Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Assessment of BQ-9000 Biodiesel Properties for 2018 Alleman, T.L. 1/30/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Critical quality parameters from BQ-9000 member companies were analyzed for calendar year 2018. The National Biodiesel Board provided blinded and randomized data sets on 14 critical metrics for biodiesel quality. This report summarizes the results of the parameters and found that overall, biodiesel readily met the ASTM D6751 specification limits in 2018.

Assessment of BQ-9000 Biodiesel Properties for 2017 Alleman, T.L. 1/30/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Critical quality parameters from BQ-9000 member companies were analyzed for calendar year 2017. The National Biodiesel Board provided blinded and randomized data sets on 14 critical metrics for biodiesel quality. This report summarizes the results of the parameters and found that overall, biodiesel readily met the ASTM D6751 specification limits in 2017.

Metals Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Alleman, T.L.; Fouts, L.; Christensen, E.D. 5/1/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The goal of this study was to compare metals analysis methods for biodiesel blends. Thirty-five B20 samples were collected from public stations and private fleets throughout the United States. All samples were analyzed for blend content and critical properties under the ASTM D7467 specification. Although not part of the specification, metals content, specifically Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P, is becoming an increasingly larger concern for industry. This study compared the metals content of the B20 samples using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES) methods. All three techniques showed improvements over the current detection limits of 1 ppm for Na, K, Ca, and Mg, and 5 ppm for P. Some differences were found between methods, but agreement was generally acceptable at the very low levels present in these samples. The MP-AES technique showed good promise for future development for this type of analysis.

Re-Additization of Commercial Biodiesel Blends During Long-Term Storage Christensen, E.D.; Alleman, T.; McCormick, R.L. 8/1/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Commercial biodiesel blends were aged at 43 degrees C while monitoring stability. The oxidation stability -- or oxidation reserve expressed as Rancimat induction period (IP) -- gradually decreased from its initial value. At a predetermined IP threshold, an antioxidant was used to restore IP to the ASTM D7467 specification minimum of 6 h, referred to as re-additization. At lower IP values, the amount of antioxidant required increased significantly, and the effectiveness tended to be reduced. Once IP fell to essentially zero, the acid content increased to above the allowable limit and insoluble material was also detected. Storage life was increased relative to the as-received fuels as evidenced by longer time to produce acids. Experience in the field may vary based on storage conditions; however, these results indicate re-additization can significantly increase storage life of biodiesel blends when used with regular monitoring of IP and acid number. An assessment of the storage stability of the as-received fuels showed that the initial IP did not predict storage behavior, although fuels above the specification minimum remained stable for >12 weeks accelerated aging (1 year simulated).

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the Elsevier ScienceDirect website.

Fuel Properties Comparison Chart Putzig, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Moriarty, K.; Bennett, J.; Brown, A.; Rahill, M. 1/20/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This chart compares the physical fuel properties and considerations associated with gasoline/E10, low sulfur diesel, biodiesel, propane, compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity for use as vehicle fuels.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2021 Bourbon, E. 4/23/2021 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2021 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2021 and January 15, 2021, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 14 cents from $2.18 to $2.32; diesel increased 24 cents from $2.40 to $2.64; CNG increased 1 cent from $2.18 to $2.19; ethanol (E85) increased 8 cents from $1.96 to $2.04; propane increased 12 cents from $2.73 to $2.85; and biodiesel (B20) increased 13 cents from $2.29 to $2.42.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 13 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2021 Bourbon, E. 9/15/2021 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2021 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2021 and July 15, 2021, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 27 cents from $2.82 cents to $3.09; diesel increased 15 cents from $3.11 to $3.26; CNG increased 3 cents from $2.19 to 2.22; ethanol (E85) increased 22 cents from $2.40 to $2.62; propane increased 5 cents from $2.93 to $2.98; and biodiesel (B20) increased 23 cents from $2.82 to $3.05.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 87 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 5 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2021 Bourbon, E. 7/6/2021 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2021 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2021 and April 15, 2021, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 50 cents from $2.32 cents to $2.82; diesel increased 47 cents from $2.64 to $3.11; CNG remained the same at $2.19; ethanol (E85) increased 36 cents from $2.04 to $2.40; propane increased 8 cents from $2.85 to $2.93; and biodiesel (B20) increased 40 cents from $2.42 to $2.82.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is 63 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis and E85 is 42 cents less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 9/10/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Model Year 2021: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel vehicles, as well as the all-electric range of plug-in electric vehicles.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 5/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Clean Cities Coalitions Overview 5/25/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Office Clean Cities Coalition Network, which advance affordable, domestic transportation fuels and technologies nationwide. More than 75 active coalitions serve as the foundation of Clean Cities, working in communities across the country to help local decision makers and fleets understand and implement alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, new mobility choices, and emerging transportation technologies. At the national level, VTO develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources to support coordinators. At the local level, coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 39 Davis, S.C.; Boundy, R.G. 2/1/2021 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 39 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (tedb.ornl.gov).

Clean Cities Coalitions 2019 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 5/6/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an energy use impact (EUI) of over 1 billion gasoline-gallons equivalent (GGE), comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2019. Participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, as did alternative fuel use and resulting overall EUI. Clean Cities coalition activities reduce emissions as they impact energy use. Coalition-reported activities prevented nearly 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous (non-DOE) outside sources. For other Federal, State, and local agencies and private sector foundations, see funding section on page 24. The 82 project grant awards in 2019 generated $225 million in funds from coalition members and project partners along with $9.5 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.2 million in stakeholder dues and $1.6 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this supplemental funding represents nearly a 6:1 leveraging of the $38 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in Fiscal Year 2019. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 136,000 hours pursuing their coalitions' goals in 2019. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held his or her position for at least eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,525 outreach, education, and training activities in 2019, which reached an estimated 23 million people.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2020 Bourbon, E. 7/14/2020 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2020 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2020 and July 15, 2020, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 31 cents from $1.91 to $2.22; diesel decreased 13 cents from $2.61 to $2.48; CNG decreased 4 cents from $2.19 to $2.15; ethanol (E85) increased 24 cents from $1.75 to $1.99; propane increased 1 cent from $2.73 to $2.74; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 1 cent from $2.36 to $2.35.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $0.07 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.36 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2020 Bourbon, E. 10/15/2020 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2020 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2020 and October 15, 2020, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 4 cents from $2.22 to $2.18; diesel decreased 8 cents from $2.48 to $2.40; CNG increased 3 cents from $2.15 to $2.18; ethanol (E85) decreased 3 cents from $1.99 to $1.96; propane decreased 1 cent from $2.74 to $2.73; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 6 cents from $2.35 to $2.29.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is equal in price to gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.36 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

2017 Bioenergy Industry Status Report Moriarty, K.; Milbrandt, A.; Lewis, J.; Schwab, A. 2/20/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report provides a snapshot of the bioenergy industry status at the end of 2017. The report compliments other annual market reports from the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) offices and is supported by DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO). The 2017 Bioenergy Industry Status Report focuses on past year data covering multiple dimensions of the bioenergy industry and does not attempt to make future market projections. The report provides a balanced and unbiased assessment of the industry and associated markets. It is openly available to the public and is intended to compliment International Energy Agency and industry reports with a focus on DOE stakeholder needs.

Life Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Effects of Biodiesel in the United States with Induced Land Use Change Impacts Chen, R.; Qin, Z.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Taheripour, F.; Tyner, W.; O'Connor, D.; Duffield, J. 1/10/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana; (S&T)2 Consultants Inc., Delta, BC, Canada; Office of the Chief Economist, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

Researchers conducted updated simulations to depict a life cycle analysis (LCA) of biodiesel production from soybeans and other feedstocks in the United States. The study addressed in detail the interaction between LCA and induced land use change (ILUC) for biodiesel. Relative to conventional petroleum diesel, soy biodiesel could achieve 76% reduction in GHG emissions without considering ILUC, or 66%-72% reduction in overall GHG emissions when various ILUC cases were considered. Soy biodiesel's fossil fuel consumption rate was also 80% lower than its petroleum counterpart. Furthermore, this study examined the cause and the implication of each key parameter affecting biodiesel LCA results using a sensitivity analysis, which identified the hot spots for fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions of biodiesel so that future efforts can be made accordingly. Finally, researchers also investigated biodiesel produced from other feedstocks (canola oil and tallow) to contrast with soy biodiesel and petroleum diesel.

Notes: This Bioresource Technology article (Vol. 251 (2018): pp. 249-258) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2020 Bourbon, E. 5/27/2020 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2020 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2020 and April 15, 2020, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 68 cents from $2.59 to $1.91; diesel decreased 44 cents from $3.05 to $2.61; CNG increased 1 cent from $2.18 to $2.19; ethanol (E85) decreased 53 cents from $2.28 to $1.75; propane decreased 6 cents from $2.79 to $2.73; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 53 cents from $2.89 to $2.36.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $0.28 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.37 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 8/28/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2020 (Q1). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Biodiesel Basics 9/29/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet (updated for 2017) provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, the difference between biodiesel and renewable diesel, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

AFLEET: Assess the Impacts of Conventional and Alternative Fuel Vehicles 5/20/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET fact sheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2020 Bourbon, E. 3/16/2020 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2020 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2020 and January 15, 2020, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 9 cents from $2.68 to $2.59; diesel decreased 3 cents from $3.08 to $3.05; CNG decreased 2 cents from $2.20 to $2.18; ethanol (E85) remained the same at $2.28; propane increased 3 cents from $2.76 to $2.79; and biodiesel (B20) increased 2 cents from $2.87 to $2.89.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.41 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.37 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2019 Bourbon, E. 11/18/2019 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2019 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2019 and October 15, 2019, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 8 cents from $2.76 to $2.68; diesel increased 4 cents from $3.04 to $3.08; CNG decreased a cent from $2.21 to $2.20; ethanol (E85) decreased 8 cents from $2.36 to $2.28; propane decreased 7 cents from $2.83 to $2.76; and biodiesel (B20) increased 1 cent from $2.86 to $2.87.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.48 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.29 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Model Year 2020: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2020 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel vehicles, as well as the all-electric range of plug-in electric vehicles.

Alternative Fuel Corridor Readiness Study for Northeastern Illinois Milburn, T. 5/23/2021 Reports

Chicago Area Clean Cities, Chicago, Illinois

This study analyzes alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) usage and infrastructure needs for the Chicago region. It maps the existing alternative fuel sites in the six-county Chicago area and throughout Illinois. The study also examines what it will take to advance the use of AFVs in the region, leveraging new federal and state policies that are expected in the years ahead. To gather insights for the report, listening sessions were conducted with key stakeholders on recommendations for where to site alternative fuel stations and critical needs for sites to be successful.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2018 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 12/27/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an energy use impact (EUI) of over 1 billion gasoline-gallons equivalent (GGE), comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2018. Participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, as did alternative fuel use and resulting overall EUI. Clean Cities coalition activities reduce emissions as they impact energy use. Coalition-reported activities prevented 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous (non-DOE) outside sources. For other Federal, State, and local agencies and private sector foundations, see funding section on page 25. The 84 project grant awards in 2018 generated $251 million in funds from coalition members and project partners along with $1.9 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.1 million in stakeholder dues and $2.9 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this supplemental funding represents nearly a 7:1 leveraging of the $37.8 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in Fiscal Year 2018. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 121,000 hours pursuing their coalitions' goals in 2018. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held his or her position for at least eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,805 outreach, education, and training activities in 2018, which reached an estimated 35 million people.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2019 Bourbon, E. 10/8/2019 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2019 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2019 and July 15, 2019, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has remained the same at $2.76; diesel decreased 5 cents from $3.09 to $3.04; CNG decreased a cent from $2.22 to $2.21; ethanol (E85) increased 5 cents from $2.31 to $2.36; propane decreased 7 cents from $2.90 to $2.83; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 2 cents from $2.88 to $2.86.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.55 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.30 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Potential Biomass-Based Diesel Production in the United States by 2032 Zhou, Y; Baldino, C.; Searle, S. 2/28/2020 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers the availability of feedstocks for fuel production when determining the yearly volume obligations under the Renewable Fuel Standard. The amount of biomass-based diesel (BBD) that can be produced in the United States without increasing diversion effects on other uses should be one of the crucial factors that the agency considers in future volume rulemakings. This study provides insights for EPA in setting future volumetric obligations for BBD as well as advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel categories.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2019 Bourbon, E. 5/30/2019 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2019 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2019 and April 15, 2019, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 49 cents from $2.27 to $2.76; diesel increased 11 cents from $2.98 to $3.09; CNG increased 3 cents from $2.19 to $2.22; ethanol (E85) increased 32 cents from $1.99 to $2.31; propane decreased 1 cent from $2.91 to $2.90; and biodiesel (B20) increased 8 cents from $2.80 to $2.88.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.54 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.24 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Alternative Fuels Data Center 12/4/2019 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) provides a wealth of information and data on alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, fuel-saving strategies, and emerging transportation technologies. The site features a number of interactive tools, calculators, and mapping applications to aid in the implementation of these fuels, vehicles, and strategies. The AFDC functions as a dynamic online hub, enabling thousands of stakeholders in the transportation system to interact with one another.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2018 Bourbon, E. 3/13/2019 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2018 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2018 and October 15, 2018, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 3 cents from $2.88 to $2.91; diesel increased 12 cents from $3.24 to $3.36; CNG decreased 3 cents from $2.22 to $2.19; ethanol (E85) increased 3 cents from $2.35 to $2.38; propane increased 6 cents from $2.81 to $2.87; and biodiesel (B20) increased 3 cents from $3.06 to $3.09.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.72 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.19 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2017 Activity Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 5/14/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) national network of Clean Cities Coalitions advance the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to promote the use of domestic fuels within transportation. The nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, bring together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to use alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. To ensure success, coalitions leverage a robust set of expert resources and tools provided by national laboratories and DOE. Each year, Clean Cities coordinators submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online tool that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels; use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs); IR initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the submitted data to determine how broadly energy use in the U.S. has shifted due to coalition activities, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2019 Bourbon, E. 3/14/2019 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2019 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2019 and January 15, 2019, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 64 cents from $2.91 to $2.27; diesel decreased 38 cents from $3.36 to $2.98; CNG is unchanged at $2.19; ethanol (E85) decreased 39 cents from $2.38 to $1.99; propane increased 4 cents from $2.87 to $2.91; and biodiesel (B20) decreased 29 cents from $3.09 to $2.80.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.08 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.32 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Model Year 2019: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2019 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel vehicles, as well as the all-electric range of plug-in electric vehicles.

Model Year 2020 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 12/19/2018 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Model Year 2019 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 12/19/2018 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2018 Bourbon, E. 9/25/2018 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2018 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2018 and July 16, 2018, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 21 cents from $2.67 to $2.88; diesel increased 21 cents from $3.03 to $3.24; CNG increased 4 cents from $2.18 to $2.22; ethanol (E85) increased 14 cents from $2.21 to $2.35; propane decreased 2 cents from $2.83 to $2.81; and biodiesel (B20) increased 19 cents from 2.87 to $3.06.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.66 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.17 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2016 Activity Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/10/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) national network of Clean Cities Coalitions advance the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to promote the use of domestic fuels within transportation. The nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, bring together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to use alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. To ensure success, coalitions leverage a robust set of expert resources and tools provided by national laboratories and DOE. Each year, Clean Cities coordinators submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online tool that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels; use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs); IR initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the submitted data to determine how broadly energy use in the U.S. has shifted due to coalition activities, which are summarized in this report.

Model Year 2018: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 8/7/2018 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition) Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.; Christensen, E.D.; Fioroni, G.; Moriarty. K.; Yanowitz, J. 11/8/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Eco Engineering, Cincinnati, Ohio

This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2018 Bourbon, E. 6/14/2018 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2018 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2018 and April 16, 2018, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 17 cents from $2.50 to $2.67; diesel increased 7 cents from $2.96 to $3.03; CNG increased 1 cent from $2.17 to $2.18; ethanol (E85) increased 15 cents from $2.06 to $2.21; propane remained the same at $2.83; and biodiesel (B20) increased 3 cents from 2.84 to $2.87.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.49 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.20 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Ethanol Basics 9/11/2018 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Ethanol is a widely used, domestically produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. Ethanol can be blended with gasoline in different amounts. In fact, more than 98% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol to oxygenate the fuel and help to reduce air pollution. Using ethanol in fuel also helps the nation increase the use of domestic alternative fuels, thereby potentially reducing reliance on imported oil. Gasoline and gasoline blendstocks can also use ethanol as an octane enhancer to increase vehicle performance.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2018 Bourbon, E. 3/29/2018 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2018 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2018 and January 16, 2018, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 1 cent from $2.49 to $2.50; diesel increased 20 cents from $2.76 to $2.96; CNG remained the same at $2.17; ethanol (E85) decreased 4 cents from $2.10 to $2.06; propane increased 5 cents from $2.78 to $2.83; and biodiesel (B20) increased 16 cents from 2.68 to $2.84.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.33 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.18 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2017 Bourbon, E. 11/29/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2017 and October 16, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 23 cents from $2.26 to $2.49; diesel increased 29 cents from $2.47 to $2.76; CNG price increased 2 cents from $2.15 to $2.17; ethanol (E85) increased 11 cents from $1.99 to $2.10; propane decreased 6 cents from $2.84 to $2.78; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 19 cents from 2.49 to $2.68.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.32 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.24 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2017 Bourbon, E. 9/5/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2017 and July 17, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 12 cents from $2.38 to $2.26; diesel decreased 8 cents from $2.55 to $2.47; CNG price is unchanged at $2.15; ethanol (E85) decreased 12 cents from $2.11 to $1.99; propane increased 1 cent from $2.83 to $2.84; and biodiesel (B20) is unchanged at 2.49.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.11 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.32 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2017 Bourbon, E. 5/17/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2017 and April 17, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 6 cents from $2.32 to $2.38; diesel decreased 3 cents from $2.58 to $2.55; CNG price increased 4 cents from $2.11 to $2.15; ethanol (E85) increased 7 cents from $2.04 to $2.11; propane increased 3 cents from $2.80 to $2.83; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 8 cents from $2.57 to 2.49.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.23 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.36 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

2016 Vehicle Technologies Market Report Davis, S.C.; Williams, S.E.; Boundy, R.G.; Moore, S. 6/23/2017 Reports

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The 2016 Vehicle Technologies Market Report is the eighth edition of this report, which details the major trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO), and, in accord with its mission, pays special attention to the progress of high-efficiency and alternative-fuel technologies.

Model Year 2017: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 4/18/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

2015 Bioenergy Market Report Warner. E.; Moriarty, K.; Lewis, J.; Milbrandt, A.; Schwab, A. 2/27/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report is an update to the 2013 report and provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2015. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This version features details on the two major bioenergy markets: biofuels and biopower and an overview of bioproducts that enable bioenergy production. The information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2017 Bourbon, E. 2/27/2017 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2017 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2017 and January 15, 2017, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 10 cents from $2.22 to $2.32; diesel increased 10 cents from $2.48 to $2.58; CNG price increased 5 cents from $2.06 to $2.11; ethanol (E85) increased 11 cents from $1.93 to $2.04; propane increased 12 cents from $2.68 to $2.80; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 11 cents from $2.46 to 2.57.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.21 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2016 Bourbon, E. 12/1/2016 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2016 and October 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 4 cents from $2.26 to $2.22; diesel increased 2 cents from $2.46 to $2.48; CNG price increased 1 cent from $2.05 to $2.06; ethanol (E85) decreased 6 cents from $1.99 to $1.93; propane decreased 8 cents from $2.76 to $2.68; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 8 cents from $2.54 to 2.46.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.16 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.29 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/28/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2016 Bourbon, E. 9/19/2016 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2016 and July 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 20 cents from $2.06 to $2.26; diesel increased 33 cents from $2.13 to $2.46; CNG price increased 3 cents from $2.02 to $2.05; ethanol (E85) increased 15 cents from $1.84 to $1.99; propane decreased 1 cent from $2.77 to $2.76; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 31 cents from $2.23 to 2.54.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.21 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2 1/13/2017 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards Kelly, K. 10/3/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2016 Bourbon, E. 6/8/2016 Reports

Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, West Virginia

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2016 and April 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 8 cents from $1.98 to $2.06; diesel decreased 10 cents from $2.23 to $2.13; CNG price decreased 7 cents from $2.09 to $2.02; ethanol (E85) decreased 2 cents from $1.86 to $1.84; propane decreased 8 cents from $2.85 to $2.77; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 18 cents from $2.41 to 2.23.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.04 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.33 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1 6/13/2016 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2016 Bourbon, E. 2/12/2016 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2016 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2016 and January 15, 2016, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 37 cents from $2.35 to $1.98; diesel decreased 36 cents from $2.59 to $2.23; CNG price is unchanged at $2.09; ethanol (E85) decreased 32 cents from $2.18 to $1.86; propane decreased 5 cents from $2.90 to $2.85; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 25 cents from $2.66 to 2.41.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.11 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.44 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2015 Bourbon, E. 12/10/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2015 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2015 and October 15, 2015, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 47 cents from $2.82 to $2.35; diesel decreased 34 cents from $2.93 to $2.59; CNG price decreased 3 cents from $2.12 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) decreased 18 cents from $2.36 to $2.18; propane remained unchanged at $2.90; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 27 cents from $2.93 to 2.66.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $.26 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.49 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Renewable Fuel Standard Program: Standards for 2014, 2015, and 2016 and Biomass-Based Diesel Volume for 2017; Final Rule 2/12/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Under section 211 of the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to set renewable fuel percentage standards every year. This action establishes the annual percentage standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel that apply to all motor vehicle gasoline and diesel produced or imported in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016. The EPA is establishing a cellulosic biofuel volume for all three years that is below the applicable volume specified in the Act, and is also rescinding the cellulosic biofuel standard for 2011. Relying on statutory waiver authorities, the EPA is adjusting the applicable volumes of advanced biofuel and total renewable fuel for all three years. The 2016 standards are expected to spur further progress in overcoming current constraints in renewable fuel distribution infrastructure, which in turn is expected to lead to substantial growth over time in the production and use of renewable fuels. In this action, EPA is also establishing the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel for 2017. Finally, EPA is setting the compliance and attest reporting deadlines for the years 2013, 2014, and 2015, as well as finalizing regulatory amendments to clarify the scope of the existing algal biofuel pathway. This final rule is effective on February 12, 2016.

Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends 3/2/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/22/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2 12/18/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities 2016 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 2/3/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2016 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

Model Year 2016: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/21/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2015 Bourbon, E. 7/31/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2015 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2015, and July 15, 2015, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 40 cents from $2.42 to $2.82; diesel increased 5 cents from $2.88 to $2.93; CNG increased 3 cents from $2.09 to $2.12; ethanol (E85) increased 23 cents from $2.13 to $2.36; propane decreased 3 cents from $2.93 to $2.90; and biodiesel (B20) increased 1 cent from $2.92 to $2.93.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $0.70 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis while E85 is $0.25 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Motor Fuel Excise Taxes 9/1/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado

A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1 7/24/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2015 Bourbon, E. 5/28/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2015 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2015 and April 15, 2015, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 12 cents from $2.30 to $2.42; diesel decreased 18 cents from $3.06 to $2.88; CNG price decreased 2 cents from $2.11 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) decreased 8 cents from $2.21 to $2.13; propane increased 1 cent from $2.92 to $2.93; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 26 cents from $3.18 to 3.92.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $.33 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.35 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2015 Bourbon, E. 3/17/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2015 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2015 and January 15, 2015, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased $1.04 from $3.34 to $2.30; diesel decreased 71 cents from $3.77 to $3.06; CNG price decreased 5 cents from $2.16 to $2.11; ethanol (E85) decreased 67 cents from $2.88 to $2.21; propane decreased 16 cents from $3.08 to $2.92; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 63 cents from $3.81 to 3.18.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $.19 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.82 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities 2015 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 2/11/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Drivers and fleets are increasingly turning to the hundreds of light-duty, alternative fuel, and advanced technology vehicle models that reduce petroleum use, save on fuel costs, and cut emissions. This guide provides a comprehensive list of the 2015 light-duty models that use alternative fuels or advanced fuel-saving technologies.

Alternative Transportation Refueling Infrastructure in the United States 2014: Status and Challenges Greene, D.L. 1/13/2015 Reports

University of Tennessee, Howard H. Baker JHr. Center for Public Policy, Knoxville, Tennessee

Lack of adequate refueling infrastructure is a major barrier to the success of alternative motor fuels. A transition from fossil petroleum to alternative, low-carbon transportation fuels appears to be necessary to mitigate the adverse impacts of global warming, strengthen energy security and meet air quality standards. Finding effective combinations of business models and public policies to accomplish a transition to alternative fuels poses a new and difficult challenge. Focusing on highway vehicles, this paper reviews the motivation for transition to alternative fuels, the current status of alternative fuel refueling infrastructure in the U.S., the costs of such infrastructure and business models and policies that have been proposed to achieve a successful transition. The goal of this paper is to serve as a basis for innovative thinking and discussion rather than as a comprehensive analysis of the issue. Infrastructure for producing and delivering fuels to refueling stations is equally important but is outside the scope of this paper.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 2 1/21/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October 2014 Bourbon, E. 12/23/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 1, 2014 and October 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 36 cents from $3.70 to $3.34; diesel decreased 14 cents from $3.91 to $3.77; CNG price decreased 1 cent from $2.17 to $2.16; ethanol (E85) decreased 35 cents from $3.23 to $2.88; propane increased 1 cent from $3.07 to $3.08; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 17 cents from $3.98 to 3.81.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.18 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.73 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D. 11/3/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

Model Year 2015: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/30/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/20/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

Using Recent Land Use Changes to Validate Land Use Change Models Babcock, B.A; Iqbal, Z. 11/14/2014 Reports

Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

Economics models used by California, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the EU Commission all predict significant emissions from conversion of land from forest and pasture to cropland in response to increased biofuel production. The models attrib-ute all supply response not captured by increased crop yields to land use conversion on the extensive margin. The dramatic increase in agricultural commodity prices since the mid-2000s seems ideally suited to test the reliability of these models by comparing actual land use changes that have occurred since the price increase to model predictions. Country-level data from FAOSTAT were used to measure land use changes. To smooth annual variations, changes in land use were measured as the change in average use across 2004 to 2006 compared to average use across 2010 to 2012. Separate measure-ments were made of changes in land use at the extensive margin, which involves bring-ing new land into agriculture, and changes in land use at the intensive margin, which includes increased double cropping, a reduction in unharvested land, a reduction in fallow land, and a reduction in temporary or mowed pasture. Changes in yield per harvested hectare were not considered in this study.

Increasing Biofuel Deployment and Utilization through Development of Renewable Super Premium: Infrastructure Assessment Moriarty, K.; Kass, M.; Theiss, T. 11/25/2014 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

A high octane fuel and specialized vehicle are under consideration as a market opportunity to meet federal requirements for renewable fuel use and fuel economy. Infrastructure is often cited as a barrier for the introduction of a new fuel. This report assesses infrastructure readiness for E25 (25% ethanol; 75% gasoline) and E25+ (more than 25% ethanol). Both above-ground and below-ground equipment are considered as are the current state of stations, codes and regulations, and materials compatibility.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2014 Bourbon, E. 7/31/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2014 and July 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 5 cents from $3.65 to $3.70; diesel decreased 6 cents from $3.97 to $3.91; CNG price increased 2 cents from $2.15 to $2.17; ethanol (E85) decreased 18 cents from $3.41 to $3.23; propane decreased 24 cents from $3.31 to $3.07; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 3 cents from $4.01 to 3.98.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.53 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.86 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2014 Bourbon, E. 6/3/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2014 and April 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 31 cents from $3.34 to $3.65; diesel increased 8 cents from $3.89 to $3.97; CNG price increased 6 cents from $2.09 to $2.15; ethanol (E85) increased 37 cents from $3.04 to $3.41; propane increased 19 cents from $3.12 to $3.31; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 5 cents from $3.97 to $4.01.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.50 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $1.17 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Effect of Accelerated Aging Rate on the Capture of Fuel-Borne Metal Impurities by Emissions Control Devices Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Lance, M.; Xie, C.; Toops, T.; Brezny, R. 4/1/2014 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Manufacturers of Emission Controls Assoc, Arlington, Virginia

Small impurities in the fuel can have a significant impact on the emissions control system performance over the lifetime of the vehicle. Of particular interest in recent studies has been the impact of sodium, potassium, and calcium that can be introduced either through fuel constituents, such as biodiesel, or as lubricant additives. In a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a series of accelerated aging studies have been performed to understand the potential impact of these metals on the emissions control system. This paper explores the effect of the rate of accelerated aging on the capture of fuel-borne metal impurities in the emission control devices and the subsequent impact on performance. Aging was accelerated by doping the fuel with high levels of the metals of interest. Three separate evaluations were performed, each with a different rate of accelerated aging. The aged emissions control systems were evaluated through vehicle testing and then dissected for a more complete analysis of the devices. Results from these experiments show that increasing the rate of acceleration impacts the amount of fuel-borne metals that are captured by the catalyst, which subsequently impacts the catalyst performance. Beyond a certain threshold, the acceleration rate creates an artificial mechanism for catalyst deactivation. In the range of acceleration rates that were examined in this study, these effects were primarily

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2014 Bourbon, E. 3/4/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2014 and January 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 11 cents from $3.45 to $3.34; diesel decreased 2 cents from $3.91 to $3.89; CNG price remained the same at $2.09; ethanol (E85) also remained the same at $3.04; propane increased 16 cents from $2.96 to $3.12; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 5 cents from $4.02 to $3.97.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.25 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.95 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel? 1/8/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

FY 2013 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 2/1/2014 Reports

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, , Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington D.C.

The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 2013 Annual Progress Report discusses the potential benefits of advanced fuel and lubricant technologies including energy security, environmental sustainability and economic improvement.

EPAct Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 3/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 1/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, October, 2013 Bourbon, E. 12/3/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for October 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between October 4, 2013 and October 18, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 20 cents from $3.65 to $3.45; diesel remained the same at $3.91; CNG price has decreased 5 cents, from $2.14 to $2.09; ethanol (E85) has decreased 19 cents from $3.23 to $3.04; propane increased 23 cents from $2.73 to $2.96; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 13 cents from $3.89 to $4.02.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.36 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $0.22 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Model Year 2014: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 11/25/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C. 12/5/2013 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge.</p><p>Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Advanced Biofuel Market Report 2013; Capacity through 2016 Solecki, M.; Scodel, A.; Epstein, B. 9/1/2013 Reports

Environmental Entrepreneurs (E2), San Francisco, California; Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

This report catalogs the growth and challenges of the advanced biofuel industry and provides updates on developments since the publication of last year's report in 2012. The scope of this work includes active advanced biofuel projects in the United States and Canada. Each project included in this report achieves at least a 50% reduction in carbon intensity relative to a petroleum baseline, using the direct and indirect effects as measured by the California Air Resources Board.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July, 2013 Babcock, S. 8/1/2013 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2013 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 12, 2013 and July 26, 2013, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 6 cents from $3.59 to $3.65; diesel has decreased 8 cents from $3.99 to $3.91; CNG price has increased 4 cents, from $2.10 to $2.14; ethanol (E85) has decreased 7 cents from $3.30 to $3.23; propane in unchanged at $2.73; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 22 cents from $4.11 to $3.89.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is about $1.51 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is about $0.92 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

FY 2012 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 6/21/2013 Reports

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, , Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington D.C.

The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies 2012 Annual Progress Report discusses the potential benefits of advanced fuel and lubricant technologies including energy security, environmental sustainability and economic improvement.

Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.; Toops, T.; Wereszczak, A. A.; Fox, E. E.; Lance, M. J.; Cavataio, G.; Dobson, D.; Warner, J.; Brezny, R.; Nguyen, K.; Brookshear, D. W. 4/8/2013 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan; Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association, Washington, DC; University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.

Notes: Posted with permission. Presented at the SAE 2013 World Congress and Exhibition, 16-18 April 2013, Detroit, Michigan.