Electric Vehicle (EV) and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Tax Credit
The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (Public Law 117-169) amended the Qualified Plug-in Electric Drive Motor Vehicle Credit (IRC 30D), now known as the Clean Vehicle Credit, and added a new requirement for final assembly in North America that took effect on August 17, 2022. Additional requirements apply for vehicles placed in service (delivered) on or after January 1, 2023, and the amount of the credit will depend on whether the vehicle meets new critical minerals and battery components requirements for vehicles placed in service after April 17, 2023. See the IRS Plug-In Electric Drive Vehicle Credit for more information. Taxpayers who purchase an eligible vehicle may qualify for a tax credit of up to $7,500. Additional details are provided below based on when the vehicle is purchased or placed-in-service.
In accordance with proposed IRS regulations, beginning January 1, 2024, buyers can reduce the clean vehicle’s upfront purchase price by the amount of their Clean Vehicle Credit by choosing to transfer their credit to the dealer. Before 2024, eligible clean vehicle buyers could only receive the amount of their credit after filing their tax return. Starting January 1, 2024, dealers must submit information to the IRS through IRS Energy Credits Online to determine vehicle eligibility and amount of a Clean Vehicle Credit at the point of sale. Without this submission, buyers can’t claim a tax credit on their return nor can they transfer it to a dealer. A dealer must provide the buyer a copy of the IRS’s approval of the dealer’s submission. For up-to-date information for dealers and consumers on the transfer of tax credits at the point-of-sale, refer to information on the IRS Clean Vehicle Tax Credit.
Vehicles Placed in Service on or After April 18, 2023
For vehicles delivered on or after April 18, 2023, limitations apply that went into effect January 1, 2023, related to the vehicle’s manufacturer’s suggested retail price (MSRP), the buyer’s modified adjusted gross income, and the vehicle’s battery capacity. A North American final assembly requirement applies for vehicles purchased on or after August 17, 2022. Additional critical mineral and battery component requirements also apply as of April 18, 2023, which alter how the tax credit is calculated and may alter the amount of the tax credit available. These latter requirements came into effect upon the publication of the Treasury Department’s guidance document regarding the critical mineral and battery component requirements. Vehicles that meet the critical mineral requirements are eligible for a $3,750 tax credit, and vehicles that meet the battery component requirements are eligible for a $3,750 tax credit. Vehicles meeting both the critical mineral and the battery component requirements are eligible for a total tax credit of $7,500.
Vans, sport utility vehicles, and pickup trucks must not have an MSRP above $80,000, and all other vehicles may not have an MSRP above $55,000. The MSRP can be found on the vehicle’s window sticker, which is also known as the “Monroney label”; the MSRP for this purpose includes any trim, options, or accessories for the particular vehicle and excludes the destination fee and dealer-provided options and accessories.
Additionally, a taxpayer’s eligibility for the tax credit may be limited by thresholds for modified adjusted gross income (modified AGI); only individuals having a modified AGI below the following thresholds for the current tax year or the prior tax year are eligible for the tax credit:
- $300,000 for joint filers
- $225,000 for head-of-household filers
- $150,000 for all other filers
To be eligible for the Clean Vehicle Credit, the battery powering the vehicle must have a capacity of at least seven kilowatt-hours (kWh). The amount of the credit depends on whether the vehicle meets certain critical minerals and battery component requirements.
Critical Minerals: To be eligible for the $3,750 critical minerals portion of the tax credit, the percentage of the value of the battery’s critical minerals that are extracted or processed in the United States or a U.S. free-trade agreement partner or recycled in North America, must meet or exceed the following thresholds:
|Year||Critical minerals minimum percent value requirement|
|2027 and later||80%|
Battery Components: To be eligible for the $3,750 battery components portion of the tax credit, the percentage of the value of the battery’s components that are manufactured or assembled in North America must meet or exceed the following thresholds:
|Year||Battery components minimum percent value requirement|
|2024 and 2025||60%|
|2029 and later||100%|
Further guidance on additional 30D requirements is forthcoming. For more information, including additional eligibility requirements, see the IRS Plug-In Electric Drive Vehicle Credit website.
Vehicles Sold on or After January 1 and Placed-in-Service Before April 18, 2023
Beginning January 1, 2023, the Clean Vehicle Credit (CVC) provisions removed the manufacturer sales caps for vehicles sold after January 1, 2023, expanded the scope of eligible vehicles to include both EVs and FCEVs, and required that the battery powering the vehicle has a capacity of at least seven kilowatt-hours (kWh). An available tax credit under the CVC may be limited by the vehicle’s manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP) and the buyer’s modified adjusted gross income (as addressed above). The North American final assembly requirement continues to apply.
For vehicles placed in service before April 18, 2023, the available CVC tax credit is a base amount of $2,500 plus, for a vehicle that draws propulsion energy from a battery with at least 7 kWh of capacity, $417, plus an additional $417 for each kilowatt hour of battery capacity in excess of 5 kWh. The total tax credit available for a vehicle may not exceed $7,500.
Vehicles Purchased Between August 17 and December 31, 2022
Qualifying EVs purchased and delivered between August 17, 2022, and December 31, 2022, are eligible for the tax incentive as described below for vehicles purchased before August 17, 2022, but are limited to vehicles with final assembly in North America. Manufacturer sales caps on vehicles apply. Note that for some manufacturers, the assembly location may vary because some models are produced in multiple locations. The assembly location of a particular vehicle should be confirmed by referring to its Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) using the U.S. Department of Transportation’s VIN decoder or an information label affixed to the vehicle.
Vehicles Purchased Before August 17, 2022
Qualifying EVs purchased before August 17, 2022, are eligible for a tax credit that is available for the purchase of a new qualified EV that draws propulsion from a battery that has at least five kilowatt-hours (kWh) of capacity, uses an external source of energy to recharge the battery, has a gross vehicle weight rating of up to 14,000 pounds, and meets specified emission standards. The minimum credit amount is $2,500, and the credit may be up to $7,500 based on each vehicle’s traction battery capacity. The credit will begin to be phased out for each manufacturer in the second quarter following the calendar quarter in which a minimum of 200,000 qualified PEVs have been sold by that manufacturer for use in the United States. This tax credit is also available for future EV owners with a written binding contract to purchase a new qualifying electric vehicle before August 16, 2022, but do not take possession of the vehicle until on or after August 16, 2022. For more information, including qualifying vehicles and sales by manufacturer, see the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Qualified Plug-in Electric Drive Motor Vehicle Credit website.
Point of Contact
U.S. Internal Revenue Service
Phone: (800) 829-1040
Agency: U.S. Internal Revenue Service
Enacted: Oct 3, 2008
Amended: Aug 16, 2022
Technologies: EVs, Hydrogen Fuel Cells, PHEVs
See all Federal Laws and Incentives.