Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Production Requirements

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) certifies new passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles as ZEVs if the vehicles produce zero exhaust emissions of any criteria pollutant (or precursor pollutant) under all possible operational modes and conditions. Manufacturers with annual sales between 4,501 and 60,000 vehicles may comply with the ZEV requirements through multiple alternative compliance options that include producing low emission vehicles and obtaining ZEV credits. Manufacturers with annual sales of 4,500 vehicles or less are not subject to this regulation.

CARB’s emissions control program for model year (MY) 2017 through 2025 combines the control of smog, soot, and greenhouse gases (GHGs) and requirements for ZEVs into a single package of standards called Advanced Clean Cars (ACC). In December 2012, CARB finalized new regulatory requirements that allow vehicle manufacturer compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) GHG requirements for MY 2017 through 2025 to serve as compliance with California’s adopted GHG emissions requirements for those same model years.

The accounting procedures for MY 2018 through 2025 are based on a credit system as shown in the table below. The minimum ZEV requirement for each manufacturer includes the percentage of passenger cars and light-duty trucks produced by the manufacturer and delivered for sale in California. The regulation also includes opportunities for compliance with transitional ZEVs, which must demonstrate certain exhaust emissions standards, evaporative emissions standards, on-board diagnostic requirements, and extended warranties.

MY ZEV Requirement
2021 12%
2022 14.5%
2023 17%
2024 19.5%
2025 and later 22%

In November 2022, CARB finalized another rule in addition to the ACC emissions control program for MY 2026 through 2035 called Advanced Clean Cars II (ACCII), requiring an increasing percentage of ZEVs in new vehicle sales beyond MY 2025. ZEV sales requirements under ACCII are shown in the table below.

MY ZEV Requirement
2026 35%
2027 43%
2028 51%
2029 59%
2030 68%
20231 76%
2032 82%
2033 88%
2034 94%
2035 and later 100%

For more information, see the CARB ZEV Program website.

(Reference California Code of Regulations Title 13, Section 1962 -1962.2 and 1962.4)

Jurisdiction: California

Type: Laws and Regulations

Amended: Nov 1, 2022

Technologies: EVs, Hydrogen Fuel Cells, PHEVs

See all California Laws and Incentives.