Fuel Properties Comparison

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Gasoline/E10 Low Sulfur Diesel Electricity Biodiesel Ethanol/E100 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Propane (LPG) Hydrogen Methanol
Chemical Structure [1] C4 to C12 and Ethanol ≤ to 10% C8 to C25 N/A Methyl esters of C12 to C22 fatty acids CH3CH2OH CH4 (majority), C2H6 and inert gases CH4 same as CNG with inert gasses <0.5% (a) C3H8 (majority) and C4H10 (minority) H2 CH3OH
Fuel Material (feedstocks) Crude Oil Crude Oil Natural gas, coal, nuclear, wind, hydro, solar, and small percentages of geothermal and biomass Fats and oils from sources such as soybeans, waste cooking oil, animal fats, and rapeseed Corn, grains, or agricultural waste (cellulose) Underground reserves and renewable biogas Underground reserves and renewable biogas A by-product of petroleum refining or natural gas processing Natural gas, methanol, and electrolysis of water Natural gas, coal, or woody biomass
Gasoline or Diesel Gallon Equivalent (GGE or DGE) 1 gal = 1.00 GGE
1 gal = 0.88 DGE
1 gal = 1.12 GGE
1 gal = 1.00 DGE
1 kWh = 0.030 GGE
1 kWh = 0.027 DGE
B100
1 gal = 1.05 GGE
1 gal = 0.93 DGE

B20
1 gal = 1.11 GGE
1 gal = 0.99 DGE
1 gal = 0.67 GGE
1 gal = 0.59 DGE
1 lb. = 0.18 GGE
1 lb. = 0.16 DGE
1 lb. = 0.19 GGE
1 lb. = 0.17 DGE
1 gal = 0.74 GGE
1 gal = 0.66 DGE
1 lb. = 0.45 GGE
1 lb. = 0.40 DGE

1 kg = 1 GGE
1 kg = 0.9 DGE
1 gal = 0.50 GGE
1 gal = 0.45 DGE
Energy Comparison [2] 1 gallon of gasoline has 97%–100% of the energy in 1 GGE. Standard fuel is 90% gasoline, 10% ethanol. 1 gallon of diesel has 113% of the energy in 1 GGE due to the higher energy density of diesel fuel. A typical battery that is the same size as a gallon of gas (0.134 ft3), when used for transportation, can store 15.3% of the energy in 1 GGE. [6][7] 1 gallon of B100 has 93% of the energy in 1 DGE, and 1 gallon of B20 has 99% of the energy in 1 DGE due to a lower energy density in biodiesel. 1 gallon of E85 contains 73%–83% of the energy in 1 GGE. 1 gallon of E100 has 67% of the energy in 1 GGE. Ethanol is blended with blendstock for oxygenate blending (gasoline component). [5] 5.66 lb., or 123.57 ft3, of CNG has the same energy as 1 GGE, and 6.37 lb., or 139.30 ft3, of CNG has the same energy as 1 DGE. [3][4](b) 5.37 lb. of LNG has the same energy as 1 GGE, and 6.06 lb. of LNG has the same energy as 1 DGE. (a) 1 gallon of propane has 73% of the energy in 1 GGE due to the lower energy density of propane. 2.2 lbs. (1 kg) of H2 has the same energy as 1 GGE. 1 gallon of methanol contains 50% of the energy as 1 GGE.
Energy Content (lower heating value) 112,114–116,090 Btu/gal (c) 128,488 Btu/gal (c) 3,414 Btu/kWh B100
119,550 Btu/gal

B20
126,700 Btu/gal (c)
76,330 Btu/gal for E100 (c) 20,160 Btu/lb [3](b) 21,240 Btu/lb (a) 84,250 Btu/gal (c) 51,585 Btu/lb (c)

33.3 kWh/kg
57,250 Btu/gal (c)
Energy Content (higher heating value) 120,388–124,340 Btu/gal (c) 138,490 Btu/gal (c) 3,414 Btu/kWh 127,960 Btu/gal for B100 (c) 84,530 Btu/gal for E100 (c) 22,453 Btu/lb [1](c) 23,726 Btu/lb (c) 91,420 Btu/gal (c) 61,013 Btu/lb (c) 65,200 Btu/gal (c)
Physical State Liquid Liquid Electricity Liquid Liquid Compressed gas (lighter than air) Cryogenic liquid (lighter than air as a gas) Pressurized liquid (heavier than air as a gas) Compressed gas (lighter than air) or liquid Liquid
Cetane Number N/A 40–55 (d) N/A 48–65 (d) 0–54 (e) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Pump Octane Number 84–93 (f) N/A N/A N/A 110 (i) 120+ (h) 120+ (h) 105 (g) 130+ (g) 112 (i)
Flash Point -45°F (j) 165°F (j) N/A 212° to 338°F (d) 55°F (j) -300°F (j) -306°F (k) -100° to -150°F (j) N/A 52°F (j)
Autoignition Temperature 495°F (j) ~600°F (j) N/A ~300°F (d) 793°F (j) 1,004°F (j) 1,004°F (k) 850° to 950°F (j) 1,050° to 1,080°F (j) 897°F (j)
Maintenance Issues Lubricity is improved over that of conventional low sulfur diesel fuel. For more maintenance information, see the Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines—Fifth Edition. (d) Special lubricants may be required. Practices are very similar, if not identical, to those for conventionally fueled operations. High-pressure tanks require periodic inspection and certification. LNG is stored in cryogenic tanks with a specific hold time before the pressure build is relieved. The vehicle should be operated on a schedule to maintain a lower pressure in the tank. When hydrogen is used in fuel cell applications, maintenance should be very minimal. High-pressure tanks require periodic inspection and certification. Special lubricants must be used as directed by the supplier as well as M85-compatible replacement parts. Can cause serious damage to organs in the body if a person swallows it, breathes it in, or gets it on their skin.
Energy Security Impacts Manufactured using oil. Transportation accounts for approximately 30% of total U.S. energy needs and 70% of petroleum consumption. (l) Manufactured using oil. Transportation accounts for approximately 30% of total U.S. energy needs and 70% of petroleum consumption. (l) Electricity is produced domestically from a wide range of sources, including through coal-fired power plants and renewable sources, making it a versatile fuel. Biodiesel is domestically produced, renewable, and reduces petroleum use 95% throughout its lifecycle. (m) Ethanol is produced domestically. E85 reduces lifecycle petroleum use by 70%, and E10 reduces petroleum use by 6.3%. (n) CNG is domestically produced from natural gas and renewable biogas. The United States has vast natural gas reserves. LNG is domestically produced from natural gas and renewable biogas. The United States has vast natural gas reserves. Approximately half of U.S. LPG is derived from oil, but no oil is imported specifically for LPG production. Hydrogen is produced domestically and can be produced from renewable sources. Methanol is domestically produced, sometimes from renewable resources.