Biodiesel Laws and Incentives in Washington

The list below contains summaries of all Washington laws and incentives related to biodiesel.

Laws and Regulations

Alternative Fuel Use Requirement

All state agencies must, to the extent practicable, use 100% biofuels or electricity to operate all publicly owned vehicles. Agencies must prioritize all-electric vehicles (EVs) when leasing or purchasing new vehicles, and all trips that may feasibly use EVs must employ them. For vehicle classes without EV model options, agencies must prioritize the most cost-efficient, low-emission vehicle option available. Agencies may substitute natural gas or propane for electricity or biofuel if the Washington State Department of Commerce (Department) determines that electricity and biofuel are not reasonably available. Practicability and measures of compliance are defined in rules adopted by the Department. The governor has established a cross-agency Governing Council, which must adopt and implement standards, measures, targets, and tools to support agencies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and prioritizing EV adoption.

In addition, all local government agencies must, to the extent practicable, use 100% biofuels or electricity to operate all publicly owned vehicles. Transit agencies using compressed natural gas and engine retrofits that would void vehicle warranties are exempt from this requirement. To allow the motor vehicle fuel needs of state and local government to be satisfied by Washington-produced biofuels, the Washington Department of Enterprise Services and local governments may contract in advance and execute contracts with public or private producers and suppliers for the purchase of appropriate biofuels. Agencies may substitute natural gas or propane in vehicles if the Department determines that biofuels and electricity are not reasonably available. Practicability and measures of compliance are defined in rules adopted by the Department.

(Reference Executive Order 18-01, 2018, Washington Administrative Code 194-28 and 194-29, and Revised Code of Washington 43.19.647 and 43.19.648)

Biodiesel Definition

Biodiesel fuel is defined as a mono alkyl ester of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats for use in compression-ignition engines and meets the requirements of the ASTM specification D6751. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 19.112.010 and 43.19.643)

Biodiesel Storage Regulations

Underground storage tank (UST) regulations apply to all biodiesel blends with the exception of 100% biodiesel (B100). If a UST owner increases the percentage of biofuel in a petroleum UST, they must prove that all UST materials are compatible with that product. UST owners must submit an Alternative Fuel Installation or Conversion Checklist when the percentage of ethanol in gasoline is greater than 10% or the biodiesel percentage in diesel is greater than 20%. For more information, see the Department's Biodiesel in Underground Storage Tanks fact sheet. (Reference Washington Administrative Code 173-360)

Point of Contact
Annette Ademasu
Underground Storage Tank Inspector
Washington Department of Ecology
Phone: (425) 649-7189
annette.ademasu@ecy.wa.gov

Biodiesel Use Requirement

At least 20% of all diesel fuel used to fuel state agency vehicles, vessels, and construction equipment must be biodiesel. The Washington Department of Enterprise Services (WDES) must assist state agencies by coordinating the purchase and delivery of biodiesel if requested, using long-term contracts if necessary, to secure a sufficient and stable supply of biodiesel. For state agencies complying with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) mandate, at least 2% biodiesel (B2) must be used as an additive to ULSD for lubricity, provided that the use of a lubricity additive is appropriate and that performance and cost are comparable with other available lubricity additives. All agencies using biodiesel must submit annual consumption reports to WDES. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 43.19.642 and 43.19.646)

Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement

Pumps dispensing ethanol or biodiesel blends must have a label that specifies the percentage of ethanol or biodiesel present in the fuel. Ethanol pumps distributing between 1% and 10% must include a label stating that the fuel "contains up to 10% ethanol" and those distributing blends greater than 10% must be labeled with the capital letter E, followed by the numerical value volume of ethanol and the word "ethanol." Pumps dispensing biodiesel blends of 5% (B5) or less must include a label stating that the fuel "may contain up to five percent biodiesel" and those distributing blends greater than 5% must be labeled with the capital letter B, followed by the numerical value volume of biodiesel and the words "biodiesel" or "biodiesel blend." (Reference Revised Code of Washington 19.112.020, and Washington Administrative Code 16-662-115)

Biofuel Quality Program

The Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) Biofuels Quality Program tests and assesses biofuel quality and quantity to resolve any quality issues before the product reaches the consumer. WSDA samples biofuel throughout the state, monitors and tracks the quality of biofuel, and works with producers and manufacturers to help supply the highest biofuel quality fuel available to consumers. The goal of the program is to create equity in the biofuel marketplace for refiners, suppliers, distributors, and retailers, and protect consumers. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 19.112.005 to 119.112.080)

Biofuels Production and Distribution Contracts

Conservation districts, public development authorities, municipal utilities, and public utility districts may enter into crop purchase contracts to produce, sell, and distribute biodiesel produced from Washington feedstocks, cellulosic ethanol, and cellulosic ethanol blended fuels for utility and public use. Additionally, municipal utilities and public utility districts may produce and distribute biodiesel, ethanol, and ethanol blended fuels. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 35.21.465, 35.92.440, 54.04.190, and 89.08.570)

Renewable Fuel Standard

At least 2% of all diesel fuel sold in Washington must be biodiesel or renewable diesel. This requirement will increase to 5% 180 days after the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) determines that in-state feedstocks and oil-seed crushing capacity can meet a 3% requirement. Renewable diesel is defined as a diesel fuel substitute produced from non-petroleum renewable sources, including vegetable oils and animal fats, meets the federal registration requirements for fuels and fuel additives and ASTM specification D975.

At least 2% of the total gasoline sold in the state must be denatured ethanol. The ethanol requirement increase if the Washington Department of Ecology determines that this increase will not jeopardize continued attainment of federal Clean Air Act standards, and WSDA determines that the state can economically support the production of higher ethanol blends.

All state agencies with jurisdiction over renewable fuel infrastructure, specifically storage, blending, and dispensing equipment, are required to expedite related application and permitting processes. The governor may suspend these requirements by Executive Order if the standard is temporarily technically or economically infeasible, or poses a significant risk to public safety.

(Reference Revised Code of Washington 19.112.010 and 19.112.110 through 19.112.180)

State Emissions Reductions Requirements

Washington state must limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to achieve the following reductions:

  • By 2020, reduce overall GHG emissions in the state to 1990 levels;
  • By 2035, reduce overall GHG emissions in the state to 25% below 1990 levels; and
  • By 2050, reduce overall emissions to 50% below 1990 levels or 70% below the state's expected emissions that year.
Every other year, the Washington Departments of Ecology and Commerce must report to the governor and legislature on the total GHG emissions in the state for the previous two years. To reach these goals, the state will ensure that vehicles sold in the state meet stringent emissions standards; work with farmers, entrepreneurs, fuel distributors, and retailers to ensure that biofuel feedstocks are grown in Washington; ensure that refiners, blenders, and distributors of biofuels create jobs in the state; and strive to make it possible for the public to purchase fuel blends that reduce dependence on imported oil. For more information, see the Washington Department of Ecology's State Agency Climate Leadership website.

(Reference Revised Code of Washington 70.235.020 and Executive Order 07-02, 2007)

State Incentives

Biodiesel Feedstock Tax Exemption

Waste vegetable oil, specifically cooking oil gathered from restaurants or commercial food processors, used by an individual to produce biodiesel for personal use is exempt from state sales and use taxes. The purchaser must provide the seller with an exemption certificate from the Washington Department of Revenue. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 82.08.0205 and 82.12.0205)

More Laws and Incentives

To find laws and incentives for other alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, search all laws and incentives.