Recent State Updates
Listed below are new and recently updated state laws, incentives, and regulations related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles.
The Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality's (ADEQ) Level 2 EVSE Rebate program offers rebates to government, private, and non-profit entities for the construction and installation costs of Level 2 EVSE. Funding is available in the following amounts:
|Access||Applicant Type||Maximum Rebate (One EVSE Port)||Maximum Rebate (Two or More EVSE Ports)|
Rebates are awarded on a first-come, first served basis. The program is funded by Arkansas's portion of the Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust. For more information, including eligibility and how to apply, see the ADEQ's Volkswagen Settlement website. (Reference Arkansas Code 15-10-101 and 19-5-1273)
Eversource offers residential customers an incentive of up to $300 to enroll in a demand response managed charging program. For more information, see the Eversource ConnectedSolutions website.
State agencies may charge a use fee for EVSE operated on state-owned or -leased property. The fee may not exceed the combined costs of electricity used by the EVSE and EVSE maintenance. (Reference Senate Bill 21, 2021)
Ameren Illinois offers a TOU rate to residential customers that own or lease a PEV. For more information, see the Ameren Illinois EV Rate Residential Program website
A corporation or individual that resells electricity supplied by a public utility for use in electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) is not subject to regulation as a public utility. (Reference House Bill 2145, 2021)
SWEPCO offers residential customers a $250 rebate for the installation of an ENERGY STAR certified Level 2 EVSE. Additional terms and conditions apply. For more information, including how to apply and funding availability, see the SWEPCO Level 2 Home EV Charging Station Rebate Program website.
The Maine Clean Energy and Sustainability Accelerator (Accelerator) provides loans for qualified alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) projects, including the purchase of plug-in electric vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles, zero emission vehicles (ZEVs), and associated vehicle charging and fueling infrastructure. Recipients must direct 40% of funds towards low-income communities and communities of color.The Accelerator must also establish a financing program to provide low- and zero-interest loans to schools, municipalities, and non-profit organizations to purchase ZEVs and associated fueling infrastructure. The Accelerator must publish an annual report, including greenhouse gas emission reductions resulting from investments. (Reference Legislative Document 1659, 2021)
The Clean Fuels Incentive Program (CFIP), administered by the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA), provides grants to purchase new fleet AFVs. Grant award amounts vary and may cover up to 100% of the incremental AFV cost. Grants are available in the following amounts:
|AFV Technology||Vehicle Class||Maximum Grant Award per Vehicle|
|Electric Vehicles||Class 1-2||$5,000|
|Electric Vehicles||Class 3-8||$80,000|
|Natural Gas, Propane, Biodiesel, and Hydrogen Vehicles||Class 1-2||$7,500|
|Natural Gas, Propane, Biodiesel, and Hydrogen Vehicles||Class 3-8||$50,000|
Eligible fleet applicants include school districts, nonprofits, commercial entities, corporations, and local and municipal governments. AFVs purchased for individual or personal use are ineligible. Vehicles receiving funding from other state programs are ineligible. Grants will be awarded on a competitive basis, with equity and environmental justice considerations as part of the evaluation criteria. For more information, including additional eligibility criteria, see MEA’s CFIP Program website.
The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) offers grants of up to $125,000 for the planning and installation of solar arrays on existing public facilities and infrastructure. Eligible projects include solar canopies that support EVSE. For more information, see the MEA Public Facility Solar Grant Program website.
The Maryland Smart Energy Communities (MSEC) program, administered by the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA), offers local governments grants for transportation-related projects, including the purchase of new plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) or alternative fuel vehicles and the installation of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). Grants are available in the following amounts:
|Project Type||Maximum Grant Award|
|Purchase of a New PEV with an All-Electric Range of up to 199 Miles||$3,750 per vehicle|
|Purchase of a New PEV with an All-Electric Range of Over 200 Miles||$7,500 per vehicle|
|EVSE Equipment and Installation||$6,000 per EVSE|
Communities already participating in the MSEC program may receive a maximum award of $55,000 per project and new communities may receive up to $75,000. Additional requirements may apply. For more information, including requirements and application deadline, see the MEA MSEC website.
BWL offers a $500 rebate for the installation of a Level 2 EVSE to residential customers who purchase or lease a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). For more information, including eligibility requirements, see the BWL PEVs website.
BWL offers a TOU rate to residential customers who own or lease a PEV. Customers must be able to separately meter PEV charging. For more information, including eligibility requirements, see the BWL PEVs website.
Runestone Electric Association offers a TOU rate to residential customers that own a PEV. Customers must separately meter electricity used for PEV charging. For more information, including eligibility requirements, see the Runestone Electric Association Electric Vehicle website.
Minnesota has adopted the California motor vehicle emissions standards and compliance requirements specified in Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations. Beginning January 1, 2024, these regulations apply to all passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty vehicles. Manufacturers must meet the greenhouse gas emissions standard and the ZEV production and sales requirements. For more information, see the Clean Cars Minnesota website. (Reference Revisor ID R-4626 and Minnesota Administrative Rules Chapter 7023)
New Hampshire must receive legislative and executive council approval to participate in any state, regional, or national low carbon fuel standards (LCFS) program or similar program that requires quotas, caps, or mandates on any transportation, industrial, or home heating fuels. The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services may participate in regional or national LCFS discussions and report all expenses incurred as a result of those discussions. (Reference New Hampshire Revised Statutes 21-O:23).
The New Jersey Board of Public Utilities offers local and state government entities grants of up to $4,000 for the purchase of a new or used PEV and up to $1,500 for the purchase of EVSE. Grants are awarded on a first-come, first-served basis, with award amounts limited based on government entity type and population size. For more information, including eligibility requirements and how to apply, see the Clean Fleet Electric Vehicle Incentive Program website.
Any individual, business, or public entity completing infrastructure improvement projects or redeveloping residential, commercial, industrial, public, or other structures is encouraged to include ZEV fuel and charging infrastructure in redevelopment plans. ZEVs must meet emissions and compliance requirements specified in Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations for the applicable model year, including but not limited to, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Infrastructure projects are encouraged to:
(Reference Assembly Bill 1653, 2021)
As a condition of preliminary site plan approval, new non-residential developments with parking lots and garages must meet the following make-ready requirements:
|Number of Off-Street Parking Spaces||Minimum Number of Make-Ready Parking Spaces|
|50 or fewer||1|
|51 to 75||2|
|76 to 100||3|
|101 to 150||4|
|Over 150||4% of parking spaces; 5% of the make-ready spaces must be disability-accessible|
Parking lots and garages may install make-ready parking spaces and EVSE at a faster rate than required. Retailers that provide 25 or fewer off-street parking spaces are not required to provide or install any EVSE or make-ready parking spaces.
Parking lots and garages may install EVSE in lieu of make-ready spaces to satisfy these requirements. Standards must be developed that provide for the progression of accessible make-ready parking spaces to accessible EVSE parking spaces and conform to the requirements of the most recent International Building Code and International Residential Code published by the International Code Council except as the Commissioner of Community Affairs (Commissioner) deems appropriate to deviate from those codes.
The Commissioner must publish a model land use ordinance to address installation, sightline, setback requirements, and other health- and safety-related specifications for EVSE and make-ready parking spaces and post the model land use ordinance on the department's website. The model land use ordinance applies to all municipalities in New Jersey, but municipalities may adopt reasonable standards to address installation, sightline, and setback requirements or other health- and safety-related specifications for EVSE and make-ready parking spaces. Municipalities may not require more make-ready parking spaces than the land use ordinance published by the Commissioner.
(Reference Senate Bill 3223, 2021)
New MUD developments with five or more units must designate 15% of required off-street parking as plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) make-ready parking spaces. Prior to occupancy, EVSE must be installed in 5% of off-street parking. MUDs must then install EVSE in an additional 5% of parking spaces with 3 years of occupancy and another 5% within 6 years of occupancy. MUDs may install make-ready parking spaces and EVSE at a faster rate than required. Throughout the installation of EVSE in make-ready parking spaces at MUDs, at least 5% of EVSE must be accessible for people with disabilities.
The Site Improvement Advisory Board must submit a recommendation to the Commissioner of Community Affairs to amend the statewide site improvement standards for MUDs to include requirements for parking spaces with EVSE in the calculation of minimum required parking spaces. Requirements must include the following:
- A parking space with EVSE or make-ready equipment may count as two parking spaces for the purpose of complying with a minimum parking space requirement but may not reduce total required parking by more than 10 percent.
- All parking space calculations for EVSE and make-ready equipment pursuant to this section shall be rounded up to the next full parking space.
PEV make-ready parking spaces at existing service stations, existing retail establishments, or any other existing building may be approved through the issuance of a municipal zoning permit by meeting the following requirements:
- The proposed installation does not violate bulk requirements applicable to the property;
- All other conditions of prior approvals continue to be met; and
- The proposed installation complies with the construction codes adopted in, or promulgated pursuant to, the State Uniform Construction Code, safety standards concerning the installation, and state rules or regulations concerning electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE).
(Reference Senate Bill 3223, 2021)
The North Carolina Department of Environment Quality (DEQ) provides grants to repower, replace, and convert eligible on and off road vehicles and equipment to alternative fuels and fuel efficient technology. Equipment must be U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or California Air Resources Board verified. For more information, including a list of eligible technologies, see the DEQ Diesel Emission Reductions Grants website.
Duke Energy offers school districts a rebate for the purchase of electric school buses and to host utility-owned charging infrastructure. For more information, including eligibility requirements, see the Duke Energy Park and Plug website.
Energy United offers residential customers a $500 rebate for the installation of a Level 2 EVSE. For more information, including how to apply, see the Energy United Appliance Rebate website.
SYEMC offers residential members a rebate of $500 to purchase a PEV. For more information, see the SYEMC Member Rebates website.
Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) may not require or coerce dealerships to purchase or lease EVSE unless the dealership is selling that OEM’s electric vehicles. Dealerships are not required to offer public charging or purchase more EVSE than reasonably necessary. (Reference House Bill 403, 2021)
EVSE with a charging capacity of less than 50 kilowatts are exempt from the $0.03 per kilowatt-hour tax on electricity used to recharge electric vehicles. (Reference Senate Bill 600, 2021)
Public EVSE are subject to a tax of $0.03 per kilowatt-hour. The EVSE charging tax will go into effect on January 1, 2024. The tax does not apply to EVSE at private residences. Tax revenue will be apportioned to the Driving on Road Infrastructure with Vehicles of Electricity (DRIVE) Revolving Fund. Oklahoma residents may apply EVSE tax payments as income tax credits that may be carried forward for up to five years. (Reference House Bill 2234, 2021, and Oklahoma Statutes 68-6501 through 68-6510)
PEV owners must pay an annual registration fee in addition to standard vehicle registration fees. Fee amounts vary depending on the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of the vehicle:
|GVWR||Annual Registration Fee|
|6,000 pounds (lbs.) or below||$110|
|6,001 lbs. to 10,000 lbs.||$158|
|10,001 lbs. to 26,500 lbs.||$363|
|Greater than 26,501 lbs.||$2,250|
The Hydrogen Production, Transportation, and Infrastructure Task Force (Task Force) must evaluate incentives to develop hydrogen technology and infrastructure and the viability of existing hydrogen resources and infrastructure. The Task Force must submit a report of its findings and recommendations to the legislature by December 1, 2021. (Reference Senate Bill 1021, 2021)
By July 1, 2022, the Oregon Department of Consumer and Business Services, Building Code Division, must amend the state building code to require that 20% of parking spaces at all newly constructed commercial buildings, multifamily residences with 5 or more units, and mixed-use developments have the electrical capacity to support Level 2 EVSE. New residential construction must be able to support the installation of one Level 2 EVSE. (Reference House Bill 2180, 2021, and Executive Order 17-21, 2017)
EWEB offers rebates for residential and commercial customers to install EVSE. Residential customers may a rebate of up to $500 for one Level 2 EVSE.
Commercial customers may receive rebates up to 50% of equipment and installation costs for publicly available Level 2 EVSE and direct current fast (DC Fast) EVSE. Maximum rebate awards are $1,500 for Level 2 EVSE and $15,000 for DC Fast EVSE.
A public electric utility may seek cost recovery from retail electricity consumers for transportation electrification infrastructure. (Reference Senate Bill 3055, 2021)
A public natural gas utility may seek cost recovery from retail natural gas customers for infrastructure investments that supports alternative fuel vehicles powered by renewable natural gas or hydrogen. (Reference Senate Bill 3055, 2021)
The Oregon State Parks and Recreation Department allows the installation and use of state-owned public EVSE at parking spaces on state park property. EVSE installations may be paid for through the Parks and Recreation Transportation Electrification Fund. (Reference House Bill 2290, 2021)
A corporation, company, partnership, individual or association of individuals that supplies electricity for use in motor vehicles is not defined as a public utility. (Reference Oregon Revised Statues 757.005)
The Rhode Island Department of Transportation, along with the Division of Motor Vehicles and the Office of Energy Resources, must develop a statewide EVSE plan by January 1, 2022. (Reference Senate Bill 0994, 2021)
Santee Cooper offers residential customers a rebate of up to $500 for the purchase of a qualified Level 2 EVSE. For more information, see the Santee Cooper Electric Vehicles website.
Electric vehicle charging service providers are not regulated as a public utility in areas of customer choice, where utility customers have the option to choose an alternate electricity supplier. The Texas Public Utilities Commission is authorized to exempt electric vehicle supply equipment from being regulated as a public utility. (Reference Senate Bill 1202, 2021 Texas Utilities Code 39.105)
The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) administers the Governmental Alternative Fuel Fleet Grant Program (GAFF) as part of the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) for the purchase or lease of new light-duty vehicles powered by natural gas, propane, hydrogen, or electricity. Grants are available in the following amounts:
|Vehicle Class||Grant Amount|
Up to 10% of awarded funds may be granted for the purchase, lease, or installation of refueling infrastructure or equipment, or refueling services in conjunction with an eligible vehicle purchase or lease. Special districts and government entities that operate a fleet greater than 15 vehicles are eligible. For more information, see the TCEQ GAFF website. (Reference Texas Statutes, Water Code 5.124 and 5.229, and Texas Statutes 386.153)
The Vermont Agency of Transportation provides financial incentives to low- and moderate-income residents for the purchase or lease of a new PEV with a base manufacturer’s suggested retail price of $40,000 or less, on a first-come, first-served basis. Incentives are offered in the following amounts:
Tax Filing Status
Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) Limits for Enhanced and Standard Incentives
State Incentive Amount
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Individual filing as single or head of household; or Married filing separately
$50,000 or less
$50,001 up to $100,000
Married filing jointly; or Individual filing as qualifying widower
$75,000 or less
$75,001 up to $125,000
Incentives are limited to one per individual or married couple. Additional terms and conditions apply. For more information, including application and eligibility requirements, visit the Drive Electric Vermont website.
GMP offers business customers a $750 incentive for the purchase of a Level 2 EVSE. For more information about these incentives, see the GMP Electric Vehicles website.
VPPSA offers member customers a $500 rebate for the purchase of a Level 2 EVSE. To qualify, the EVSE must be installed for workplace or public use. For more information about these incentives, see the VPPSA Electric Vehicle Charging Station website.
The Vermont Agency of Transportation, in consultation with other state agencies, will administer the Replace Your Ride Program (Program) to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and benefit low-income residents. The Program will provide up to $3,000 to qualified individuals, determined by income limits, for the retirement and replacement of internal combustion engine vehicles. Incentives will be offered on a first-come, first-served basis and limited to one per individual. For more information, see the Replace Your Ride - Network Action Team website. (Reference House Bill 433, 2021)
The Vermont Agency of Transportation must establish and administer, through a memorandum of understanding with the Department of Housing and Community Development (DHCD), a pilot program to support the installation of EVSE at MUDs and affordable housing units. The DHCD must consult with other state agencies regarding the design, award of funding, and administration of this pilot program. The DHCD must submit a written report on the outcomes of the pilot program to the legislature by January 15, 2022. Additional terms and conditions apply. (Reference House Bill 433, 2021)
To the extent possible, Vermont must adopt the goal to have at least one direct current (DC) fast EVSE charging port available to the public within five miles of every interstate exit within the state; and 50 miles of another DC fast EVSE charging port available to the public along a state highway. The Vermont Agency of Transportation must submit an updated Vermont map showing the locations of all public DC fast EVSE to the legislature by January 15 each year until this goal is met. Additional terms and conditions apply. (Reference House Bill 433, 2021)
Utility companies must offer PEV rates for public and private electric vehicle supply equipment by June 30, 2024. The PEV rates must be approved by the Public Utility Commission (PUC). The PUC must submit a written report to the legislature on the progress towards this goal by January 15 of each year through 2025. (Reference House Bill 433, 2021)
A PEV is defined as a vehicle that can be powered by an electric motor that draws electricity from a battery and is capable of being charged from an external source. A PEV includes both a vehicle that can only be powered by an electric motor that draws electricity from a battery (all-electric vehicle) and a vehicle that can be powered by an electric motor that draws electricity from a battery and by an internal combustion engine (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle). (Reference House Bill 433, 2021)
The Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans), in consultation with public transit providers, must prepare a long-range plan that outlines the costs, timeline, training, maintenance, and operational actions required to move to a fully electrified public transportation fleet. VTrans must file the long-range plan with the legislature by January 31, 2022. (Reference House Bill 433, 2021)
TPU offers residential customers a $600 rebate, in the form of bill credit, for the installation of a Level 2 EVSE, a smart splitter, or a 240-volt outlet. For more information, see the TPU EV Charging website.
TPU offers rebates for the installation of Level 2 EVSE at multifamily dwellings and businesses located in the City of Tacoma. Rebate amounts for the first two EVSE ports are available in the following amounts:
|Applicant Type||Standard Rebate Amount||Rebate for Historically Underinvested Communities|
|Business||60% of project costs, up to $12,000||80% of project costs, up to $16,000|
|Multifamily Dwelling||80% of project costs, up to $16,000||100% of project costs, up to $20,000|
Appalachian Power offers residential customers a rebate of up to $250 for the installation of an ENERGY STAR certified Level 2 EVSE. For more information, see the Appalachian Power Charge Forward website.