Washington Laws and Incentives
Listed below are the summaries of all current Washington laws, incentives, regulations, funding opportunities, and other initiatives related to alternative fuels and vehicles, advanced technologies, or air quality. You can go directly to summaries of:
Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Grant Program
The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) offers competitive grants to strengthen and expand the West Coast Electric Highway network by deploying electric vehicle supply equipment with Level 2 and direct current (DC) fast chargers and hydrogen fueling infrastructure along highway corridors in Washington. Eligible project costs include siting, equipment purchases, electrical upgrades, installation, operations, and maintenance. For more information, including funding availability and application periods, see the WSDOT Innovative Partnerships - Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure website. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 47.04.350)
Electric Vehicle and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Infrastructure and Battery Tax Credit
Public lands used for installing, maintaining, and operating EVSE are exempt from leasehold excise taxes. Additionally, the state sales and use taxes do not apply to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) and FCEV batteries or fuel cells; labor and services for installing, repairing, altering, or improving PEV and FCEV batteries or fuel cells and PEV and FCEV infrastructure; the sale of property used for PEV and hydrogen fueling infrastructure, and the sale of zero emission buses. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 82.29A.125, 82.08.816, and 82.12.816)
Utility Electrification Plans and Return on Investment Authorization
Utilities are authorized to submit transportation electrification plans that deploy electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) or programs and incentives that support transportation electrification. Additionally, utilities petition the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (UTC) for a rate of return on EVSE installed for the benefit of ratepayers through December 31, 2030. The UTC may approve an additional 2% to the standard rate of return if the utility installs EVSE on a fully regulated basis similar to other capital investments behind a customer's meter, and the expenditures do not increase ratepayer costs more than 0.25%. EVSE are subject to a depreciation schedule and may be gifted to the customer when fully depreciated. The UTC issued a report on the use and impacts of the incentive in 2017. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 80.28.360 and 80.28.365)
Green Transportation Grant Program
The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) offers grants for projects that reduce the carbon intensity of the Washington transportation system, including fleet electrification, modification or replacement of facilities to facilitate fleet electrification and hydrogen fueling, upgrades to electrical transmission and distribution systems, and construction of charging and fueling infrastructure. To be eligible, a transit authority must provide matching funding for that project that is at least equal to 20% of the total cost of the project. For more information, including funding availability and program dates, see the WSDOT Green Transportation Capital Grants (Reference Revised Code of Washington 47.66.120)
Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Retail Sales and Use Tax Exemption
The retail sales and state use tax of 6.5% does not apply to the sale or lease of new or used passenger vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger AFVs. AFVs powered by natural gas, propane, hydrogen, and electricity are eligible. Vehicles must not have a selling price plus trade-in property value that exceeds $45,000 for new vehicles and $30,000 for used vehicles. The maximum eligible amount for used purchased or leased vehicles is $16,000. The maximum eligible amounts for new purchased or leased vehicles are as follows:
|Newly Purchases or Leased Year||Maximum Amount|
|Through July 31, 2021||$25,000|
|August 1, 2021 - July 31 2023||$20,000|
|August 1, 2023 - July 31 2025||$15,000|
For more information, see the Renewable Energy/Green Incentives section of Washington Department of Revenue's Incentives Programs website.
(Reference Revised Code of Washington 82.12.9999)
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Tax Exemption
Beginning July 1, 2022, 50% of the retail sales and state use tax of 6.5% does not apply to the sale or lease of the first 650 new FCEV passenger vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles powered by fuel cells. Additionally, all used FCEV sales and leases are exempt from the tax. The FCEV exemption may not be combined with the Retail Sales and Use tax Exemption (Reference Senate Bill 5000, 2021)
Natural Gas Tax Exemptions
Compressed, liquefied, and renewable natural gas used as a transportation fuel are exempt from public utility taxes. In addition, natural gas distribution businesses are eligible for an exemption for machinery and equipment used to produce natural gas for transportation fuel. This exemption is available quarterly as a remittance. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 82.08.02565 and 82.16.310)
Biodiesel Feedstock Tax Exemption
Waste vegetable oil, specifically cooking oil gathered from restaurants or commercial food processors, used by an individual to produce biodiesel for personal use is exempt from state sales and use taxes. The purchaser must provide the seller with an exemption certificate from the Washington Department of Revenue. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 82.08.0205 and 82.12.0205)
Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Emissions Inspection Exemption
AFVs powered exclusively by electric, natural gas, and propane vehicles are exempt from state emissions control inspections. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles that obtain a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy rating of at least 50 miles per gallon during city driving are also exempt from these inspections. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 46.16A.060)
Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Regulation Exemption
An entity that offers electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to the public for hire may not have their rates, services, facilities or practices regulated by the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (Commission). The exemption does not apply if the entity is otherwise subject to Commission jurisdiction as an electrical company, or if an entity's battery charging facilities and services are subsidized by any regulated service. A utility may offer battery charging facilities as a regulated service, subject to Commission approval. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 80.28.320)
Idle Reduction Weight Exemption
A motor vehicle equipped with a fully functional idle reduction system designed to reduce fuel use and emissions from engine idling may exceed the state maximum weight limitations by up to 550 pounds to compensate for the added weight of the idle reduction technology. The vehicle operator must provide written certification of the weight of the technology and demonstrate the technology is fully functional. (Reference Washington Administrative Code 468-38-073)
Propane Vehicle Rebate – Pacific Propane Gas Association (PPGA)
PPGA offers commercial customers a rebate of $1,500 for the purchase of a new propane vehicle or propane conversion. Rebates are available until December 31, 2021, on a first-come, first-served basis. Eligible vehicles must be purchased in 2021. For more information, see the PPGA Pacific Runs on Propane website.
Non-Residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Grants - Pacific Power
Pacific Power offers non-residential customers quarterly grants for up to 100% of eligible purchase and installation costs of EVSE. Twenty-five percent of funds will be earmarked for workplace charging and fleet electrification projects. Additional requirements may apply. For more information, including application timelines, visit the Pacific Power Charging Station Grants website.
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Study Incentive - Tacoma Public Utility (TPU)
TPU is conducting a study to understand the charging patterns for residential PEVs. In exchange for completion of surveys about PEV charging and use, TPU customers may be eligible for an up to $250 incentive per year. Eligible residential customers must own or lease a PEV and own their own charging equipment. For more information, see the TPU EV Charging Study website.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Incentive – Clark Public Utilities (CPU)
CPU offers customers rebates for the purchase and installation of Level 2 EVSE. Rebates are available in the following amounts:
|Eligible Customers||EVSE Type||Rebate Amount|
|Residential||Non-ENERGY STAR certified; No Wi-Fi connection||$100|
|Residential, Commercial, and Industrial||ENERGY STAR certified; Wi-Fi enabled||$500|
Residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Rebate - Snohomish Public Utility District
Snohomish Public Utility District offers residential customers a $500 rebate for the purchase and installation of qualified Level 2 EVSE. For more information, see the PUD Electric Vehicle website.
Used Electric Vehicle (EV) Rebate – Clark Public Utilities (CPU)
CPU offers rebates to low-income customers for the purchase of a used EV. EVs must be $20,000 or less in value and must be registered in Clark County. For more information, see the CPU Electric Vehicle Program website.
Public Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Incentive – Clark Public Utilities (CPU)
CPU offers limited grants to install publicly accessible EVSE in Clark County. Rebates of up to 50% of the project costs are available to municipalities, local government agencies, and non-profits in Clark County. For more information, see the CPU Electric Vehicle Program website.
Laws and Regulations
Low Carbon Fuel Standard
The Washington Department of Ecology will develop rules to establish a Clean Fuels Program (Program) that reduces the overall carbon intensity of transportation fuels used in the state by 20% below 2017 levels by 2035. The Program standards must be based on the carbon intensity of gasoline, gasoline substitutes, diesel, and diesel substitutes. The Program must go into effect no later than January 1, 2023. (Reference House Bill 1091, 2021)
Volkswagen (VW) Settlement Allocation
The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) will work with the Office of the Governor and state agencies to select projects and distribute funding to leverage 15% of Washington's portion of the VW Environmental Mitigation Trust for the acquisition, installation, operation, and maintenance of light-duty zero-emission vehicle charging infrastructure.
Ecology will establish a competitive process to identify and select projects to fund with the remaining 85% of the appropriation to maximize total air pollution reduction and health benefits, improve air quality in areas disproportionately affected by air pollution, leverage additional matching funds, achieve substantial emission reduction beyond what would occur absent the funding, accelerate fleet turnover to the cleanest engines, and accelerate adoption of electric vehicles, equipment, and vessels. As appropriate, Ecology will work with state agencies to select projects and distribute funding. For more information, see the Ecology VW Enforcement Action website.
Support for Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs)
The Department of Commerce must develop and maintain a publicly available mapping and forecasting tool that locates and provides information on electric vehicle charging and refueling infrastructure. Electric utilities with more than 25,000 customers must analyze how their resource plans support and account for anticipated levels of ZEV use, relevant infrastructure forecasts and associated energy impacts, and information from the utilities' transportation electrification plans. (Reference House Bill 1287, 2021)
Autonomous Vehicle (AV) Testing Requirements
Starting October 1, 2021, a self-certifying entity may test AV on any public roadway under the Washington Department of Licensing (DOL) AV self-certification testing pilot program. The following information must be provided by the self-certifying entity testing the AV:
- Contact information specified by the DOL;
- Local jurisdictions where testing is planned;
- The AV identification numbers; and
- Proof of an insurance policy in an amount not less than $5 million dollars per occurrence.
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Signage and Parking Regulations
A public PEV charging station is defined as a public parking space that is served by charging equipment. Public PEV charging stations must have vertical signage that identifies the station and indicates that it is only for PEV charging. The signage must be consistent with the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
By 2023, all public PEV charging stations must also display all charges and fees associated with operation. Any person who parks a vehicle in a public PEV charging station parking space and does not connect to the equipment is subject to a fine of $124.
By 2023, the Department of Agriculture must adopt rules requiring electric vehicle service providers (EVSP) to meet interoperability standards and offer multiple payment methods at public PEV charging stations. EVSPs must report inventory and payment information to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually. EVSE installed before January 1, 2024 are exempt from the rules until January 1, 2034.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Fees
EVSE ports are subject to the following annual registration fees:
- $20 per Level 2 port
- $40 per Direct Current (DC) Fast port
Mandatory Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Building Standards
By July 1, 2021, the Washington State Building Code Council (Council) must adopt rules for EVSE installation at all new buildings that provide on-site parking. At least one parking space, or 10% of parking spaces rounded to the next whole number, must be made-ready for Level 2 EVSE. Electrical capacity must accommodate the potential to serve a minimum of 20% of the total parking spaces with Level 2 EVSE. For assembly, education, or mercantile buildings, the requirements apply only to employee parking spaces. Buildings classified as utility or miscellaneous are exempt from these requirements. Buildings classified as residential R-3 must implement rules for EVSE installation by July 1, 2024. By July 1, 2024, the Council is required to adopt rules that exceed the minimum requirements set in July 2021. Additional terms and conditions apply. (Reference House Bill 1287,2021 and Revised Code of Washington 19.27.540)
Utility Electric Transportation Plan Authorization
The governing authority or commission of an electric utility may adopt an electric transportation plan that proves that utility outreach and investment in the electrification of transportation infrastructure does not increase net costs to ratepayers in excess of 0.025%. The governing authority or commission may consider items such as the impact of electrification on the utilities load, demand response and load management opportunities, system reliability and distribution system efficiencies, and interoperability concerns. Upon making this determination, electric utilities may offer incentive programs for customers. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 35.92.450)
Renewable Fuel Standard
At least 2% of all diesel fuel sold in Washington must be biodiesel or renewable diesel. This requirement will increase to 5% 180 days after the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) determines that in-state feedstocks and oil-seed crushing capacity can meet a 3% requirement. Renewable diesel is defined as a diesel fuel substitute produced from non-petroleum renewable sources, including vegetable oils and animal fats, meets the federal registration requirements for fuels and fuel additives and ASTM specification D975.
At least 2% of the total gasoline sold in the state must be denatured ethanol. The ethanol requirement increases if the Washington Department of Ecology determines that this increase will not jeopardize continued attainment of federal Clean Air Act standards, and WSDA determines that the state can economically support the production of higher ethanol blends.
All state agencies with jurisdiction over renewable fuel infrastructure, specifically storage, blending, and dispensing equipment, are required to expedite related application and permitting processes. The governor may suspend these requirements by Executive Order if the standard is temporarily technically or economically infeasible, or poses a significant risk to public safety.
(Reference Revised Code of Washington 19.112.010 and 19.112.110 -19.112.180)
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Promotion and Infrastructure Development
Any regional transportation planning organization containing a county with a population greater than one million must collaborate with state and local governments to promote PEV use, invest in PEV charging infrastructure, and seek federal or private funding for these efforts. Collaborative planning efforts may include:
- Developing short- and long-term plans outlining how state, regional, and local governments may construct electric vehicle supply equipment locations and ensure that the infrastructure can be electrically supported;
- Supporting public education and training programs on PEVs;
- Developing an implementation plan for counties with a population greater than 500,000 to have 10% of public and private parking spaces ready for PEV charging by December 31, 2018; and
- Developing model ordinances and guidance for local governments for site assessment and installing PEV infrastructure.
State Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Infrastructure Availability
Publicly and privately owned PEVs may charge at state office locations if the vehicles are used for state business, conducting business with the state, or as commuter vehicles. Additionally, contingent upon funding, the state must install electrical outlets suitable for charging PEVs in each of the state's fleet parking and maintenance facilities as well as every state-operated highway rest stop. The Washington Department of Enterprise Services may report to the governor and the legislature on the amount of electricity consumed and the number of PEVs using state-owned charging equipment if it represents a significant cost to the state. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 43.01.250, 43.19.648, and 47.38.075)
Electric Drive Vehicle Fee
All-electric vehicle owners must pay an annual fee of $150 in addition to standard registration fees. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with an all-electric range of at least 30 miles are subject to a fee of $75. Hybrid electric vehicles are subject to a fee of $75. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 46.17.323-324)
Local Government Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Infrastructure Requirements
Jurisdictions must develop regulations to allow the use of PEV infrastructure and battery charging stations in all areas except critical areas or areas zoned for residential or resource use. The Washington Department of Commerce included a model ordinance, development regulations, and guidance for local governments for site assessment and installing PEV infrastructure in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Guide for Local Governments in Washington State. This requirement applies to jurisdictions that meet specific location criteria and is contingent upon federal funding. Additionally, cities or municipalities may adopt incentive programs to encourage retrofitting of existing structures capable of charging PEVs. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 35.63.126, 35.63.127, 35A.63.107, 36.70.695, 36.70A.695, and 43.31.970)
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) and Battery Exchange Station Regulations
State and local governments may lease land for installing, maintaining, and operating EVSE or electric vehicle battery exchange stations for up to 50 years for at least $1 per year. Additionally, the installation of battery charging and exchange stations is categorically exempt from the Washington Environmental Policy Act. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 79.13.100 and 43.21C.410)
Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Car Share Pilot Program
The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) will develop a pilot program to provide AFV use opportunities to underserved and low-income communities and to those without easy access to transportation corridors. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 47.04.355)
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Road User Assessment System Pilot
The Washington Transportation Commission (Commission) studied the feasibility of transitioning from a fuel tax to a road user assessment system in the state. In 2012, the Commission conducted a limited scope pilot project to test the feasibility of this new system as it applies to PEVs. For the results of this evaluation, see the Washington State Department of Transportation report. The Commission began a year-long pilot project in fall 2017. On January 13, 2020, the Commission submitted a report of findings and recommendations to the governor, state legislature, and the U.S. Department of Transportation. The state legislature directed the Commission to further study aspects of the road usage charge program. For more information, see the Commission Road Usage Charge Assessment website.
Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Technical Assistance and Education Program
The Washington State University (WSU) Energy Program must establish and administer a technical assistance and education program on the use of AFVs for public agencies, including state and local governments. For more information, visit the WSU Energy Program Green Transportation Program website. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 28B.30.903)
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Infrastructure Definitions
PEV infrastructure is defined as structures, machinery, and equipment necessary and integral to support a PEV, including battery charging stations, rapid charging stations, and battery exchange stations. A battery charging station is defined as an electrical component assembly or cluster of component assemblies designed specifically to charge batteries within a PEV. A rapid charging station is defined as an industrial grade electrical outlet that allows for faster recharging of PEV batteries through higher power levels. A battery exchange station is defined as a fully automated facility that will enable a PEV with a swappable battery to enter a drive lane and exchange the depleted battery with a fully charged battery through a fully automated process. Infrastructure must meet or exceed any applicable state building standards, codes, and regulations. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 19.28.281 and 47.80.090)
Biofuel Blend Dispenser Labeling Requirement
Pumps dispensing ethanol or biodiesel blends must have a label that specifies the percentage of ethanol or biodiesel present in the fuel. Ethanol pumps distributing between 1% and 10% must include a label stating that the fuel "contains up to 10% ethanol" and those distributing blends greater than 10% must be labeled with the capital letter E, followed by the numerical value volume of ethanol and the word "ethanol." Pumps dispensing biodiesel blends of 5% (B5) or less must include a label stating that the fuel "may contain up to five percent biodiesel" and those distributing blends greater than 5% must be labeled with the capital letter B, followed by the numerical value volume of biodiesel and the words "biodiesel" or "biodiesel blend." (Reference Revised Code of Washington 19.112.020, and Washington Administrative Code 16-662-115)
Biofuel Quality Program
The Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) Biofuels Quality Program tests and assesses biofuel quality and quantity to resolve any quality issues before the product reaches the consumer. WSDA samples biofuel throughout the state, monitors and tracks the quality of biofuel, and works with producers and manufacturers to help supply the highest biofuel quality fuel available to consumers. The goal of the program is to create equity in the biofuel marketplace for refiners, suppliers, distributors, and retailers, and protect consumers. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 19.112.005 -119.112.080)
E85 motor fuel is defined as an alternative fuel that is a blend of ethanol and hydrocarbon, of which the ethanol portion is 75-85% denatured fuel ethanol by volume and complies with the most current ASTM specification D5798. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 19.112.010)
Biodiesel fuel is defined as a monoalkyl ester of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats for use in compression-ignition engines and meets the requirements of the ASTM specification D6751. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 19.112.010 and 43.19.643)
Medium- and Heavy-Duty Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Deployment Support
California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington (signatory states) signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to support the deployment of medium- and heavy-duty ZEVs through involvement in a Multi-State ZEV Task Force (Task Force).
By January 2021, the Task Force will develop a multi-state action plan to support electrification of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. The Task Force will consider actions to accomplish the goals of the MOU, including limiting all new medium- and heavy-duty vehicles sales in the signatory states to ZEVs by 2050. The signatory states will also seek to accelerate the deployment of medium- and heavy-duty ZEVs to benefit disadvantaged communities and explore opportunities to coordinate and partner with key stakeholders.
For more information, see the Medium- and Heavy-Duty ZEVs: Action Plan Development Process website.
Biodiesel Storage Regulations
Underground storage tank (UST) regulations apply to all biodiesel blends with the exception of 100% biodiesel (B100). If a UST owner increases the percentage of biofuel in a petroleum UST, they must prove that all UST materials are compatible with that product. UST owners must submit an Alternative Fuel Installation or Conversion Checklist when the percentage of ethanol in gasoline is greater than 10% or the biodiesel percentage in diesel is greater than 20%. For more information, see the Department's Biodiesel in Underground Storage Tanks fact sheet. (Reference Washington Administrative Code 173-360)
Point of Contact
Senior Tank Inspector
Washington Department of Ecology
Phone: (206) 999-5901
Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Sales Requirements and Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Standards
Washington adopted the California motor vehicle emissions and compliance requirements specified in Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations. The Washington Department of Ecology adopted rules to implement these emissions standards for passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles, known as the Clean Car Law. For more information, see the Washington Clean Car Standards website. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 70.120A.010 and 70.120A.020 and Washington Administrative Code 173-423-010 - 173-423-150)
Alternative Fuel Vehicle Labeling Requirement
Every alternative fuel automobile, truck, motorcycle, motor home, or off-road vehicle must bear a reflective placard from the National Fire Protection Association indicating that the vehicle is powered by an alternative fuel. Alternative fuels include propane and natural gas. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 46.37.467)
Alternative Fuel Vehicle Annual Fee
Owners of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) and propane powered vehicles are required to pay an annual license fee, based on gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), instead of motor fuel excise taxes. The fee is calculated as follows:
|Less than 10,000 pounds (lbs.)||$45|
|10,001 - 18,000 lbs.||$80|
|18,001 - 28,000 lbs.||$110|
|28,001 - 36,000 lbs.||$150|
|More than 36,000 lbs.||$250|
To determine the actual annual license fee imposed per registration year, multiply the appropriate dollar amount given in the above schedule by the motor vehicle fuel tax rate in cents per gallon effective on July 1 of the preceding calendar year, and divide the resulting amount by $0.12. There is an additional $5 handling fee for each license issued.
(Reference Revised Code of Washington 82.38.075)
Medium-Speed and Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Definition and Access to Roadways
NEVs and medium-speed electric vehicles are defined as self-propelled, electrically powered four-wheeled motor vehicles. NEVs may reach speeds of at least 20 miles per hour (mph) but not more than 25 mph. Medium-speed electric vehicles may reach speeds of at least 25 mph but not more than 35 mph. NEVs and medium-speed electric vehicles must be in compliance with the national safety standards in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, section 571.500. NEVs are permitted on roads having speed limits of up to 35 mph. Medium-speed electric vehicles are permitted on roads having speed limits of up to 45 mph in counties consisting of islands that are only connected to the mainland by ferry routes. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 46.04.295, 46.04.357, 46.61.723, and 46.61.725)
Biodiesel Use Requirement
At least 20% of all diesel fuel used to fuel state agency vehicles, vessels, and construction equipment must be biodiesel. The Washington Department of Enterprise Services (WDES) must assist state agencies by coordinating the purchase and delivery of biodiesel if requested, using long-term contracts if necessary, to secure a sufficient and stable supply of biodiesel. For state agencies complying with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) mandate, at least 2% biodiesel (B2) must be used as an additive to ULSD for lubricity, provided that the use of a lubricity additive is appropriate and that performance and cost are comparable with other available lubricity additives. All agencies using biodiesel must submit annual consumption reports to WDES. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 43.19.642 and 43.19.646)
Alternative Fuel Use Requirement
All state agencies must, to the extent practicable, use 100% biofuels or electricity to operate all publicly owned vehicles. Agencies must prioritize all-electric vehicles (EVs) when leasing or purchasing new vehicles, and all trips that may feasibly use EVs must employ them. For vehicle classes without EV model options, agencies must prioritize the most cost-efficient, low-emission vehicle option available. Agencies may substitute natural gas or propane for electricity or biofuel if the Washington State Department of Commerce (Department) determines that electricity and biofuel are not reasonably available. Practicability and measures of compliance are defined in rules adopted by the Department. The governor has established a cross-agency Governing Council, which must adopt and implement standards, measures, targets, and tools to support agencies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and prioritizing EV adoption.
In addition, all local government agencies must, to the extent practicable, use 100% biofuels or electricity to operate all publicly owned vehicles. Transit agencies using compressed natural gas and engine retrofits that would void vehicle warranties are exempt from this requirement. To allow the motor vehicle fuel needs of state and local government to be satisfied by Washington-produced biofuels, the Washington Department of Enterprise Services and local governments may contract in advance and execute contracts with public or private producers and suppliers for the purchase of appropriate biofuels. Agencies may substitute natural gas or propane in vehicles if the Department determines that biofuels and electricity are not reasonably available. Practicability and measures of compliance are defined in rules adopted by the Department.
State Vehicle Low Rolling Resistance Tire Requirement
Except for cars operated by the state patrol, Washington state agencies replacing the tires on their vehicles must use tires with the same or better rolling resistance as the original tires. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 43.19.648)
Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement
Washington state agencies must consider purchasing low carbon fuel vehicles or converting conventional vehicles to use low carbon fuels when financially comparable over the vehicle's useful life. Low carbon fuels include hydrogen, biomethane, electricity, or natural gas blends of at least 90%. State agencies must achieve an average fuel economy of 36 miles per gallon (mpg) for passenger vehicle fleets in motor pools and leased conventional vehicles. State agencies must also purchase low carbon fuel vehicles or, when purchasing new conventional vehicles, achieve an average fuel economy of 40 mpg for light-duty passenger vehicles and 27 mpg for light-duty vans and sport utility vehicles. When calculating average fuel economy, emergency response vehicles, passenger vans with a gross vehicle weight rating of 8,500 pounds or greater, off-road vehicles, low carbon fuel vehicles, and vehicles driven less than 2,000 miles per year are excluded. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 43.19.622)
Biofuels Production and Distribution Contracts
Conservation districts, public development authorities, municipal utilities, and public utility districts may enter crop purchase contracts to produce, sell, and distribute biodiesel produced from Washington feedstocks, cellulosic ethanol, and cellulosic ethanol blended fuels for utility and public use. Additionally, municipal utilities and public utility districts may produce and distribute biodiesel, ethanol, and ethanol blended fuels. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 35.21.465, 35.92.440, 54.04.190, and 89.08.570)
Renewable Natural Gas and Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Sales Regulations
Public utility districts are authorized to sell renewable natural gas and renewable hydrogen to facilities that condense or dispense natural gas or renewable hydrogen for use as a motor fuel. Renewable natural gas is defined as methane gas or other hydrocarbons derived from organic materials. Renewable hydrogen is defined as hydrogen produced using renewable resources as the source of the hydrogen and the source for the energy input into the production process. (Reference Revised Code of Washington 54.04.190)
State Emissions Reductions Requirements
Washington State must limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to achieve the following reductions:
- By 2020, reduce overall GHG emissions in the state to 1990 levels;
- By 2035, reduce overall GHG emissions in the state to 25% below 1990 levels; and
- By 2050, reduce overall emissions to 50% below 1990 levels or 70% below the state's expected emissions that year.
(Reference Revised Code of Washington 70A.45.020)