Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

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Title Author Date Category
Clean Cities Coalitions 2022 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C.; Wilson, A. 1/29/2024 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) works with local Clean Cities coalitions across the country as part of its Technology Integration Program. These efforts help businesses and consumers make smarter and more informed transportation energy choices that can save energy, lower costs, provide resilience through fuel diversification, and reduce emissions. This report summarizes the success and impact of coalition activities based on data and information provided in their annual reports.

The Future of Biofuels in the United States Transportation Sector Geissler, C; Ryu, J; Maravelias, C 12/29/2023 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin

This article analyses conversion options for biomass to fuels in the U.S. transportation sector, particularly for heavy duty transportation and aviation, based on regional carbon dioxide transportation and injection costs and current U.S. tax credits. The article found that that under current credits biofuels play a role only in some regions of the U.S., but a range of policy scenarios, including combining biofuel production with carbon-capture and storage, can lead to biofuels playing a significant role nationally.

A Deep Decarbonization Framework for the United States Economy – a Sector, Sub-Sector, and End-Use Based Approach Kar, S; Hawkins, T; Zaimes, G; Oke, D; Singh, U; Wu, X; Kwon, H; Zhang, S; Zang, G; Zhou, Y; Elgowainy, A; Wang, M; Ma, O 12/8/2023 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

Using the recently developed Decarbonization Analysis Model, this report analyzes the estimated greenhouse gas mitigation potential for projected energy demand based on several sector-level and cross-sectoral decarbonization pathways, including electrification, low-carbon fuels, and the reduction of fugitive emissions. The report analyzes the remaining projected emissions and highlights the need for developing low-carbon and carbon-negative alternatives to mitigate the fossil-based carbon emissions resulting from the fossil-based fuels in heavy-duty transportation.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2021 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C.; Wilson, A. 1/24/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) works with local Clean Cities coalitions across the country as part of its Technology Integration Program. These efforts help businesses and consumers make smarter and more informed transportation energy choices that can save energy, lower costs, provide resilience through fuel diversification, and reduce air emissions. This report summarizes the success and impact of coalition activities based on data and information provided in their annual progress reports.

U.S. Renewable Diesel Fuel and Other Biofuels Plant Production Capacity U.S. Energy Information Administration 8/8/2022 Reports

This report is intended to measure estimated gallons of renewable diesel fuel, renewable heating oil, renewable jet fuel, renewable naphtha and gasoline, and other biofuels (excluding fuel ethanol and biodiesel) and biointermediates that a plant is capable of producing over a period of one year (365 consecutive days) starting on the first day of each report month.

Neste Renewable Diesel Handbook Neste Corporation 10/1/2020 Reports

This report provides information on Neste Renewable Diesel, in Europe classified as a Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), and its use in diesel engines.

Economy and Emissions Impacts from Solazyme Fuel in UPS Delivery Vehicles Kelly, K.; Ragatz, A. 8/10/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

To improve understanding of the potential fuel economy and emissions impacts from switching a fleet of vehicles from conventional petroleum diesel to synthetic renewable diesel, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted fuel economy and emissions analyses at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory. Representative test cycles were developed based on real-world data from six package delivery vehicles and six class 8 day-cab tractors operated by UPS in the Dallas, Texas, area. A three-week in-field data collection period yielded 170 days of real-world vehicle operations data that NREL used to select representative standard drive cycles for testing. Fuel economy and emissions tests at the ReFUEL Laboratory showed that, in general, when switching from conventional diesel to renewable diesel observed changes in tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2), fuel consumption, and fuel economy are primarily driven by changes in fuel properties such as the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, density, and lower heating value (LHV). The vehicles tested with the renewable diesel showed a consistent 4.2% reduction in tailpipe CO2 emissions, but a 3.5%-4.8% reduction in fuel economy compared with local pump diesel. This is consistent with the 4.2% lower volumetric LHV of the sourced renewable diesel compared to the pump diesel. The UPS package car tested on renewable diesel also demonstrated a 4.1% oxides of nitrogen (NOx) reduction. NOx emissions from the UPS selective-catalyst-reduction-equipped tractor were an order of magnitude lower than the package car but showed relatively higher variability in results from cycle to cycle.

Renewable Fuel Standard Program: Standards for 2014, 2015, and 2016 and Biomass-Based Diesel Volume for 2017; Final Rule 2/12/2016 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Under section 211 of the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to set renewable fuel percentage standards every year. This action establishes the annual percentage standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel that apply to all motor vehicle gasoline and diesel produced or imported in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016. The EPA is establishing a cellulosic biofuel volume for all three years that is below the applicable volume specified in the Act, and is also rescinding the cellulosic biofuel standard for 2011. Relying on statutory waiver authorities, the EPA is adjusting the applicable volumes of advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel for all three years. The 2016 standards are expected to spur further progress in overcoming current constraints in renewable fuel distribution infrastructure, which in turn is expected to lead to substantial growth over time in the production and use of renewable fuels. In this action, EPA is also establishing the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel for 2017. Finally, EPA is setting the compliance and attest reporting deadlines for the years 2013, 2014, and 2015, as well as finalizing regulatory amendments to clarify the scope of the existing algal biofuel pathway. This final rule is effective on February 12, 2016.

Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory 3/1/2012 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

Federal Tax Incentives Encourage Alternative Fuel Use 5/1/2008 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. government provides several tax incentives for purchasing alternative fuel, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles; installing alternative fueling infrastructure; and producing, selling, or using alternative fuels. The IRS has defined alternative fuels as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); compressed natural gas (CNG); liquefied natural gas (LNG); liquefied hydrogen; liquid fuel derived from coal through the Fischer-Tropsch process; liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass including ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable diesel; and P-series fuels. Current federal tax incentives are outlined in this fact sheet.

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Effects of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels Huo, H.; Wang, M.; Bloyd, C.; Putsche, V. 3/1/2008 Reports

Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne,Illinois; Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne,Illinois; Decision and Information Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG)emission impacts of three soybean-derived fuels were studied by expanding, updating, and using Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The fuels studied included biodiesel produced from soy oil transesterification; renewable diesel produced from hydrogenation of soy oil by using two processes (renewable diesel I and II); and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking of soy oil. Four allocation approaches were used to address the co-products: a displacement approach; two allocation methods, one based on energy value and one based on market value; and a hybrid approach that integrates both the displacement and allocation methods. Each of the four allocation approaches generated different results and demonstrate the importance of the methods used in dealing with co-product issues for these renewable fuels.

Worldwide Biomass Potential: Technology Characterizations Bain, Richard L. 12/30/2007 Reports


A joint EERE-PI project was completed to estimate the worldwide potential to produce and transport ethanol and other biofuels, with an emphasis on the 5 year and 10 year potential for biofuels supply to the United States. The project included four specific tasks: 1) identify the range of countries to be included in the study, 2) assess the resource potential for production of ethanol from sugar and starch-based feedstocks, and biodiesel, 3) assess the resource potential for production of other biofuels, including lignocellulosic ethanol, pyrolysis oil, and renewable diesel, and 4) integrate results into the MARKAL energy policy model. The project team included DOE (Policy and International and the Office of the Biomass Program), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (feedstock supply curves), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (conversion technology characterizations), and Brookhaven National Laboratory (MARKAL analysis).<br><br>The NREL portion of this study was primarily concerned with estimating the plant gate price (PGP) of liquid biofuels (corn and wheat dry mill ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, renewable diesel, and pyrolytic fuel oil) from selected biomass feedstocks for countries included in the study using representative existing and developing technologies. A methodology for comparing costs between countries was developed. Plant sizes studies ranged from 25 MM GPY to 100 MM GPY. The results of the technology characterizations (capital costs, operating costs, plant gate prices) are presented in 2005 U.S. dollars and include estimates of comparative costs in each country.

Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 12/19/2007 Reports

U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C.

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 put into law many of the provisions of Executive Order 13423. The goal of the EISA law is to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security, to increase production of clean renewable fuels, to protect consumers, to increase the efficiency of products, buildings, and vehicles, to promote research on and deploy greenhouse gas capture and storage options, and to improve the energy performance of the Federal Government.

Beyond Diesel-Renewable Diesel 8/1/2002 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet explores domestically produced, renewable fuels such as biodiesel and E-diesel as possible alternatives to conventional diesel and a way to displace some of America&#39;s petroleum imports.

Diethyl Ether (DEE as a Renewable Diesel Fuel) Bailey, Brent 10/13/1997 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

Producing and using renewable fuels for transportation is one approach for a sustainable energy future for the United States, as wel l as the rest of the world. Renewable fuels may also substantially reduce contributions to global climate change. In the transportation sector, ethanol produced from biomass shows promise as a future fuel for spark-ignited engines because of its high octane quality. Ethanol, however, is not a high-quality compression-ignition fuel. Ethanol can be easily converted through a dehydration process to produce diethyl ether (DEE), which is an excellent compression-ignition fuel with higher energy density than ethanol.. DEE has long been known as a cold-start aid for engines, but little is known about using DEE as a significant component in a blend or as a complete replacement for diesel fuel. Dimethyl ether, the methanol analog to DEE, was recently reported to be a low-emission, high-quality diesel fuel replacement, but similar engine testing and process information on DEE is limited. To identify the potential of Dee as a transportation fuel, we conducted a comprehensive literature review of its utilization in engines and also conducted limited laboratory experiments. This paper presents the findings on fundamental engine and emissions performance of DEE, along with an estimated cost of producing DEE from biomass ethanol.