourbon, E. 5/10/2022 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2022 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2022 and January 15, 2022, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 3 cents from $3.25 to $3.28; diesel increased 14 cents from $3.48 to $3.62; CNG increased 16 cents from $2.33 to $2.49; ethanol (E85) increased 24 cents from $2.73 to $2.97; propane increased 25 cents from $3.17 to $3.42; and biodiesel (B20) increased 13 cents from $3.29 to $3.42.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 79 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 59 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; White, E. 5/4/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2021 (Q4). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the eighth report in a series.

Electric Trucks Have Arrived: The Use Case for Heavy-Duty Regional Haul Tractors 5/2/2022 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency, Fort Wayne, Indiana

This report documents the four heavy-duty regional haul tractors that participated in the Run on Less - Electric demonstration by the North American Council for Freight Efficiency, which was conducted in September of 2021. It provides data from the demonstration, research and interviews with fleets, vehicle manufacturers, and other industry experts about this market segment. The report shares key findings for electrifying heavy-duty regional haul tractors.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the North American Council for Freight Efficiency website.

Golden Gate National Recreation Area Federal Fleet Tiger Team EVSE Site Assessment Boyce, L.; Bennett, J.; Desai, R. 5/2/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for the Sustainable Federal Fleets program. A key element of this assistance involves supporting agencies in the transition to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs). In developing and implementing their ZEV fleet strategies, agencies should focus on evaluating electric vehicle deployment opportunities at individual fleet locations, which have unique site, vehicle operating, and utility service characteristics. This is best achieved through site assessments to evaluate opportunities for ZEV acquisitions, identify optimal ZEV candidates, and determine optimal electric vehicle supply equipment deployment strategies. This site report supports the development of a ZEV deployment plan for the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, which can ultimately be incorporated into the overall U.S. Department of the Interior ZEV fleet strategy.

United States EV Market Summary: Q3 and Q4 2021 Lepre, N.; Taylor, T. 5/2/2022 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

Atlas Public Policy presents its first market summary report for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Clean Cities network. This report summarizes major developments in transportation electrification in the United States with a focus on activities during the third and fourth quarters of 2021.

Global EV Outlook 2022 5/2/2022 Reports

International Energy Agency, Paris, France

Sales of electric vehicles (EVs) doubled in 2021 from the previous year to a new record of 6.6 million. Back in 2012, just 120,000 EV were sold worldwide. In 2021, more than that many are sold each week. The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to 2030, the report examines key areas of interest such as EV and charging infrastructure deployment, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions, battery demand, and related policy developments. The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate lessons learned from leading markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders with regard to policy frameworks and market systems for EV adoption.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Energy Agency’s website.

H2@Scale Program Multi-Party Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: California Hydrogen Infrastructure Research Consortium Task Sprik, S.; Buttner, W.; Koleva, M.; Onorato, S.; Peters, M.; Saur, G. 5/2/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Many stakeholders are working on hydrogen and fuel cell products, markets, requirements, mandates, and policies. California has been leading the way for hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell electric vehicle deployment. The advancements in California have identified many lessons learned for hydrogen infrastructure development, deployment, and operation. Other interested states and countries are using California’s experience as a model case, making success in California paramount to enabling market acceleration and uptake in the United States. To assist California in decisions and evaluations, as well as to verify solutions to problems impacting the industry, a hydrogen research consortium of California agency partners and national laboratories was organized. This report describes the work performed as part of this consortium between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and California agency partners and the task outcomes. The tasks included hydrogen station data analysis, insights into medium and heavy-duty vehicles running on hydrogen, hydrogen contaminant detectors for use at hydrogen refueling stations, hydrogen nozzle freeze lock evaluation, hydrogen topics for integration into the California energy management strategy, and a technical assistance project that analyzed liquid hydrogen modeling for a hydrogen station capacity tool.

Charting the Course for Early Truck Electrification Lund, J.; Mullaney, D.; Porter, E.; Schroeder, J. 5/2/2022 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

Trucks in the United States produce 25% of transportation greenhouse gas emissions even though they only make up 10% of vehicles on the road. Across the United States, fleets have already committed to deploying over 140,000 electric vehicles. Although this trend is enabled by technology, regulation is also encouraging electric truck adoption. California now requires truck builders to sell an increasing percentage of electric trucks in the state. And 15 additional states signed a joint memorandum of understanding to follow California’s path. This report uses real-world observed trucking telematics data from Geotab to investigate which trucks in California and New York can electrify the fastest based on currently available electric truck models. The report also examines the amount of energy and charging infrastructure that these early electrifiable trucks need, in addition to emissions from the grid under various charging schedules.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Rocky Mountain Institute website.

Using Mapping Tools to Prioritize Electric Vehicle Charger Benefits to Underserved Communities Zhou, Yan; Gohlke, David; Sansone, Michael; Kuiper, Jim; Smith, Margaret P. 5/1/2022 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory; U.S. Department of Energy

This report describes the important role mapping tools play in incorporating equity goals in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of investments in electric vehicle (EV) chargers such as the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure formula program. Building upon the Justice40 Initiative, the report provides examples of how to apply mapping tools to identify priority locations for installing EV chargers with the best potential to benefit energy and environmental justice (EEJ) underserved communities. Four approaches are described: corridor charging, community charging, fleet electrification, and diversity in STEM and workforce development. The report also explores various methodologies for calculating low public-EV charger density.

Federal Funding is Available for EV Charging Infrastructure on the National Highway System 4/22/2022 Reports

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Washington, District of Columbia

The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) supports the Biden-Harris Administration’s goal of installing 500,000 new electric vehicle (EV) chargers by 2030. To accelerate the deployment of EV chargers, FHWA is highlighting the policies and funding available for partners in states, tribes, territories, metropolitan planning organizations, and federal land management agencies to build out EV chargers along the National Highway System. This document summarizes eligibilities under each of the funding and finance programs to plan for and build EV chargers, support workforce training for new technologies, and integrate EVs as part of strategies to address commuter, freight, and public transportation needs.

2021 Zero Emission Vehicle Market Study: Volume 2: Intra-California Regions Defined by Air Districts Kurani, K. 4/14/2022 Reports

University of California, Davis, Plug-in Hybrid & Electric Vehicle Research Center, Davis, California

California set a goal to transition new light-duty vehicle sales to 100% zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs) by 2035. To assist California and the other ZEV states to monitor and manage the success of policies promoting ZEVs and ZEV fueling infrastructure deployment, this research assesses car-owning households’ responses to these new technology vehicles and new fueling behaviors. This report assesses the readiness of household consumers in California to support state goals, i.e., as goals become more ambitious and requirements on manufacturers increase, are more car-owning households poised to become ZEV buyers? The analysis explores differences within California, based on boundaries of air quality districts. This study question is addressed via comparison of two large sample surveys of car-owning households. These surveys were completed in first calendar quarters of 2019 and 2021. Both questionnaires measure consumer awareness, knowledge, assessments, and consideration of ZEVs. Note: <p> This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the eScholarship <a href="https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8738w7m3/">website</a>.</p>

Biofuel Innovation: Clean Energy Solutions, Ready Today 4/1/2022 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Washington, D.C.

Innovations in biofuels research are leveraged today in transportation technologies and infrastructure. This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) biofuels research and development (R&D). Through 300 active R&D projects, BETO initiatives encourage cost-competitive, efficient, and sustainably produced biofuels.

ATRAVEL Fact Sheet Argonne National Laboratory 4/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

ATRAVEL helps individuals and transportation planners examine travel options' cost, travel time, and emissions. This fact sheet provides an overview of the tool and how it can be used to evaluate travel choices via personal vehicle, ride-hail services, and mass transit.

Electrifying New York City Ride-Hailing Fleets: An Examination of the Need for Public Fast Charging Moniot, M.; Borlaug, B.; Ge, Y.; Wood, E.; Zimbler, J. 3/28/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, New York

Ride-hailing electrification has gained momentum in recent years as regulators have set aggressive targets for fleet electrification. This report assesses the scale of public fast charging needed to electrify approximately 20,000 vehicles across the yellow cab and for-hire segments in New York City. The analysis considers real-world trip data in conjunction with driver home locations, overnight charging access rates, driver schedules, and more.

Surat Municipal Corporation Bus Electrification Assessment Cabell Hodge, Matthew Jeffers,Jal Desai,Eric Miller, and Varsha Shah 3/11/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report examines the potential for Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC) to electrify its bus rapid transit system (BRTS) in Surat, India. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT) to collect data from SMC, log in-use GPS data of SMC buses, and analyze the results. The analysis focuses on the operational feasibility and life-cycle costs of battery electric buses (BEBs) compared to diesel buses operated on eight BRTS routes out of four bus depots.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 3/10/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Cargo Handling Equipment at Ports Andrew Burnham 3/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory

Ports, critical to trade and economic vitality, depend on a wide range of vehicles and machinery to move goods. Historically, most port equipment has been powered by diesel, contributing to poor air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. Increasingly, however, port equipment is powered by less-polluting fuels, including electricity, CNG, LNG, and LPG. This fact sheet describes the specific types of cargo handling equipment, their functions, and the fuel types currently available to power them.

Considerations for Department of Defense Implementation of Zero-Emission Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure Hodge, C.; Bennett, J.; Bentley, J.; Boyce, L. 3/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Bentley Energy Consulting, Oakton, Virginia

In December 2021, the president issued Executive Order (EO) 14057 on Catalyzing Clean Energy Industries and Jobs Through Federal Sustainability. The EO requires the Department of Defense to transition its non-tactical vehicles to a 100% zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) fleet, including 100% of light-duty acquisitions by 2027 and 100% of medium- and heavy-duty acquisitions by 2035. This document provides considerations to comply with these requirements and transition to a ZEV fleet efficiently and quickly. It covers planning for ZEVs and electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment, suggested roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders in designing EV charging equipment, and execution issues including acquisition, installation, and ongoing fleet management.

Electric Trucks Have Arrived: The Use Case for Terminal Tractors 3/1/2022 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency, Fort Wayne, Indiana

This report documents the three terminal tractors that participated in the Run on Less - Electric demonstration by the North American Council for Freight Efficiency, which was conducted in September of 2021. It provides data from the demonstration, research and interviews with fleets, vehicle manufacturers, and other industry experts about this market segment. The report shares key findings for electrifying terminal tractors.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the North American Council for Freight Efficiency website.

Evaluation of Policies for EV Charging Infrastructure Deployment 2/1/2022 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

To help guide federal, state, and local policymakers in the development of policies and programs focused on electric vehicle (EV) charging station deployment, this study evaluates the effectiveness of various policy approaches in contributing to deployments and broader EV charging market development. Using both statistical analysis and interviews of policymakers and business leaders across key states, this study aims to identify the major existing U.S. policies adopted between 2016 and 2020, to evaluate the effectiveness of these policies, to evaluate the relationship between policies and the development of the broader EV charging market, and to identify opportunities for future policy formulation.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Fuels Institute website.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Standards Technology Review 2/1/2022 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

Zero-emission transportation is critical to achieving California’s air quality and climate goals. To support the adoption and use of zero-emission vehicles, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Standards Regulation in 2019 to reduce barriers to accessing public charging stations. The EVSE Standards Regulation establishes minimum requirements for payment methods an EVSE must allow, facilitates roaming agreements between electric vehicle service providers, creates a more complete database of location and pricing information for consumer use, and ensures clarity in the cost of a charging session. To assess barriers drivers may face and understand whether the requirements of the Regulation, particularly the requirement that EVSE must accept both chip payment cards and contactless, “tap” cards, CARB staff conducted a Technology Review. The Technology Review included an evaluation of the availability and use of different payment methods and a survey of drivers’ experiences accessing public charging stations. This report presents the findings and recommendations from that work.

Identifying Electric Vehicles to Best Serve University Fleet Needs and Support Sustainability Goals Booth, S.; Bennett, J.; Helm, M.; Arnold, D.; Baker, B.; Clay, R.; Till, M.; Sears, T. 2/1/2022 Reports

Sawatch Labs, Denver, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

University fleets represent an enticing opportunity to explore the near-term feasibility of achieving net-zero-carbon emissions in transportation. In many instances, universities operate much like a small, self-contained ecosystem with all the same transportation needs as a larger municipality, but with a smaller geographic footprint. Their fleets often include a wide variety of vehicle types serving the campus, including low-speed vehicles (e.g., golf carts), light-duty sedans, SUVs, and pickups, as well as medium-duty trucks and delivery vehicles. The mix of vehicle and operational needs combined with broader activities related to net-zero campuses makes universities and colleges unique microcosms to determine the feasibility of and path to achieving net-zero fleets. As the availability of electric drivetrains expands beyond light-duty sedans, fleets need to understand when it will be operationally and financially appropriate to start adding electric drivetrains to their fleets. To better understand these opportunities, NREL contracted Sawatch Labs to analyze the role electric vehicles (EVs) can have in helping universities meet net-zero emissions and fleet sustainability goals they have instituted.

Charging Forward: A Toolkit for Planning and Funding Rural Electric Mobility Infrastructure 2/1/2022 Reports

Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This toolkit is meant to be a one-stop resource to help rural communities scope, plan, and fund EV charging infrastructure for light-duty electric passenger vehicles. Rural stakeholders, including states, local communities, tribes, transportation providers, nonprofits, businesses, and individuals, can use the toolkit to identify key partners for a project, take advantage of relevant planning tools, and identify available funding or financing to help make that project a reality. Armed with the resources in this toolkit, rural communities will have the tools and information they need to start planning and implementing EV infrastructure projects and ultimately realize the benefits of electric mobility.

Impacts of Increasing Electrification on State Fleet Operations and Charging Demand Booth,S.; Bennett, J.; Helm, M., Arnold, D.; Baker, B.; Clay, R.; Till, M.; Sears, T. 2/1/2022 Reports

Sawatch Labs, Denver, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

State fleets represent an enticing opportunity to explore the near-term feasibility of fleet electrification. In many instances, state fleet operations encompass a wide geographic area with fleet locations for many vehicles. Serving these wide areas will require a significant amount of energy and, in the case of electric vehicles (EVs), a significant level of charging power. The peak demand as a result of this charging demand is of interest for fleets, with impacts on both utility bills and installation costs ranking among some of the greatest concerns. The combination of a wide operational area and multiple fleet locations positions state fleets as ideal candidates to understand the impacts of vehicle charging on fleet operations. As the availability of electric drivetrains expands beyond light-duty sedans, fleets need to understand when it will be appropriate operationally and financially to start adding electric drivetrains to their fleets. Throughout this process, it will also be important to understand the charging implications of fleet electrification and the resulting impacts to facility electrical systems. To better understand these considerations, NREL contracted Sawatch Labs to analyze the role that increasing state fleet electrification may have on the charging demand at fleet parking facilities.

Supporting Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Deployment 2/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies electrify their fleets and support the deployment of charging infrastructure. To assist agencies with the transition to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through on-site and virtual EVSE Tiger Teams.

A Meta-Study of Purchase Costs for Zero-Emission Trucks Sharpe, B.; Basma, H. 2/1/2022 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This study reviews recent literature on current and projected battery-electric and hydrogen fuel cell tractor truck costs. In addition, this study provides information about the costs of key components for zero-emission trucks, including the battery pack, motor, and energy storage systems. Note: This copyrighted publication can be accessed through the International Council on Clean Transportation website.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 40 Davis, S.C.; Boundy, R.G. 2/1/2022 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 40 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (tedb.ornl.gov).

Run On Less - Electric Report 1/19/2022 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency, Fort Wayne, Indiana

This report documents the Run on Less - Electric demonstration by the North American Council for Freight Efficiency, which was conducted in September of 2021. It shares the methods used to select the participating fleets, routes, and equipment, and metrics that measured the 13 participating pairs of fleets and original equipment manufacturers. The demonstrations showed that for four market segments — vans and step vans, medium-duty box trucks, terminal tractors, and heavy-duty regional haul tractors — commercial battery electric vehicles are a viable option for fleets.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the North American Council for Freight Efficiency’s website.

The ABCs of Ohio EVs: A Policy Guide to Electrify Ohio 1/18/2022 Reports

Citizens Utility Board of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio

In this report, the Citizens Utility Board of Ohio examines key issues related to transportation electrification to capture the potential of electric vehicle (EV) growth and use it to optimize the state’s electric system. It includes guidelines for policy development and specific measures to help propel this emerging market transformation and ensure that everybody will benefit from EVs, whether or not they drive one. It identifies factors affecting EV market growth, assesses its ramifications for the electric grid and for consumers, advances principles to protect the interests of electricity customers, and recommends responsive state actions.

Cost of Electric Commercial Vans and Pickup Trucks in the United States Through 2040 Mulholland, E. 1/11/2022 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This paper presents a total cost of ownership assessment of battery-electric Class 2b and 3 commercial vehicles between 2020 and 2040 benchmarked against the corresponding costs of gasoline and diesel powertrains. While electrification has been slow to emerge in this area, the relatively low daily driving range compared to other commercial vehicle classes makes this sector prime for a technology shift to zero-emission technology in the coming years.

Assessing the Value of EV Managed Charging: A Review of Methodologies and Results Anwar, M.; Muratori, M.; Jadun, P.; Hale, E.; Bush, B.; Denholm, P.; Ma, O.; Podkaminer, K. 1/7/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Driven by technological progress and growing global attention for sustainability, the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is on the rise. Large-scale EV adoption would both disrupt the transportation sector and lead to far-reaching consequences for energy and electricity systems, including new opportunities for significant load growth. Unmanaged EV charging can stress existing grid infrastructure, possibly leading to operational, reliability, and planning challenges both at the bulk and distribution levels. However, effective management of EV charging can resolve these challenges and provide additional value. This report summarizes the benefits of managed EV charging, provides an overview of the landscape of existing implementations and costs of managed charging in the United States, critically reviews the state of the art of methodologies in analysis/modeling studies, and quantifies the cost and benefits of managed charging as reported in the reviewed studies. Additionally, it distills several key insights outlining the factors affecting the value of managed EV charging and identifies critical gaps and remaining challenges to fully realize effective EV-grid integration.

EV Charging at Multi-Family Dwellings Lepre, N. 1/3/2022 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, DC

Approximately 30% of U.S. households are multi-family dwellings (MFDs), such as apartments and condos, and almost 75% of MFD households have at least one vehicle. Therefore, it is essential for electric vehicle (EV) charging to be available to MFD residents in order to make EVs an option for a large portion of the population. This paper draws on case studies, other research, and charging use data from the Columbus, Ohio area and New York state to summarize the key drivers and barriers for MFD building managers to install EV charging.

Transit Vehicle Innovation Deployment Centers Advisory Panel Overview and Conclusions 1/3/2022 Reports

Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC

The Transit Vehicle Innovation Deployment Centers (TVIDC) program was funded by the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Transit Administration to research the advancement, production, and deployment of advanced vehicle technologies and infrastructure within the public transportation sector. The TVIDC program assembled the Transit Vehicle Innovation Deployment Advisory Panel to meet and develop suggested solutions to the challenges of continued innovation, development, and adoption of zero-emission transit technologies. This report is a summary of the panel’s suggested solutions and activities.

Model Year 2022: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2020 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 12/29/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an EUI of nearly 1 billion GGE, comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2020. Clean Cities coalition and stakeholder participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, although transportation activity and resulting EUI decreased in 2020 due to the COVID 19 pandemic. Coalition-reported activities prevented nearly 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only GHG emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). The GHG benefits increased in 2020 despite a decrease in EUI because coalitions focused more on technologies with higher GHG benefits per GGE reduced and because the lifecycle of many alternative fuels such as electricity or biofuels is becoming less carbon intense. Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous outside (non-DOE) sources. The 90 project grant awards in 2020 generated $151 million in funds from coalition members and project partners in addition to $12.8 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.1 million in stakeholder dues and $3.1 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this non-DOE supplemental funding represents a 4:1 leveraging of the $38 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in 2020. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 135,700 hours pursuing their coalitions’ goals in 2020. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held the coordinator position for nearly eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,290 outreach, education, and training activities in 2020, which reached an estimated 31 million people. Activities that reached underserved communities were tracked for the first time in 2020 and accounted for 17% of all activities.

Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel? 12/20/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Levene, J.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 12/16/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2021 Bourbon, E. 12/15/2021 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2021 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2021 and October 15, 2021, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 16 cents from $3.09 to $3.25; diesel increased 22 cents from $3.26 to $3.48; CNG increased 11 cents from $2.22 to $2.33; ethanol (E85) increased 11 cents from $2.62 to $2.73; propane increased 19 cents from $2.98 to $3.17; and biodiesel (B20) increased 24 cents from $3.05 to $3.29.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 92 cents less than gasoline on an energy- equivalent basis and E85 is 30 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Ethanol Production in the United States: The Roles of Policy, Price, and Demand Newes, E.; Clark, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Peterson, S.; Burkholder, D.; Korotney, D.; Inman, D. 11/26/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC; Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, Colorado; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Assessments of the impact of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS) should inform consideration of future biofuels policy. Conventional wisdom suggests the RFS played a major role in stimulating the ten-fold expansion in ethanol production and consumption in the United States from 2002 to 2019, but evidence increasingly suggests the RFS may have had a smaller effect than previously assumed. Price competitiveness, federal and state policies such as reformulated gasoline requirements, and octane content in ethanol also affect market attractiveness. This study explores the roles of policy and economic factors by comparing historical data with results from scenarios simulated in a system dynamics model.

The State of Managed Charging in 2021 11/1/2021 Reports

Smart Electric Power Alliance, Washington, D.C.

With the increasing growth of the electric vehicle market and the resulting implications for the power system, managed charging programs are non-negotiable. Utilities are developing programs that will avoid distribution upgrade bottlenecks and mitigate unnecessary costs for utilities. This report provides an overview of how utilities can optimize managed charging programs and includes case studies and a guide to solution providers.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through Smart Electric Power Alliance's website.

Electric Ride-Hailing Charging Infrastructure: Needs Assessment and Equitable Siting in Houston Hsu C.; Slowik, P. 10/21/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

The reach and use of ride-hailing services have greatly expanded in major urban areas in the United States and globally. As ride-hailing continues to grow as an important pillar of the mobility ecosystem, such fleets raise questions related to their environmental and mobility impacts, and electrification offers an opportunity to eliminate the vehicles’ local emissions. This paper quantifies the number of ride-hailing direct current fast chargers needed in Houston to support a growing electric ride-hailing fleet from 2021 through 2030. It identifies priority sites that expand infrastructure equity and access in the city, with a focus on city-owned properties. The paper also summarizes best practices in equitable clean mobility investments and discusses the policies and actions that can facilitate ride-hailing electrification and contribute to equitable outcomes.

Notes: This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation website.

Future-Proofing Convenience Stores for EV Charging 10/12/2021 Reports

Petroleum Equipment Institute, Tulsa, Oklahoma; National Association of Convenience Stores, Alexandria, Virginia; Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

Direct current fast charging is the optimal technology for electric vehicle (EV) charging at convenience stores. This document helps convenience retailers plan for EV charging infrastructure at new liquid fueling sites. With careful planning and efficient site design, ground-up facilities can be constructed to keep fuels convenient and safe for store personnel and the public.

There's No Place Like Home: Residential Parking, Electrical Access, and Implications for the Future of EV Charging Infrastructure Ge, Y.; Simeone, C; Duvall, A.; Wood, E. 10/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The current foundation of U.S. charging infrastructure has been built upon charging at residential locations, where vehicles tend to be parked for long durations overnight. As the electric vehicle (EV) market expands beyond early adopters (typically high-income, single-family homes that have access to off-street parking) to mainstream consumers, planners must consider developing charging infrastructure solutions for households without consistent access to overnight home charging. In situations where residential off-street charging access is unattainable, a portfolio of solutions may be possible, including providing access to public charging in residential neighborhoods (on street), at workplaces, at commonly visited public locations, and (when necessary) at centralized locations via high power fast charging infrastructure (similar to existing gas stations). This report identifies charging access trends with respect to residence type and infers national residential charging access scenarios as a function of the national EV fleet size.

Compendium of Idling Regulations 10/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

American Transportation Research Institute, Arlington, Virginia

The American Transportation Research Institute has issued a list of idling regulations, current as of January 2019, passed by several cities, counties, and states. Included are Maricopa County, Arizona; California; Placer County, California; City of Sacramento, California; City of Aspen and City and County of Denver, Colorado; Connecticut; Delaware; District of Columbia; City of Atlanta, Georgia; Hawaii; several cities and counties in Illinois; Maine; Maryland; Massachusetts; Minneapolis, Owatonna, and St. Cloud, Minnesota; City and County of St. Louis, Missouri; Nevada; New Hampshire; New Jersey; New York State; New York City; New Rochelle, New York; Rockland County, New York; Philadelphia and Alleghany County, Pennsylvania; Rhode Island; South Carolina; several cities and counties in Texas; Utah; and Virginia.

Hydrogen Station Network Self-Sufficiency Analysis per Assembly Bill 8 10/1/2021 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

Assembly Bill 8, 2013, asks the California Air Resources Board and the California Energy Commission to evaluate hydrogen fueling station development and operation against a standard of financial self-sufficiency. A self-sufficient network demonstrates the ability to continue operations and growth without further state financial support. This self-sufficiency study evaluates the economics of potential future scenarios for growth in California’s network of hydrogen fueling stations, assesses the amount of state support that could maintain network growth and operation until the network demonstrates self-sufficiency, and estimates the timing to achieve self-sufficiency.

A Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel, Natural Gas, and Electric Vehicles Muncrief, R. 9/21/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Diesel, natural gas, and electric heavy-duty vehicles can be designed and manufactured with the capability of complying with the ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NOx) limits envisioned in the next set of California and federal heavy-duty vehicle regulations. This briefing compares the capabilities of these three powertrain types in meeting an ultra-low NOx standard across four key areas: feasibility, cost, health impacts, and climate impacts.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2021 Bourbon, E. 9/15/2021 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2021 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2021 and July 15, 2021, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 27 cents from $2.82 to $3.09; diesel increased 15 cents from $3.11 to $3.26; CNG increased 3 cents from $2.19 to $2.22; ethanol (E85) increased 22 cents from $2.40 to $2.62; propane increased 5 cents from $2.93 to $2.98; and biodiesel (B20) increased 23 cents from $2.82 to $3.05.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 87 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 31 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Infrastructure to Support a 100% Zero-Emission Tractor-Trailer Fleet in the United States by 2040 Minjares, R.; Rodríguez, F.; Sen, A.; Braun, C. 9/14/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This analysis estimates the number of charging points and hydrogen fueling stations needed to enable the transition to 100% sales of zero-emission Class 7 and Class 8 tractor-trailers by 2040 in the United States.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Evaluating EV Market Growth Across U.S. Cities Bui, A.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey, N. 9/14/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This briefing paper analyzes the development of the U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market in 2020 and the underlying state, city, and utility actions that were driving it. The paper evaluates state, local, and utility company actions to promote PEVs, and demonstrates that the states and cities with the greatest PEV market success continue to have the strongest and most comprehensive policy supports.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 9/10/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment & Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2021 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Total Cost of Ownership for Class 8 Tractors and Class 4 Parcel Delivery Trucks Hunter, C.; Penev, M.; Reznicek, E.; Lustbader, J.; Birky, A.; Zhang, C. 9/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The medium- and heavy-duty transportation sector is experiencing rapid changes in powertrain technology innovation, with recent announcements of battery electric and fuel cell electric trucks being offered. The economics of these alternative powertrain vehicles are uncertain and difficult to compare directly. This report evaluates the total cost of ownership of six different truck powertrain technologies (diesel, diesel hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, compressed natural gas, battery electric, and fuel cell electric) for three different truck vocations (Class 8 long haul, Class 8 short haul, and Class 4 parcel delivery, for three different time frames (2018, 2025, and 2050).

Need Help Planning for the Future of Electric Vehicles? 9/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

This brochure helps states find tools to make informed decisions about implementing electric vehicles (EVs) and their charging infrastructure. To do so, many states will use funds from the Environmental Mitigation Trust Agreements from the Volkswagen Clean Air Act Settlement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories provide extensive information on EVs including both community planning and charging infrastructure. This information can help states implement EV and charging infrastructure projects using settlement funds. The tools in this brochure represent a sampling of key DOE resources available to states and other jurisdictions.

Electric Vehicles 8/23/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: All-electric vehicles and Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as electric vehicles (EVs).

At A Glance: Electric Vehicles 8/23/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. Electric vehicles (EVs) include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Power Demand of Retail Buildings Gillerana, M.; Bonnemaa, E.; Woodsa, J.; Mishraa, P,; Doebberb, I.; Huntera, C.; Mitchella, M.; Mann, M. 8/15/2021 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As electric vehicle (EV) penetration increases, charging is expected to have a significant impact on the grid. EV charging stations will greatly affect a building site’s power demand, especially with the onset of fast charging with power levels as high as 350 kilowatts per charger. This paper assesses how EV charging stations would impact a retail big box grocery store, exploring numerous station sizes, charging power levels, and utilization factors in various climate zones and seasons. It measures the effect of charging by assessing changes in monthly peak power demand, electricity usage, and annual electricity bill, computed using three distinct rate structures.

Installing and Operating Public EV Charging Infrastructure 8/6/2021 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

This report analyzes the issues site hosts are expected to encounter as they contemplate development of public electric vehicle (EV) charging by separating them into three key buckets: assessing the business case, utility engagement, and working with local authorities having jurisdiction over the site’s location. The report also presents several case studies from early adopters who’ve invested in the public EV charging space. In addition, the report includes crucial lessons learned from real world experience.

Notes:

This publication is copyrighted by Fuels Institute and can be downloaded from the Fuels Institute’s website.

Success Factors for Electric Carsharing Nicholas, M.; Bernard, M 8/2/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

Using electric vehicles for carsharing can enhance the environmental benefits of such programs. This briefing examines electric carsharing and the elements that are found in successful programs in North America and Europe. Specifically, it describes the benefits of electric carsharing, presents examples of carsharing, provides charging infrastructure insights, and identifies best practices for electric carsharing.

Refueling, Your Way. Get to Know Propane Autogas Refueling Options 7/9/2021 Reports

Propane Education & Research Council

This report provides an introduction to propane fueling options, infrastructure costs, and how to get started with propane autogas and infrastructure.

A Low Carbon Fuel Standard: In Brief Bracmort, K. 7/7/2021 Reports

Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C.

As part of the congressional deliberations on addressing climate change, Congress may consider policy options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. One policy option Congress may examine is a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). An LCFS is a policy that requires transportation fuels to meet a certain energy-related GHG target (e.g., a specific carbon intensity) within a specified jurisdiction and timeframe. This report provides a brief overview of an LCFS, congressional interest in an LCFS, the connection between the Renewable Fuel Standard and an LCFS, and considerations for policymakers.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2021 Bourbon, E. 7/6/2021 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2021 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2021 and April 15, 2021, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 50 cents from $2.32 to $2.82; diesel increased 47 cents from $2.64 to $3.11; CNG remained the same at $2.19; ethanol (E85) increased 36 cents from $2.04 to $2.40; propane increased 8 cents from $2.85 to $2.93; and biodiesel (B20) increased 40 cents from $2.42 to $2.82.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 63 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 30 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.