Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Clean Cities Coalitions 2020 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 12/29/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an EUI of nearly 1 billion GGE, comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2020. Clean Cities coalition and stakeholder participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, although transportation activity and resulting EUI decreased in 2020 due to the COVID 19 pandemic. Coalition-reported activities prevented nearly 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only GHG emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). The GHG benefits increased in 2020 despite a decrease in EUI because coalitions focused more on technologies with higher GHG benefits per GGE reduced and because the lifecycle of many alternative fuels such as electricity or biofuels is becoming less carbon intense. Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous outside (non-DOE) sources. The 90 project grant awards in 2020 generated $151 million in funds from coalition members and project partners in addition to $12.8 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.1 million in stakeholder dues and $3.1 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this non-DOE supplemental funding represents a 4:1 leveraging of the $38 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in 2020. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 135,700 hours pursuing their coalitions’ goals in 2020. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held the coordinator position for nearly eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,290 outreach, education, and training activities in 2020, which reached an estimated 31 million people. Activities that reached underserved communities were tracked for the first time in 2020 and accounted for 17% of all activities.

Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel? 12/20/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Levene, J.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 12/16/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2021 Bourbon, E. 12/15/2021 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2021 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2021 and October 15, 2021, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 16 cents from $3.09 cents to $3.25; diesel increased 22 cents from $3.26 to $3.48; CNG increased 11 cents from $2.22 to 2.33; ethanol (E85) increased 11 cents from $2.62 to $2.73; propane increased 19 cents from $2.98 to $3.17; and biodiesel (B20) increased 24 cents from $3.05 to $3.29.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 92 cents less than gasoline on an energy- equivalent basis and E85 is 30 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Ethanol Production in the United States: The Roles of Policy, Price, and Demand Newes, E.; Clark, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Peterson, S.; Burkholder, D.; Korotney, D.; Inman, D. 11/26/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC; Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, Colorado; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Assessments of the impact of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS) should inform consideration of future biofuels policy. Conventional wisdom suggests the RFS played a major role in stimulating the ten-fold expansion in ethanol production and consumption in the United States from 2002 to 2019, but evidence increasingly suggests the RFS may have had a smaller effect than previously assumed. Price competitiveness, federal and state policies such as reformulated gasoline requirements, and octane content in ethanol also affect market attractiveness. This study explores the roles of policy and economic factors by comparing historical data with results from scenarios simulated in a system dynamics model.

The State of Managed Charging in 2021 11/1/2021 Reports

Smart Electric Power Alliance, Washington, D.C.

With the increasing growth of the electric vehicle market and the resulting implications for the power system, managed charging programs are non-negotiable. Utilities are developing programs that will avoid distribution upgrade bottlenecks and mitigate unnecessary costs for utilities. This report provides an overview of how utilities can optimize managed charging programs and includes case studies and a guide to solution providers.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through Smart Electric Power Alliance's website.

Model Year 2022: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 11/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel vehicles, as well as the all-electric range of plug-in electric vehicles.

The 2021 EPA Automotive Trends Report: GHG Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Technology since 1975 11/1/2021 Reports

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C.

This annual report summarizes information about new light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel economy, technology data, and auto manufacturers' performance in meeting the agency’s GHG emissions standards. (EPA publication # EPA-420-R-21-023).

Electric Ride-Hailing Charging Infrastructure: Needs Assessment and Equitable Siting in Houston Hsu C.; Slowik, P. 10/21/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

The reach and use of ride-hailing services have greatly expanded in major urban areas in the United States and globally. As ride-hailing continues to grow as an important pillar of the mobility ecosystem, such fleets raise questions related to their environmental and mobility impacts, and electrification offers an opportunity to eliminate the vehicles’ local emissions. This paper quantifies the number of ride-hailing direct current fast chargers needed in Houston to support a growing electric ride-hailing fleet from 2021 through 2030. It identifies priority sites that expand infrastructure equity and access in the city, with a focus on city-owned properties. The paper also summarizes best practices in equitable clean mobility investments and discusses the policies and actions that can facilitate ride-hailing electrification and contribute to equitable outcomes.

Notes: This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation website.

There's No Place Like Home: Residential Parking, Electrical Access, and Implications for the Future of EV Charging Infrastructure Ge, Y.; Simeone, C; Duvall, A.; Wood, E. 10/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The current foundation of U.S. charging infrastructure has been built upon charging at residential locations, where vehicles tend to be parked for long durations overnight. As the electric vehicle (EV) market expands beyond early adopters (typically high-income, single-family homes that have access to off-street parking) to mainstream consumers, planners must consider developing charging infrastructure solutions for households without consistent access to overnight home charging. In situations where residential off-street charging access is unattainable, a portfolio of solutions may be possible, including providing access to public charging in residential neighborhoods (on street), at workplaces, at commonly visited public locations, and (when necessary) at centralized locations via high power fast charging infrastructure (similar to existing gas stations). This report identifies charging access trends with respect to residence type and infers national residential charging access scenarios as a function of the national EV fleet size.

Hydrogen Station Network Self-Sufficiency Analysis per Assembly Bill 8 10/1/2021 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

Assembly Bill 8, 2013, asks the California Air Resources Board and the California Energy Commission to evaluate hydrogen fueling station development and operation against a standard of financial self-sufficiency. A self-sufficient network demonstrates the ability to continue operations and growth without further state financial support. This self-sufficiency study evaluates the economics of potential future scenarios for growth in California’s network of hydrogen fueling stations, assesses the amount of state support that could maintain network growth and operation until the network demonstrates self-sufficiency, and estimates the timing to achieve self-sufficiency.

A Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel, Natural Gas, and Electric Vehicles Muncrief, R. 9/21/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Diesel, natural gas, and electric heavy-duty vehicles can be designed and manufactured with the capability of complying with the ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NOx) limits envisioned in the next set of California and federal heavy-duty vehicle regulations. This briefing compares the capabilities of these three powertrain types in meeting an ultra-low NOx standard across four key areas: feasibility, cost, health impacts, and climate impacts.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2021 Bourbon, E. 9/15/2021 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2021 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2021 and July 15, 2021, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 27 cents from $2.82 cents to $3.09; diesel increased 15 cents from $3.11 to $3.26; CNG increased 3 cents from $2.19 to 2.22; ethanol (E85) increased 22 cents from $2.40 to $2.62; propane increased 5 cents from $2.93 to $2.98; and biodiesel (B20) increased 23 cents from $2.82 to $3.05.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 87 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 31 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Infrastructure to Support a 100% Zero-Emission Tractor-Trailer Fleet in the United States by 2040 Minjares, R.; Rodríguez, F.; Sen, A.; Braun, C. 9/14/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This analysis estimates the number of charging points and hydrogen fueling stations needed to enable the transition to 100% sales of zero-emission Class 7 and Class 8 tractor-trailers by 2040 in the United States.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Evaluating EV Market Growth Across U.S. Cities Bui, A.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey, N. 9/14/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This briefing paper analyzes the development of the U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market in 2020 and the underlying state, city, and utility actions that were driving it. The paper evaluates state, local, and utility company actions to promote PEVs, and demonstrates that the states and cities with the greatest PEV market success continue to have the strongest and most comprehensive policy supports.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 9/10/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment & Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2021 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Total Cost of Ownership for Class 8 Tractors and Class 4 Parcel Delivery Trucks Hunter, C.; Penev, M.; Reznicek, E.; Lustbader, J.; Birky, A.; Zhang, C. 9/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The medium- and heavy-duty transportation sector is experiencing rapid changes in powertrain technology innovation, with recent announcements of battery electric and fuel cell electric trucks being offered. The economics of these alternative powertrain vehicles are uncertain and difficult to compare directly. This report evaluates the total cost of ownership of six different truck powertrain technologies (diesel, diesel hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, compressed natural gas, battery electric, and fuel cell electric) for three different truck vocations (Class 8 long haul, Class 8 short haul, and Class 4 parcel delivery, for three different time frames (2018, 2025, and 2050).

Need Help Planning for the Future of Electric Vehicles? 9/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

This brochure helps states find tools to make informed decisions about implementing electric vehicles (EVs) and their charging infrastructure. To do so, many states will use funds from the Environmental Mitigation Trust Agreements from the Volkswagen Clean Air Act Settlement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories provide extensive information on EVs including both community planning and charging infrastructure. This information can help states implement EV and charging infrastructure projects using settlement funds. The tools in this brochure represent a sampling of key DOE resources available to states and other jurisdictions.

Electric-Drive Vehicles 8/23/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: All-electric vehicles and Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as electric vehicles (EVs).

At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles 8/23/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. Electric vehicles (EVs) include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Power Demand of Retail Buildings Gillerana, M.; Bonnemaa, E.; Woodsa, J.; Mishraa, P,; Doebberb, I.; Huntera, C.; Mitchella, M.; Mann, M. 8/15/2021 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As electric vehicle (EV) penetration increases, charging is expected to have a significant impact on the grid. EV charging stations will greatly affect a building site’s power demand, especially with the onset of fast charging with power levels as high as 350 kilowatts per charger. This paper assesses how EV charging stations would impact a retail big box grocery store, exploring numerous station sizes, charging power levels, and utilization factors in various climate zones and seasons. It measures the effect of charging by assessing changes in monthly peak power demand, electricity usage, and annual electricity bill, computed using three distinct rate structures.

Installing and Operating Public EV Charging Infrastructure 8/6/2021 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

This report analyzes the issues site hosts are expected to encounter as they contemplate development of public electric vehicle (EV) charging by separating them into three key buckets: assessing the business case, utility engagement, and working with local authorities having jurisdiction over the site’s location. The report also presents several case studies from early adopters who’ve invested in the public EV charging space. In addition, the report includes crucial lessons learned from real world experience.

Notes:

This publication is copyrighted by Fuels Institute and can be downloaded from the Fuels Institute’s website.

Success Factors for Electric Carsharing Nicholas, M.; Bernard, M 8/2/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

Using electric vehicles for carsharing can enhance the environmental benefits of such programs. This briefing examines electric carsharing and the elements that are found in successful programs in North America and Europe. Specifically, it describes the benefits of electric carsharing, presents examples of carsharing, provides charging infrastructure insights, and identifies best practices for electric carsharing.

A Low Carbon Fuel Standard: In Brief Bracmort, K. 7/7/2021 Reports

Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C.

As part of the congressional deliberations on addressing climate change, Congress may consider policy options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. One policy option Congress may examine is a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). An LCFS is a policy that requires transportation fuels to meet a certain energy-related GHG target (e.g., a specific carbon intensity) within a specified jurisdiction and timeframe. This report provides a brief overview of an LCFS, congressional interest in an LCFS, the connection between the Renewable Fuel Standard and an LCFS, and considerations for policymakers.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2021 Bourbon, E. 7/6/2021 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2021 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2021 and April 15, 2021, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 50 cents from $2.32 cents to $2.82; diesel increased 47 cents from $2.64 to $3.11; CNG remained the same at $2.19; ethanol (E85) increased 36 cents from $2.04 to $2.40; propane increased 8 cents from $2.85 to $2.93; and biodiesel (B20) increased 40 cents from $2.42 to $2.82.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 63 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 30 cents more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Fuel Cell Electric Trucks: A Vision for Freight Movement in California and Beyond 7/1/2021 Reports

California Fuel Cell Partnership, West Sacramento, California

The California Fuel Cell Partnership represents public entities and private global companies with vested interests in both battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell electric technologies. This document presents the California Fuel Cell Partnership shared vision of the fundamental role of fuel cell electric trucks in the complete transition of California’s freight movement sector to zero-emission. While the insights shared are applicable to many vehicle types, this document focuses on the largest and highest-priority, on-road freight vehicle: the Class 8 tractor.

Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Market Structure, Environmental Impact, and Electric Vehicle Readiness 7/1/2021 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, Massachusetts

This report summarizes an analysis of the U.S. medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) in-use truck fleet to identify the most common vehicle types/uses, estimate the environmental impact of each, and assess readiness for greater adoption of zero emitting technologies over the next decade. It is intended to help inform the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s deliberations involving future criteria and greenhouse gas emissions standards and policies for MD and HD engines and vehicles.

Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative 7/1/2021 Reports

Western Governors’ Association, Denver, Colorado

Oregon Governor Kate Brown launched the Electric Vehicles (EVs) Roadmap Initiative in July 2020, to examine opportunities to improve the planning and siting of EV charging infrastructure in western states. The Chair Initiative of the Governor assembled states engaged in the West Coast Electric Highway (which includes California, Oregon, and Washington) and the Regional Electric Vehicle Plan for the West (REV West, which includes Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming). Together, they assessed opportunities for enhanced coordination on voluntary technical standards related to EV infrastructure hardware, payment methods, signage, and best practices for siting and location. This report presents findings from these sessions and examines state programs and coordination opportunities, grid infrastructure planning and the role of utilities, medium-and heavy-duty EVs, EV fleets, permitting and siting practices, and economic and workforce development opportunities associated with EVs.

Assembly Bill 2127 Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Assessment Analyzing Charging Needs to Support Zero Emission Vehicles in 2030 Alexander, M.; Crisostomo, N.; Krell, W.; Lu, J.; Ramesh, R. 7/1/2021 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

Assembly Bill 2127, 2018, requires the California Energy Commission (CEC) to prepare a statewide assessment of the charging infrastructure needed to achieve the goal of five million zero-emission vehicles on the road by 2030. Executive Order N-79-20, 2020, directed the CEC to expand this assessment to support the levels of plug-in electric vehicle adoption required by the executive order. This report identifies trends and market, technical, and policy solutions that would advance transportation electrification to benefit all Californians. It outlines a vision where charging is accessible, smart, widespread, and easier than a trip to the gas station.

Near-Term Impacts of Automated Vehicle Technologies Mersky, A. 6/30/2021 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, D.C.

Automated vehicle (AV) technology may substantially impact light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the coming decade. Although fuel economy and emissions regulations have the potential to encourage highly efficient AV technology, they are not guaranteed to do so; thus, AV technology may actually compromise fuel economy if regulations are not structured effectively. This paper investigates these issues and recommends how current regulations may be amended to better encourage the development of AV technology that improves fuel efficiency.

Propane Basics 6/17/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet answers frequently asked questions about propane as a transportation fuel.

Electrifying Trucks: From Delivery Vans to Buses to 18-Wheelers Nadel, S.; Huether, P. 6/10/2021 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, D.C.

Electrification of trucks and buses can bring many benefits, including lower energy use, emissions, and operating costs. However, compared to conventional trucks, these vehicles currently cost more up front, often have reduced range, and must depend on limited charging infrastructure. Efforts to address these limitations are making substantial progress, and leading experts expect electric trucks to be widespread by 2040. This paper summarizes the current state of the industry, including electric truck benefits and challenges, current and imminent models, charging, electric rates, and policies to promote electric trucks.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Benefits of Transportation Electrification in a Post Pandemic World Smith, C.; Nigro, N.; Lepre, N. 6/1/2021 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

The first three months of 2021 saw early actions from the Biden administration and strong commitments to transportation electrification made by automakers, utilities, and other key players in the U.S. electric vehicle market. This activity has increased the number and breadth of pathways that policymakers can pursue to accelerate the shift towards transportation electrification and capture more of the billions of dollars in investments committed to the technology worldwide. This paper outlines three key opportunities for the country to achieve success and rapidly decarbonize the transportation sector by taking decisive action at federal level, expanding state policy frameworks, and prioritizing underserved communities.

Energy Justice: Key Concepts and Metrics Relevant to EERE Transportation Projects Romero-Lankao, P.; Nobler, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

This report provides a "primer" of key concepts and metrics relevant to energy equity and justice. It discusses tenets of energy justice aimed to foster equity in DOE projects.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Clean Cities Coalitions Overview 5/25/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Office Clean Cities Coalition Network, which advance affordable, domestic transportation fuels and technologies nationwide. More than 75 active coalitions serve as the foundation of Clean Cities, working in communities across the country to help local decision makers and fleets understand and implement alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, new mobility choices, and emerging transportation technologies. At the national level, VTO develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources to support coordinators. At the local level, coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Town of Colonie Enhanced Development Regulations: Electric Vehicle Zoning Guidance & Best Practices 5/24/2021 Reports

Capital District Clean Communities Coalition, Albany, New York; Capital District Transportation Committee, Colonie, New York; Capital District Regional Planning Commission, Colonie, New York

Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) requirements have become an area of interest to the Town of Colonie (Colonie) staff and planning board members. This report provides electric vehicle zoning guidance and best practices for Colonie codes. It includes a review of existing conditions in Colonie, a comprehensive plan and zoning audit, and general recommendations and best practices for municipalities to allow, require, and streamline the installation of EVSE.

Alternative Fuel Corridor Readiness Study for Northeastern Illinois Milburn, T. 5/23/2021 Reports

Chicago Area Clean Cities, Chicago, Illinois

This study analyzes alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) usage and infrastructure needs for the Chicago region. It maps the existing alternative fuel sites in the six-county Chicago area and throughout Illinois. The study also examines what it will take to advance the use of AFVs in the region, leveraging new federal and state policies that are expected in the years ahead. To gather insights for the report, listening sessions were conducted with key stakeholders on recommendations for where to site alternative fuel stations and critical needs for sites to be successful.

AFLEET: Assess the Impacts of Conventional and Alternative Fuel Vehicles 5/20/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET fact sheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2019 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 5/6/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an energy use impact (EUI) of over 1 billion gasoline-gallons equivalent (GGE), comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2019. Participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, as did alternative fuel use and resulting overall EUI. Clean Cities coalition activities reduce emissions as they impact energy use. Coalition-reported activities prevented nearly 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous (non-DOE) outside sources. For other Federal, State, and local agencies and private sector foundations, see funding section on page 24. The 82 project grant awards in 2019 generated $225 million in funds from coalition members and project partners along with $9.5 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.2 million in stakeholder dues and $1.6 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this supplemental funding represents nearly a 6:1 leveraging of the $38 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in Fiscal Year 2019. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 136,000 hours pursuing their coalitions' goals in 2019. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held his or her position for at least eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,525 outreach, education, and training activities in 2019, which reached an estimated 23 million people.

Retrospective Analysis of the U.S. Corn Ethanol Industry for 2005-2019: Implications for GHG Emission Reductions Lee, U.; Kwon, H.; Wu, M.; Wang, M. 5/4/2021 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lemont, Iliinois

Since 2000, corn ethanol production in the United States has increased significantly, from 1.6 billion gallons to 15 billion gallons due to supportive biofuel policies. This study conducts a retrospective analysis of the changes in U.S. corn ethanol greenhouse gas emission intensity or carbon intensity, over the 15 years from 2005 to 2019.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Wiley Online Library’s website.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 5/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2021 Bourbon, E. 4/23/2021 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2021 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2021 and January 15, 2021, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 14 cents from $2.18 to $2.32; diesel increased 24 cents from $2.40 to $2.64; CNG increased 1 cent from $2.18 to $2.19; ethanol (E85) increased 8 cents from $1.96 to $2.04; propane increased 12 cents from $2.73 to $2.85; and biodiesel (B20) increased 13 cents from $2.29 to $2.42.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 13 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Federal Funding is Available for EV Charging Infrastructure on the National Highway System 4/22/2021 Reports

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Washington, District of Columbia

The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) supports the Biden-Harris Administration’s goal of installing 500,000 new electric vehicle (EV) chargers by 2030. To accelerate the deployment of EV chargers, FHWA is highlighting the policies and funding available for partners in states, tribes, territories, metropolitan planning organizations, and federal land management agencies to build out EV chargers along the National Highway System. This document summarizes eligibilities under each of the funding and finance programs to plan for and build EV chargers, support workforce training for new technologies, and integrate EVs as part of strategies to address commuter, freight, and public transportation needs.

Electrifying Transit: A Guidebook for Implementing BEBs Aamodt, A.; Cory, K.; Coney, K. 4/20/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The use of battery electric bus (BEBs) fleets is becoming more attractive to cities seeking to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. While BEB fleets may provide benefits such as lower fuel and maintenance costs, improved performance, lower emissions, and energy security, many challenges need to be overcome to support BEB deployment. These include upfront cost premiums, planning burdens, BEB range, and unfamiliarity with BEB technology. To assist stakeholders with interest in deploying BEBs, this guidebook describes the decisions and considerations required for successful BEB implementation.

Siting EVSE with Equity in Mind Huether, P. 4/1/2021 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, District of Columbia

To reduce pollution from road vehicles, states are setting policies to support transportation electrification and directing utilities to support electric vehicles with widespread charging infrastructure. States and utility commissions also recognize the need to ensure that historically underserved communities benefit from electrification. To make this happen, electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) must be sited in a way that promotes geographic, racial, and economic equity. This paper analyzes the extent to which states and utilities are including equity in their siting. Additionally, this paper provides guidance for utilities wanting to ensure that the benefits of transportation electrification are shared widely.

Used Plug-in Electric Vehicles as a Means of Transportation Equity in Low-Income Households Olumide Winjobi and Jarod C. Kelly 4/1/2021 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

This report examines improving the equity of low-income households through access to reliable means of transportation. Used plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve as a low-cost and low-maintenance means of transport for low-income households. Zero tail-pipe emissions from PEVs is also a benefit of these drivetrains compared to internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). Barriers to the adoption of the used PEVs, and incentives that may address these barriers, are reviewed.

Funding Options for Low-Carbon Transportation Alternatives to The Federal Gasoline Tax 4/1/2021 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, District of Columbia

This topic brief provides an overview of the problems with current mechanisms for funding sustainable transportation and explores other funding methods to support low-carbon transportation investment in the United States. In reviewing alternate transportation funding methods, this report considers each mechanism’s equity impacts, with a specific focus on transportation access and curbing the impacts of transportation-related air pollution, which disproportionately burden low-income communities.

Comprehensive Total Cost of Ownership Quantification for Vehicles with Different Size Classes and Powertrains Burnham, A.; Gohlke, D.; Rush, L.; Stephens, T.; Zhou, Y.; Delucchi, M.; Birky, A.; Hunter, C.; Lin, Z.; Ou, S.; Xie, F.; Proctor, C,; Wiryadinata, S.; Liu, N.; Boloor, M. 4/1/2021 Reports

Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; U.S. Department of Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, D.C.

In order to accurately compare the costs of two vehicles, the total cost of ownership (TCO) should consist of all costs related to both purchasing and operating the vehicle. This TCO analysis builds on previous work to provide a comprehensive perspective of all relevant vehicle costs of ownership. This study considers vehicle cost and depreciation, financing, fuel costs, insurance costs, maintenance and repair costs, taxes and fees, and other operational costs to formulate a holistic total cost of ownership and operation of light- and heavy-duty vehicles. For each of the cost parameters, researchers performed extensive literature review and data analysis to find representative values to build a holistic TCO for vehicles of all size classes.

Global EV Outlook 2021 4/1/2021 Reports

International Energy Agency, Paris, France

There were 10 million electric vehicles (EVs) on the world’s roads at the end of 2020, following a decade of rapid growth. EV registrations increased by 41% in 2020, despite the pandemic-related worldwide downturn in car sales in which global car sales dropped 16%. The resilience of EV sales is the result of supportive regulatory frameworks, additional incentives, expanded EV models, and declining battery costs. Combining historical analysis with projections to 2030, this report examines key areas of interest such as EV and charging infrastructure deployment, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions, and battery demand. It also touches upon recent research and policy support.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Energy Agency's website.

Setting TNC Policies to Increase Sustainability Fuller, S.; Kunz, T.; Brown, A.; D'Agostino, M. 3/31/2021 Reports

University of California (UC), Davis: National Center for Sustainable Transportation

Cities and states across the United States are assessing fees or taxes on transportation network company platforms, such as Uber and Lyft. The goals of these policies include traffic and emissions mitigation, as well as revenue generation, among other objectives. This research aims to assess the goals and effectiveness of these fees in achieving some of these policy objectives, primarily congestion and emissions mitigation. This study compares 21 fees implemented by state and local governments across the United States and applies a methodology to compare these diverse fees and taxes based on a hypothetical ride informed by Uber’s fare calculator, as well as other sources.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the University of California, Davis website.

Clean Mobility Equity: A Playbook Lessons from California’s Clean Transportation Programs Creger, H.; Aguayo, L.; Partida-Lopez, R.; Sanchez, A. 3/25/2021 Reports

The Greenlining Institute, Oakland, California

Clean mobility programs can help fight climate change and clean the air, and improve mobility for residents of underserved communities, reduce traffic and dependence on cars, and be engines of economic empowerment that help reduce the racial wealth gap. This report reviews California’s clean mobility equity programs to better understand whether and how clean transportation programs truly address equity in a comprehensive and effective way. The report notes successes, pitfalls, and areas for improvement for clean mobility programs. It serves as both a guide for California as it continues evolving its clean mobility programs to more meaningfully center equity and as a guide for other states and the federal government as they move to develop and implement clean transportation equity programs.

Vehicle Fuel Economy and GHG Standards 3/22/2021 Reports

Congressional Research Service (CRS), Washington, District of Columbia

On January 20, 2021, President Biden issued Executive Order 13990, “Protecting Public Health and the Environment and Restoring Science to Tackle the Climate Crisis,” which directs federal agencies to review regulations and other agency actions from the Trump Administration, including the federal standards that regulate fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from new passenger cars and light trucks. These standards include the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards promulgated by the U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Light-Duty Vehicle GHG Emission Standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This document provides an overview of vehicle fuel economy and GHG standards.

Carbon Intensity of Corn Ethanol in the United States: State of the Science Scully, M.; Norris, G.; Falconi, T.; MacIntosh, D. 3/10/2021 Reports

Environmental Health & Engineering Inc., Newton, Massachusetts; Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

The carbon intensity of corn ethanol, the primary renewable fuel used in transportation, has been actively researched and quantified over the last three decades. Reliable estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol are important since these values help determine significant policy and market decisions on state, national, and international levels. This study reviews well-to-wheel GHG life cycle analyses for corn ethanol and evaluates models, input data, and results for farming, fuel production, co-product credit, land use change, transport of feedstock and fuel, tailpipe, and denaturant.

Livewire Data Platform A Catalog of Transportation and Mobility Data Lauren Spath Luhring 3/3/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet outlines the capabilities and core services of the Livewire Data Platform, a growing catalog of transportation and mobility-related data that empowers researchers and community planners to easily and securely share and preserve data that support projects and decision making.

Assessment of Prospective Mileage-Based Fee System to Replace Fuel Taxes for Passenger Vehicles in Pennsylvania Matthews, H. S.; Fischbeck, P. S.; Yuan, C.; Fan, Z.; Lyu, L.; Acharya, P. S. 3/1/2021 Reports

DOT Mobility21 National University Transportation Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Historically, transportation infrastructure in the United States has been funded through a per-gallon fuel tax levied at the state- and federal-levels. The federal fuel tax has remained constant over the last thirty years, even as road construction and maintenance costs have risen steeply in that time. This funding gap is widened by advances in hybrid and electric vehicle technology, which have significantly improved fleet fuel-economy and reduced revenue from fuel tax. To address this, an increasing number of jurisdictions are considering programs where vehicles are taxed per-mile traveled, rather than per-gallon of fuel consumed. These mileage-based user fees (MBUFs) could replace federal and state fuel taxes and reduce the deficit in transportation infrastructure funding. This report develops high-resolution estimates of annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT) per vehicle aggregated at the state, county, and zip code level. Based on these estimates of VMT and fuel economy, researchers estimate the annual cost to vehicle owners of the existing fuel tax, and compare this cost against the cost of MBUF’s, at various rates.

Case Study of the San Pedro Bay Ports’ Clean Air Action Plan 2006-2018: Best Practices and Lessons Learned 3/1/2021 Reports

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The development and implementation of the Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP) at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach is a groundbreaking and ongoing project with significant environmental benefits. The CAAP can serve as a map for other port authorities considering their own air quality actions and near-port communities interested in promoting clean air programs. Although every port’s situation is unique, the objective of this case study is to highlight key CAAP history, programs, and lessons learned to serve as a building block.

Lithium-Ion Battery Supply Chain for E-Drive Vehicles in the United States: 2010–2020 Yan Zhou, David Gohlke, Luke Rush, Jarod Kelly, and Qiang Dai 3/1/2021 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

Understanding the battery supply chain is particularly important for the strategic planning and development of a battery recycling infrastructure to secure critical materials supply and enable a circular economy. Building on detailed monthly sales data, this report summarizes the manufacturing and production locations of lithium-ion (Li-ion, or LIB) battery cells and packs by make and model for PEVs sold in the U.S. from 2010 to 2020. It also summarizes the annual and cumulative Li-ion battery capacity installed in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) sold in the U.S. Overall, there are about 20 different battery cell and pack manufacturers, which are currently supplying about 20 gigawatt-hours (GWh) of batteries annually for the U.S. PEV market.

Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2020 Eudy, L.; Post, M. 3/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This annual status report combines results from all FCEB demonstrations, tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The data from these early FCEB deployments funded by the U.S. Department of Transportation, state agencies, and the private sector help to guide future early-stage research and development. The 2020 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year from January 2020 through July 2020.

Fuel a Greener Future 3/1/2021 Reports

Natural Gas Vehicles for America, Washington, DC

This report outlines the importance of utilizing all available low-carbon heavy-duty transport options available today to dramatically lower overall transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions and shares important information about the availability, resiliency, and sustainability of domestically sourced renewable natural gas vehicle and fueling technology.

U.S. Airport Infrastructure and Sustainable Aviation Fuel Moriarty, K. and Kvien A. 2/26/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Worldwide, aviation accounts for 2% of all manmade carbon dioxide emissions and 12% of all transportation CO2 emissions In 2018, the U.S. accounted for 25% of the world jet fuel consumption and 21% of global enplanements. Airports and airlines are considering alternative fuel to meet environmental and sustainability goals and mandates. Sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), made from non-petroleum feedstocks, has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from air transportation. SAF must be blended with petroleum based jet fuel prior to its use in aircraft. This report explores background information on jet fuel use, quality standards and best practices, airport infrastructure, and options for delivering SAF to airports.

Essential Energy: 2021 Ethanol Industry Outlook 2/17/2021 Reports

Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, D.C.

RFA's Ethanol Industry Outlook is an annual publication for information on America's ethanol industry. It provides thoughtful analysis of current issues facing the industry, along with current facts and statistics about the production and use of fuel ethanol.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Renewable Fuels Association website.

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions of Ethanol with the GREET Model Wang, M., Lee, U., Kwon, H., Xu, H. 2/17/2021 Reports

Systems Assessment Center, Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This presentation is from the 2021 National Ethanol Conference on February 17, 2021, and it covers using the GREET model and reducing greenhouse gas emissions with vehicles that run on ethanol.

User Perceptions of the Risks of Electric, Shared, and Automated Vehicles Remain Largely Unexplored Kurani, K. 2/12/2021 Reports

UC Davis, National Center for Sustainable Transportation, Davis, California

Advocates of electric, shared, and automated vehicles (e-SAVs) envision a future in which people no longer need to drive their privately owned, petroleum-fueled vehicles. Instead, for daily travel they rely on fleets of electric, automated vehicles that offer travel services, including the option to share, or “pool,” rides with strangers. The design, deployment, and operation of e-SAVs will require widespread willingness of users to share with strangers vehicles that are capable of fully automated driving. To achieve the environmental and societal goals of e-SAVs it is critical to first understand and address safety and security concerns of potential and actual users. Researchers at the University of California, Davis, reviewed the literature to understand potential users’ perceptions of safety and security risks posed by intertwined social and technical systems of e-SAVs and proposed a framework to advance research, policy, and system design. This policy brief summarizes the findings of that work and provides policy implications.

Transportation Electrification in North Carolina Smith, C. 2/1/2021 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, DC

This brief provides an overview of the state of the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market and deployment in North Carolina while also highlighting travel patterns and transit agency statistics, along with snapshots of PEV policy and program examples from other states. Statewide transportation electrification roadmaps and funding available through the Volkswagen Settlement have generated momentum in North Carolina and can be harnessed to accelerate the PEV market across the state and position it as a regional and national leader.

Evaluation of Safety Standards for Fuel System and Fuel Container Integrity of Alternative Fuel Vehicles Lynch, L.; Browning, L.; Snelling, A. 2/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

In this report, NREL offers considerations to reflect minimum safety standards, current industry best practices and existing standards for light-, medium-, and heavy-duty CNG and propane vehicle fuel system container integrity, fuel container integrity, and fuel container fire tests. The considerations for fuel system and fuel container integrity requirements are justified by literature review, relevant research, and technical forum feedback. In addition, this report provides relevant research, where available, and identifies test procedures to evaluate compliance with the performance requirements.

EV Charging Needs Assessment: Identifying Needs and Opportunities for EV Fast Charging in Rural and Underserved Areas of the Intermountain West Powers, C. 2/1/2021 Reports

National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, Virginia; Utah Clean Cities, Salt Lake City, Utah

Corridors of the West (CORWest) is a three-year initiative to support plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure investment and educational opportunities in rural and underserved areas of the intermountain west. A key first step under the project is to understand barriers to PEV adoption and, more specifically, direct current (DC) fast charger station deployment in rural and underserved areas of the intermountain west, and identify potential pathways for addressing these barriers. To understand barriers to EV adoption and station deployment in rural and underserved areas, the CORWest project team developed a questionnaire that was disseminated to select stakeholder groups to gather feedback. This report provides a summary of trends and typical issues being faced in the region and offers recommendations for ways to address high-priority needs and support PEV deployment and DC fast charger investment.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 39 Davis, S.C.; Boundy, R.G. 2/1/2021 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 39 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (tedb.ornl.gov).

National Park Service Bus Electrification Study: 2020 Report Gilleran, M.; Kotz, A.; Eudy, L.; Kelly, K. 2/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes important considerations for implementing battery electric buses (BEBs) in the three national park fleets, detailing information about current buses at each fleet, electric bus demonstration vehicles, and performance evaluations of BEBs in Zion, Bryce, and Yosemite. Results include in-use data collection metrics such as average bus speed, energy usage per trip, and daily distance traveled. Also covered are effects of high heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system use to both heat and cool the buses, emissions estimations before and after use of electric buses, operating costs, electric vehicle infrastructure, maintenance, and bus driver user experience survey information.

When Might Lower-Income Drivers Benefit from EVs? Quantifying the Economic Equity Implications of EV Adoption Bauer, G.; Hsu, C.; Lutsey, N. 2/1/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), Washington, DC

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can dramatically reduce local air pollution and carbon emissions, but relatively little analysis has been done on the broader potential economic benefits as the technology matures and costs decline. As governments seek to integrate decarbonization policy with environmental justice goals, it will be critical to ensure equal access to clean technology. This report focuses on the potential benefits of equitable electrification and assesses when PEVs will become affordable more broadly across different households.

Fuel Properties Comparison Chart Putzig, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Moriarty, K.; Bennett, J.; Brown, A.; Rahill, M. 1/20/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This chart compares the physical fuel properties and considerations associated with gasoline/E10, low sulfur diesel, biodiesel, propane, compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity for use as vehicle fuels.

Local Climate Action Planning as a Tool to Harness the GHG Emissions Mitigation and Equity Potential of Autonomous Vehicles and On-Demand Mobility Alexander, S.; Agrawal, A.; Clark, B. 1/1/2021 Reports

Mineta Transportation Institute at San Jose State University, San Jose, California

This report identifies opportunities for how cities can use climate action plans (CAPs) to ensure that on-demand mobility and autonomous vehicles (AVs) help reduce, rather than increase, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, vehicle miles traveled, and inequitable impacts from the transportation system. The overarching question answered by this report is: how can local governments use CAPs to harness the GHG emissions reduction and mobility equity potential of on-demand mobility and AVs?

The 2020 EPA Automotive Trends Report: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Technology since 1975 1/1/2021 Reports

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

This annual report summarizes information about new light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel economy, technology data, and auto manufacturers' performance in meeting the agency’s GHG emissions standards. (EPA publication # EPA-420-R-21-003)

Electrification Futures Study: Scenarios of Power System Evolution and Infrastructure Development for the United States Murphy, C.; Mai, T.; Sun, Y.; Jadun, P.; Muratori, M.; Nelson, B.; Jones, R. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona; Evolved Energy Research, San Francisco, California

This report is the fifth publication in a series of Electrification Futures Study (EFS) publications. The report presents scenarios of the U.S. electricity and energy systems through 2050. The scenarios encompass a wide range of future conditions, including the different electrification levels that were developed for the <a href=" https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/electrification_futures_study.pdf">second EFS report</a>. The scenario results include projected changes to the physical infrastructure of the U.S. power system, the utilization of that infrastructure, and estimates of other impacts of electrification to the power system and broader energy system.

Model Year 2021: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel vehicles, as well as the all-electric range of plug-in electric vehicles.

The Shape of Electrified Transportation Muratori, M.; Mai, T. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

For more than a century, petroleum fuels have been relied upon to move people and goods within and between towns and cities, and on roads, railways, farms, waterways, and in the air. These fuels have provided reliable and convenient mobility options to power the modern global economy. However, these benefits have also created challenges associated with geopolitics, energy security, price volatility, and environmental impacts. Electric vehicles could dramatically disrupt the transportation energy demand landscape. Such a change comes with its own challenges and benefits. This report summarizes the trends driving vehicle electrification and explores the associated challenges and benefits.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Fleet Compliance Annual Report - Model Year 2019, Fiscal Year 2020 12/15/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2019/fiscal year 2020.

Developing Markets for Zero Emission Vehicles in Short Haul Goods Movement Giuliano, G., Dessouky, M., Dexter, S., Fang, J., Hu, S., Steimetz, S. 12/10/2020 Reports

University of California, Davis, California

This report examines the potential market share for zero emission heavy duty trucks (ZEHDTs) via simulation modeling, case studies, interviews, and a survey. It assesses the impacts of ZEHDTs on freight operations. Additionally, it compares the costs and benefits of using diesel, natural gas hybrid, and all-electric vehicles for 2020, 2025, and 2030. Lastly, this report presents recommendations for promoting and increasing the market share of ZEHDTs and hybrids.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through the University of California, Davis National Center for Sustainable Transportation website.

Accelerating Ride-Hailing Electrification: Challenges, Benefits, and Options for State Action Hunt, J.; McKearnan, S. 12/2/2020 Reports

Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management, Boston, Massachusetts

In the United States, use of ride-hailing services has grown at a steep rate over the last decade, and this trend is expected to continue. A rapid transition in ride-hailing fleets from internal combustion engine vehicles to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) would reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants, increase consumer exposure to PEVs, deliver maintenance and fuel cost savings to drivers, and improve the business case for fast charging infrastructure by increasing utilization. This paper identifies the benefits and challenges associated with transitioning vehicles driving on transportation network company platforms to PEVs and recommends specific actions states can take to support and accelerate the transition.

Assessing the Potential for Low-Carbon Fuel Standards as a Mode of EV Support Kelly, C.: Pavlenko, N. 12/1/2020 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Low-carbon fuel standards (LCFS), which regulate the carbon intensity of fuels supplied to transportation, can provide long-term, durable funding for plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure and PEV purchasing incentives as other policies such as rebates expire or are phased-down. This study assesses the role that a national LCFS program can play in accelerating the rate of light-duty passenger PEV and charging infrastructure deployment.

Making Sense of Heavy-Duty Hydrogen Fuel Cell Tractors 12/1/2020 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency, Washington, D.C.

Hydrogen fuel cells are proposed as a viable zero-emission alternative to today’s diesel engines. The technology is evolving rapidly for heavy-duty tractors hauling freight in dry van and refrigerated trailers. A handful of prototypes are in testing today in North America, while limited production units are entering commercial service in Europe. This report provides an unbiased view of the potential for hydrogen fuel cell tractors, identifying where and why they make sense in the mix of future zero-emission solutions.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through North American Council for Freight Efficiency’s website.

Florida Electric Vehicle Roadmap Smith Burk, K.; Groover Combs, A.; Kettles, D.; Reed, K. 12/1/2020 Reports

FDACS and Central Florida Clean Cities, Tallahassee, Florida; Central Florida Clean Cities Coalition, Cocoa, Florida

In May 2019, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Office of Energy began working on a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) roadmap for the state of Florida. This roadmap provides a comprehensive investigation into the status and needs of PEV charging infrastructure in Florida for the following three to four years. This roadmap identifies PEV charging infrastructure impacts on the electric grid, solutions for any negative impacts, areas that lack PEV charging infrastructure, best practices for siting PEV charging stations, and technical or regulatory barriers to expansion of PEV charging infrastructure. It also provides recommendations that address permitting, emergency evacuation needs, and education.

Joint Agency Staff Report on Assembly Bill 8: 2020 Annual Assessment of Time and Cost Needed to Attain 100 Hydrogen Refueling Stations in California Baronas, J.; Achtelik, G. 12/1/2020 Reports

California Energy Commission and California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California has nearly 8,500 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) on its roads, and projections show more than 48,000 FCEVs by 2026. This report contains time and cost assessments for the network of publicly available hydrogen refueling stations to support the FCEV market under the California Energy Commission’s Clean Transportation Program.

Affordability of Household Transportation Fuel Costs by Region and Socioeconomic Factors Zhou, Y.; Aeschliman, S.; Gohlke, D. 12/1/2020 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

Transportation energy is an important component of household budgets. Vehicle fuel is over 3% of total household expenditures nationwide in the United States. The average annual expenditure of over $2,000 for vehicle fuel (mostly gasoline) is comparable to the total average household expenditures for electricity and natural gas combined. However, these average values vary geographically, and lower income households can face higher energy cost burdens. This study reveals the variation of household energy burdens across the country and provides localized data to support local decision making.

Electrification Assessment of Public Vehicles in Washington Satterfield, C.; Nigro, N.; Wood, E.; Jensen, J.; Smith, C.; Desai, R.; Lepre, N.; Ge, Y. 11/30/2020 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, District of Columbia; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

Washington State is positioned to cost effectively electrify nearly all public vehicles by the year 2035. With near-term policy action and targeted investments in infrastructure, the state can accelerate ongoing efforts to advance electric vehicles (EVs) and solidify its leadership position in the EV market in the United States. This assessment evaluates the electrification potential for all publicly owned vehicles in the State of Washington. It provides Washington with comprehensive, vehicle-specific electrification cost estimates both today and in the future along with actionable information on how to efficiently move forward with fleet electrification.

Electrifying Freight: Pathways to Accelerating the Transition Buholtz, T.; Burger, A.; Gander, S.; Nelson, B.; Prochazka, B.; Swalnick, N 11/1/2020 Reports

Electrification Coalition, Washington, District of Columbia

The U.S. economy is heavily dependent on the functionality of our freight and goods transportation services. Road freight transportation in the United States is projected to grow steadily in the coming decades, and electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as a clean and cost-effective alternative. This report outlines the benefits of electric trucks, explains the major barriers impeding their production, sales, and deployment, and establishes the next steps that manufacturers, policymakers, fleet operators, and other stakeholders should take to facilitate and accelerate freight electrification.

Fleet-Wide Electrification Impacts Assessment for the Valley Transportation Authority Eichman, J.; Kotz, A.; Miller, E.; Kelly, K.; Ficenec, K. 11/1/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report explores the long-term electrification opportunities for the Valley Transit Authority’s (VTA) transit bus fleet. It also explores the potential for transit bus electrification at VTA as well as the economic impacts of partial and complete electrification. Further, the report includes the optimal charging, operation and lowest capital and operating cost solution to achieve different levels of electrification to meet VTA’s existing routes.

Summary Report on Electric Vehicles at Scale and the U.S. Electric Power System 11/1/2020 Reports

Department of Energy, D.C., United States

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can meet U.S. personal transportation needs using domestic energy resources while at the same time offering carbon emissions benefits. However, wide scale light-duty PEV adoption will necessitate assessment of and possibly modification to the U.S. electric power generation and distribution systems. This report gauges the sufficiency of both energy generation and generation capacity in the U.S. electric power system to accommodate the growing fleet of light duty PEVs.

Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) for Transportation: Frequently Asked Questions 11/1/2020 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory

Find answers to questions frequently asked about using renewable natural gas for transportation. This fact sheet covers the basics and benefits of RNG, including information about production and supply as well as economic incentives and costs.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2020 Bourbon, E. 10/15/2020 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2020 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2020 and October 15, 2020, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 4 cents from $2.22 to $2.18; diesel decreased 8 cents from $2.48 to $2.40; CNG increased 3 cents from $2.15 to $2.18; ethanol (E85) decreased 3 cents from $1.99 to $1.96; propane decreased 1 cent from $2.74 to $2.73; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 6 cents from $2.35 to $2.29.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is equal in price to gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.36 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Confidence Report: Low Rolling Resistance Tires 10/1/2020 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency, Washington, D.C.

This report provides fleet leadership with a comprehensive overview of the total cost of ownership for low rolling resistance tires for improved fuel efficiency. It covers the many factors which a fleet must weigh in its decision-making process for tire purchasing. It includes a decision tree that fleets can use as they asses their own duty cycles, business models, supplier relationships, and other considerations.

Notes: This report is copyrighted and can be accessed through North American Council for Freight Efficiency.

Alternative Fuels Data Center and Related Technology Integration Tools 9/28/2020 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) facilitates national coordination of the Clean Cities coalitions through its Technology Integration Program. VTO's Technology Integration Program supports a broad technology portfolio that can reduce transportation energy costs for businesses and consumers. Fleets, cities, and regions can use the tools featured in this guide to implement alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Also learn how Clean Cities coalitions and their stakeholders across the country have used the tools.

Expanding Equitable Access to EV Mobility: Examples of Innovative Policies and Programs 9/21/2020 Reports

This document describes examples of how state governments and their partners across the United States are working on improving equitable access to light-duty plug-in electric vehicle mobility in low- and moderate-income (LMI) communities. In addition, this document covers the importance of early engagement for assessing the mobility needs and gaps in LMI communities, identifying strategic approaches to expanding equitable mobility, and finding local leaders.

Idling Reduction Technology Solutions for Class 1–8 Vehicles Patricia Weikersheimer 9/1/2020 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory

Formerly called “Compendium of Idling Reduction Equipment for Class 1–8 Vehicles,” this simplified resource is organized by vehicle operators’ stationary-power needs: Idle management; Heat only; Cooling only; Heat, cooling, and power (auxiliary power unit); Power take-off; Cargo refrigeration; and Wayside power/truck stop electrification. For each solution, the table describes applicable vehicle types (light-, medium-, heavy-duty, and trailer), whether the solution is powered by fuel or battery/electricity, and the EPA SmartWay verification status (applicable to heavy-duty vehicles only). Each product includes a hyperlink to the manufacturer for more information.

Electric Vehicle Market Status - Update Lowell, D.; Huntington, A. 9/1/2020 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, Massachusetts

This paper summarizes the current status, and projected growth, of the U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) industry over the next five to ten years. Key topics addressed include drivers of U.S. and global PEV growth, original equipment manufacturer (OEM) investments in PEV development and in building a robust charging network for drivers, announced new PEV model introductions, projected PEV sales, projected battery pack costs, and projected date of PEV price parity with internal combustion engine vehicles. The data summarized here are based on formal statements and announcements by OEMs, as well as analysis by the automotive press and by financial and market analysis firms that regularly cover the auto industry.

Hydrogen Station Permitting Guidebook Brazil Vacin, G.; Eckerle, T.; Kashuba, M. 9/1/2020 Reports

California Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz), Sacramento, California

This guidebook is comprised of six parts and is intended to help station developers and local jurisdictions navigate and streamline the infrastructure development process. It reflects the latest best practices collected from stations developers and local jurisdictions with experience in the hydrogen stations development process.

2020 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2020 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations. This report provides ARB’s analysis of the current status and near-term projections of FCEV deployment and station network development and the actions necessary to maintain progress and enable continued future expansion.