Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Global EV Outlook 2016 5/31/2016 Reports

International Energy Agency, Paris, France

In 2015, the global threshold of one million EVs on the road was exceeded, an achievement resulting from lowered vehicle costs, extended vehicle range, and reduced consumer barriers. However, EVs account for a small fraction of the global vehicle stock for almost all transport modes. This report aims to provide an update on recent developments in EV registrations, EV stock estimates, and the availability and characteristics of electric vehicle charging equipment. It also touches upon recent research and policy support.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Energy Agency's website.

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). SAE Paper No. 2018-37-0026 Chowdhury, S.; Leitzel, L.; Zima, M.; Santacesaria, M.; Titov, G.; Lustbader, J.; Rugh, J.; Winkler, J.; Khawaja, A.; Govindarajalu, M. 5/30/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Mahle Behr Troy Inc., Troy, Michigan; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorardo; FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, Michigan

The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal subsystem loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below -10 degrees C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs. Demonstrated on a 2015 Fiat 500e BEV, this system integrates a semi-hermetic refrigeration loop with a coolant network and serves three functions: (1) heating and/or cooling vehicle traction components (battery, power electronics, and motor) (2) heating and cooling of the cabin, and (3) waste energy harvesting and re-use. The modes of operation allow a heat pump and air conditioning system to function without reversing the refrigeration cycle to improve thermal efficiency. The refrigeration loop consists of an electric compressor, a thermal expansion valve, a coolant-cooled condenser, and a chiller, the latter two exchanging heat with hot and cold coolant streams that may be directed to various components of the thermal system. The coolant-based heat distribution is adaptable and saves significant amounts of refrigerant per vehicle. Also, a coolant-based system reduces refrigerant emissions by requiring fewer refrigerant pipe joints. The authors present bench-level test data and simulation analysis and describe a preliminary control scheme for this system.

Cooperative and Integrated Vehicle and Intersection Control for Energy Efficiency (CIVIC-E2) Hou, Y.; Seliman, S.M.S.; Wang, E.; Gonder, J.D.; Wood, E.; He, Q.; Sadek, A.W.; Su, L.; Qiao, C. 6/28/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

State University of New York, Buffalo, New York; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Recent advances in connected vehicle technologies enable vehicles and signal controllers to cooperate and improve the traffic management at intersections. This paper explores the opportunity for cooperative and integrated vehicle and intersection control for energy efficiency (CIVIC-E2) to contribute to a more sustainable transportation system. We propose a two-level approach that jointly optimizes the traffic signal timing and vehicles' approach speed, with the objective being to minimize total energy consumption for all vehicles passing through an isolated intersection. More specifically, at the intersection level, a dynamic programming algorithm is designed to find the optimal signal timing by explicitly considering the arrival time and energy profile of each vehicle. At the vehicle level, a model predictive control strategy is adopted to ensure that vehicles pass through the intersection in a timely fashion. Our simulation study has shown that the proposed CIVIC-E2 system can significantly improve intersection performance under various traffic conditions. Compared with conventional fixed-time and actuated signal control strategies, the proposed algorithm can reduce energy consumption and queue length by up to 31% and 95%, respectively.

Quantifying the Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Gap Across U.S. Markets Nicholas; M.; Hall, D.; Lutsey, N. 1/23/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

The electrification of the United States vehicle market continues, with the most growth occurring in markets where barriers are addressed through policy, charging infrastructure, and consumer incentives. This report quantifies the gap in charging infrastructure from what was deployed through 2017 to what is needed to power more than 3 million expected electric vehicles by 2025, consistent with automaker, policy, and underlying market trends. Based on the expected growth across the 100 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas, this report estimates the amount of charging of various types that will be needed to power these vehicles.

Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-0667 Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Kontou, E.; Motoaki, Y.; Smart, J.; Zhou, Z. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Today's electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations. Results suggest that the hypothetical transportation network company fleet increases daily vehicle miles traveled per EV with less overall down time, resulting in increased demand for DCFC. Sites with overhead service lines are recommended for hosting DCFC stations to minimize the need for trenching underground service lines. A negative relationship was found between cost per unit of energy and fast charging utilization, underscoring the importance of prioritizing utilization over installation costs when siting DCFC stations. Although this preliminary analysis of the impacts of new mobility paradigms on alternative fueling infrastructure requirements has produced several key results, the complexity of the problem warrants further investigation.

Assessing Ride-Hailing Company Commitments to Electrification Slowik, P.; Fedirko, L.; Lutsey, N. 2/7/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington D.C.; ClimateWorks Foundation, Denver, Colorado

This briefing assesses electric vehicle adoption among five of the world’s largest ride-hailing companies. It discusses company-specific electric vehicle adoption, examines plans for future growth, and catalogs the unique actions that companies are exploring to promote electric ride-hailing on their platforms.

Strategic Planning to Implement Publicly Available EV Charging Stations: A Guide for Businesses and Policymakers Nigro, N.; Welch, D.; Peace, J. 7/1/2015 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

This guide, prepared for the National Association of State Energy Officials, answers questions that private investors and state and local agencies, such as state energy offices, may have in deciding whether and to what extent they should invest in publicly available charging infrastructure. It demonstrates that with continued public support in the near term, new business models could gradually make publicly available charging projects profitable for private businesses without additional government interventions.

Meeting 2025 Zero Emission Vehicle Goals: An Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure in Maryland Moniot, M.; Rames, C.; Wood, E. 2/20/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been enlisted to conduct a statewide assessment of the electric vehicle charging infrastructure requirements for Maryland to meet its goal of supporting 300,000 zero emission vehicles by 2025. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) was used to generate scenarios of statewide charging infrastructure to support consumer plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption based on travel patterns provided by INRIX (a commercial mapping/traffic company) that are used to characterize regional travel in Maryland and to anticipate future demand for PEV charging. Results indicate that significant expansion of Maryland's electric vehicle charging infrastructure will be required to support the state's PEV goal for 2025. Analysis shows that a fleet of 300,000 PEVs will require 17,400 workplace Level 2 plugs, 9,300 public Level 2 plugs, and 1,000 fast charge plugs. These estimates assume that future PEVs will be driven in a manner consistent with present day gasoline vehicles and that most charging will happen at residential locations. A sensitivity study explores edge cases pertaining to several assumptions, highlighting factors that heavily influence the projected infrastructure requirements. Variations in the makeup of the PEV fleet, evolving consumer charging preferences, and availability of residential charging are all shown to influence 2025 infrastructure requirements.

Electric Vehicle Charger Selection Guide 1/11/2018 Reports

Redwood Coast Energy Authority, Eureka, California; Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, California; Siskiyou County Economic Development Council, Yreka, California; Local Government Commission/Civic Spark, Sacramento, California

The goal of this guide is to help site hosts and others learn about, evaluate, and compare the features of EV charging equipment to assist them in selecting a charger for their application. Additionally, this guide provides an overview of electric vehicle charger equipment, how it works, and considerations when making a purchase.

Model Year 2019: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 2/8/2019 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Electric-Drive Vehicles 9/11/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

Model Year 2019 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 12/19/2018 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Model Year 2018: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 8/7/2018 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Development of 80- and 100- Mile Work Day Cycles Representative of Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation Duran, A.; Li, K.; Kresse, J.; Kelly, K. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Cummins Inc, Columbus, Indiana

When developing and designing new technology for integrated vehicle systems deployment, standard cycles have long existed for chassis dynamometer testing and tuning of the powertrain. However, to this day with recent developments and advancements in plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle technology, no true 'work day' cycles exist with which to tune and measure energy storage control and thermal management systems. To address these issues and in support of development of a range-extended pickup and delivery Class 6 commercial vehicle, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in collaboration with Cummins analyzed 78,000 days of operational data captured from more than 260 vehicles operating across the United States to characterize the typical daily performance requirements associated with Class 6 commercial pickup and delivery operation. In total, over 2.5 million miles of real-world vehicle operation were condensed into a pair of duty cycles, an 80-mile cycle and a 100-mile cycle representative of the daily operation of U.S. class 3-6 commercial pickup and delivery trucks. Using novel machine learning clustering methods combined with mileage-based weighting, these composite representative cycles correspond to 90th and 95th percentiles for daily vehicle miles traveled by the vehicles observed. In addition to including vehicle speed vs time drive cycles, in an effort to better represent the environmental factors encountered by pickup and delivery vehicles operating across the United States, a nationally representative grade profile and key status information were also appended to the speed vs. time profiles to produce a 'work day' cycle that captures the effects of vehicle dynamics, geography, and driver behavior which can be used for future design, development, and validation of technology.

From Gas to Grid: Building Charging Infrastructure to Power Electric Vehicle Demand Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C. 10/3/2017 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

This report identifies the key hurdles that have inhibited the growth of charging infrastructure, and explains how they might be overcome, along with the best practices for siting chargers and designing electricity tariffs for EV charging stations.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is available on the Rocky Mountain Institute website.

Utility Investment in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Key Regulatory Considerations Allen, P.; Van Horn, G.; Goetz, M.; Bradbury, J.; Zyla, K. 11/13/2017 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, LLC, Concord, Massachusetts; Georgetown Climate Center, Washington, D.C.

The report provides an overview of the accelerating electrification of the transportation sector and explores the role of state utility regulators in evaluating potential investments by electric utilities in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure. The report identifies key considerations for regulators, including the amount of charging infrastructure needed to support PEVs, ways that regulators can help ensure equitable access to charging infrastructure, and opportunities to maximize the benefits of utility investment in charging infrastructure.

Business Models for Financially Sustainable EV Charging Networks Nigro, N.; Frades, M. 3/3/2015 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

In May 2014, the Washington State Legislature's Joint Transportation Committee commissioned a study to develop new business models that will foster private sector commercialization of publicly available EV charging services and expand the role of private sector investment in EV charging throughout the state.</p><p>The results of this new study demonstrate that, with continued public support and EV market growth in the near term, it is reasonable to expect the private sector to be able to be the predominant source of funding for publicly available commercial charging stations within approximately five years.

Transportation Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Technology and Market Assessment Birky, A.K.; Laughlin, M.; Tartaglia, K.; Price, R.; Lin, Z. 9/1/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oakridge, Tennessee

This report focuses on electrification of government, commercial, and industrial fleets and provides the background necessary to understand the potential for electrification in these markets. Specifically, it covers the challenges and opportunities for electrification in the service and goods and people movement fleets to guide policy makers and researchers in identifying where federal investment in electrification could be most beneficial.

Considerations for Corridor and Community DC Fast Charging Complex System Design Francfort, J.; Salisbury, S.; Smart, J.; Garetson, T.; Karner, D. 6/15/2017 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls Idaho; Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, Arizona

This report focuses on direct current fast charger (DCFC) systems and how they can be deployed to provide convenient charging for plug-in electric vehicle drivers. First, the report shares lessons learned from previous DCFC deployment and data collection activities. Second, it establishes considerations and criteria for designing and upgrading DCFC complexes. Third, it provides cost estimates for hypothetical high-power DCFC complexes that meet simplified design requirements. Finally, it presents results for a business case analysis that shed light on the financial challenges associated with DCFCs.

National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Muratori, M.; Raghavan, S.; Melaina, M. 9/1/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

Field Evaluation of Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Trucks Prohaska, R.; Simpson, M.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.; Smith, K.; Walkowicz, K. 12/16/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report focuses on medium-duty electric delivery vehicles operated by Frito-Lay North America (FLNA) at its Federal Way, Washington, distribution center. The 100% electric drive system is an alternative to conventional diesel delivery trucks and reduces both energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific electric vehicle (EV) technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source. In addition to characterizing the in-use performance of the EVs compared to the conventional diesels, detailed facility load data were collected at the main building power feed as well as from each of the 10 EV chargers to better understand the broader implications associated with commercial EV deployment. These facility loads were incorporated into several modeling scenarios to demonstrate the potential benefits of integrating onsite renewables.

Implementing Workplace Charging within Federal Agencies Smith, M. 4/19/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland

This case study, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office, draws from available information and lessons learned from federal agencies that have piloted plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) workplace charging programs. It can be challenging for organizations to involve all the key stakeholders needed to develop a charging program, but engaging them at an early stage can simplify the process of setting an adequate plan for the workplace. Key stakeholders may include workplace charging managers, facilities managers, parking managers, employee PEV drivers, legal counsel, employee benefits managers, and union representatives.</p><p>Multiple PEV charging stations are available on the GSA schedule. Agencies will need to select the charging station type and design that is most appropriate for each specific worksite - Level 1, Level 2, or DC Fast Charging. In addition, the GSA Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA) can help reduce upfront costs, which will help keep the reimbursement fees within the threshold of what employees are willing to pay.

Workplace Charging Challenge - Progress Update 2016: A New Sustainable Commute 12/12/2016 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

In June 2016, the Workplace Charging Challenge distributed its third annual survey to 295 partners with the goal of tracking partners' progress and identifying trends in workplace charging. This document summarizes findings from the survey and highlights accomplishments of the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge.

Model Year 2017: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 4/18/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge 11/17/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 150 partner organizations are accelerating the development of the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations for more than 600,000 employees at more than 300 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry Lommele, S.; Ryder, C. 10/10/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, ICF International; Golden, Colorado, Fairfax, Virginia

In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public wellbeing and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Volume I Melaina, M.; Bush, B.; Eichman, J.; Wood, E.; Stright, D.; Krishnan, V.; Keyser, D.; Mai, T.; McLaren, J. 12/1/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can reduce household fuel expenditures by substituting electricity for gasoline while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum imports. A scenario approach is employed to provide insights into the long-term economic value of increased PEV market growth across the United States. The analytic methods estimate fundamental costs and benefits associated with an economic allocation of PEVs across households based upon household driving patterns, projected vehicle cost and performance attributes, and simulations of a future electricity grid. To explore the full technological potential of PEVs and resulting demands on the electricity grid, very high PEV market growth projections from previous studies are relied upon to develop multiple future scenarios.

Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Resources Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C.; and Newcomb, J. 6/15/2016 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

Several key forces are combining to accelerate the pace of EV adoption, such as customer interest, increased scale of production, and availability of charging infrastructure. This report focuses on the changing incentives and emerging technological options that are shifting the way utilities and other grid operators perceive EV charging opportunities. Together, these two sets of forces are creating new opportunities and increased scale for smart EV-charging solutions. It also covers the important questions that emerge for regulators, policymakers, and utilities.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Rocky Mountain Institute's website.

At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles 7/13/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging Lommele, S.; Dafoe, W. 6/29/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As stewards of an electric grid that is available almost anywhere people park, utilities that support workplace charging are uniquely positioned to help their commercial customers be a part of the rapidly expanding network of charging infrastructure. Utilities understand the distinctive challenges of their customers, have access to technical information about electrical infrastructure, and have deep experience modeling and managing demand for electricity. This case study highlights the experiences of two utilities with workplace charging programs.

Drive Electric Vermont Case Study Wagner, F.; Roberts, D.; Francfort, J.; White, S. 3/21/2016 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland; Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, Vermont; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

The U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is working to identify barriers and opportunities to plugin electric vehicle (PEV) adoption. The Department of Energy developed a case study with Drive Electric Vermont to identify the lessons learned and best practices for successful PEV and charging infrastructure deployment in small and midsize communities. This is a snapshot of the findings.

Workplace Charging: Charging Up University Campuses Giles, C.; Ryder, C.; Lommele, S. 3/4/2016 Reports

ICF International, Fairvax, Virginia; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

The Role of Demand-Side Incentives and Charging Infrastructure on Plug-in Electric Vehicle Adoption: Analysis of US States. Paper No. 074032 Narassimhan, E.; Johnson, C. 7/13/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Tufts University, Medford, Massachussets; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In the U.S., over 400 state and local incentives have been issued to increase the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) since 2008. This article quantifies the influence of key incentives and enabling factors like charging infrastructure and receptive demographics on PEV adoption. The study focuses on three central questions. First, do consumers respond to certain types of state level vehicle purchase incentives? Second, does the density of public charging infrastructure increase PEV purchases? Finally, does the impact of various factors differ for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and vehicle attributes within each category? Based on a regression of vehicle purchase data from 2008 to 2016, we found that tax incentives and charging infrastructure significantly influence per capita PEV purchases. Within tax incentives, rebates are generally more effective than tax credits. BEV purchases are more affected by tax incentives than PHEVs. The correlation of public charging and vehicle purchases increases with the battery-only driving range of a PHEV, while decreasing with increasing driving range of BEVs. Results indicate that early investments in charging infrastructure, particularly along highways; tax incentives targeting BEVs at the lower end of the price premium and PHEVs with higher battery only driving range, and better reflection of the environmental cost of owning gasoline vehicles are likely to increase PEV adoption in the U.S.

Notes:

This journal article (Environmental Research Letters, Volume 13, Number 7) is copyrighted by IOP Publishing and can be downloaded from the IOPScience website.

Range Extension Opportunities While Heating a Battery Electric Vehicle. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-0066 Meyer, J.J.; Lustbader, J.; Agathocleous, N.; Vespa, A.; Rugh, J.; Titov, G. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Hanon Systems, Carey, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc, Chino, California

The Kia Soul battery electric vehicle (BEV) is available with either a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) heater or an R134a heat pump (HP) with PTC heater combination (1). The HP uses both ambient air and waste heat from the motor, inverter, and on-board-charger (OBC) for its heat source. Hanon Systems, Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory jointly, with financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy, developed and proved-out technologies that extend the driving range of a Kia Soul BEV while maintaining thermal comfort in cold climates. Improved system configuration concepts that use thermal storage and waste heat more effectively were developed and evaluated. Range extensions of 5%-22% at ambient temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C to -18 degrees C were demonstrated. This paper reviews the three-year effort, including test data of the baseline and modified vehicles, resulting range extension, and recommendations for future actions.

Initial Assessment and Modeling Framework Development for Automated Mobility Districts: Preprint Young, S.E.; Hou, Y.; Garikapati, V.; Chen, Y.; Zhu, L. 2/7/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displaces private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This paper examines a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMD). This paper reviews several such districts, including airports, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit-based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

Workplace Charging Challenge, Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In 12/1/2015 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

This Program Review takes an unprecedented look at the state of workplace charging in the United States -- a report made possible by U.S. Department of Energy leadership and valuable support from our partners as they share their progress in developing robust workplace charging programs. Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 250 participants are accelerating the development the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations at more than 440 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

Enabling Fast Charging - Infrastructure and Economic Considerations Burnham, A.; Dufek, E.J.; Stephens, T.; Francfort, J.; Michelbacher, C.; Carlson, R.B.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Dias, F.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D.; Hardy, K.; Shirk, M.; Hovsapian, R.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Pesaran, A.; Tanim, T.R. 10/10/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehicle service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. extreme fast charging (XFC); electric vehicle infrastructure; battery electric vehicles; demand charges; total cost of ownership, economicsIn so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 237-249) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

2018 Annual Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 7/23/2018 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state's decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2 12/18/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Plugged In: How Americans Charge Their Electric Vehicles 9/1/2015 Reports

Idano National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

The U.S. Department of Energy's EV Project and the ChargePoint America project, combined, formed the largest PEV infrastructure demonstration in the world. Between Jan. 1, 2011, and Dec. 31, 2013, this combined project installed nearly 17,000 alternating current (AC) Level 2 charging stations for residential and commercial use and over 100 dual-port direct current (DC) fast chargers in 22 regions across the United States. This report is a summary of the findings from these projects.

Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version) 8/17/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

Model Year 2016: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/21/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Enabling Fast Charging - Vehicle Considerations Meintz, A.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Kreutzer, C.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham, A.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Francfort, J.; Hardy, K.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Markel, A.; Michelbacher, C.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Pesaran, A.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Tanim, T. 10/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 216-227) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis Francfort, J.; Bennett, B.; Carlson, R.; Garretson, T.; Gourley, L.; Karner, D.; Kirkpatrick, M.; McGuire, P.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Salisbury, S.; Schey, S.; Smart, J.; White, S.; Wishart, J. 9/29/2015 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, Arizona; Intertek Center for the Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology, Phoenix, Arizona

Widespread adoption of PEVs has the potential to significantly reduce the United States transportation petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, barriers to adoption remain. One of the most commonly cited barriers is the need for public charging infrastructure that would allow PEV drivers to recharge their vehicles. Questions include: how many and what kind of charging stations are needed and where and how often will PEV drivers choose to charge? </p><p> To answer those questions, the Department of Energy launched five American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) projects: 1.) ChargePoint America - PEV Charging Infrastructure Demonstration; 2. Chrysler Ram PEV Pickup - PEV Demonstration; 3.) General Motors Chevrolet Volt - PEV Demonstration; 4.) The EV Project - PEV and PEV Charging Infrastructure Demonstration; and 5.) South Coast Air Quality Management District/Electric Power Research Institute/Via Motors - PEV Demonstration. </p><p> This report was designed to describe the scope and objectives for the five ARRA Transportation Electrification projects; describe technologies used in each project; document each projects' deployment and data collection rates; document how reporting occurred; document results; summarize results; and document lessons learned from each project.

Enabling Fast Charging: A Technology Gap Assessment Howell, D.; Boyd, S.; Cunningham, B.; Gillard, S.; Slezak, L.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham, A.; Hardy, K.; Jansen, A.N.; Nelson, P.A.; Robertson, D.C.; Stephens, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Michelbacher, C.J.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Tanim, T.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Li, O.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Zhang, J. 10/1/2017 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In this report, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory teamed with Argonne National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to identify technical gaps to implementing an extreme fast charging network in the United States. This report highlights technical gaps at the battery, vehicle, and infrastructure levels.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1 7/24/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

What were the "Best Practices" Identified for Residential Charger Installations? 4/1/2015 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

This lessons learned white paper is based on data from the EV Project which enrolled 8,000 residential participants to install and use residential electric vehicle supply equipment. Along with background information and key conclusions, this paper describes observations regarding permitting practices and best installation conditions.

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish Version) 6/9/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers 2/9/2015 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

Supporting the Plug-In Electric Vehicle Market: Best Practices from State PEV Programs Powers, C. 1/14/2015 Reports

Georgetown Climate Center, Washington DC

This paper captures best practices in state-sponsored plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) buyer incentive programs, DC fast charging programs, and PEV awareness initiatives, as presented at the Transportation and Climate Initiative's 2014 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Workshop.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is available on the Georgetown Climate Center website

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 2 1/21/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Progress Report: Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles - Version 2.0 11/3/2014 Reports

American National Standards Institute, Washington, DC

In January 2014, the American National Standards Institute Electric Vehicles Standards Panel (ANSI EVSP) resumed work to assess existing and needed standards and conformity assessment solutions to enable electric vehicles and charging infrastructure to be deployed throughout the United States. This report assesses progress to address the standardization gaps identified in the Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles - Version 2.0 (May 2013). It also includes updates on significant standardization activity related to the issues identified in the roadmap.

Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations McLaren, J. 9/1/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Increasing demand for EV charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policymakers, utilities, and potential adopters. This paper introduces regulatory and policy options available to policymakers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging. Additionally, it summarizes considerations regarding EV charging during the day versus at night and benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies.

Model Year 2015: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 10/30/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment 10/10/2014 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 18, No. 1 4/30/2014 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

A Guide to the Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities Community Electric Vehicle Readiness Projects Frades, M. 1/1/2014 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions

This report summarizes the activities, outputs, and lessons of a series of projects that are intended to advance the deployment of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) that was launched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2011.

Model Year 2014: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 11/25/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The fact sheet details the model, vehicle type, emission class, transmission type/speeds, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of flexible fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric, and extended range electric vehicles, as well as CNG and propane vehicles.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2 10/23/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

Best Practices for Workplace Charging 9/1/2013 Reports

CALSTART, Pasadena, California

This document is a resource for employers and employees interested in launching a workplace charging program at their place of business.

Notes: This publication is copyrighted by Calstart and is accessed at on the Calstart publications page.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts 8/1/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

EVSP Standardization Roadmap for Electric Vehicles, Version 2.0 5/13/2013 Reports

American National Standards Institute, Washington, DC

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) convened the Electric Vehicles Standards Panel (ANSI EVSP or "the Panel") to assess the standards and conformance programs needed to facilitate the safe, mass deployment of EVs and charging infrastructure in the United States. The decision to form the Panel was made at a meeting of key stakeholders in March 2011 which ANSI convened in response to suggestions that the U.S. standardization community needed a more coordinated approach to keep pace with electric vehicle initiatives moving forward in other parts of the world. This effort draws upon participants from the automotive, utilities, and electrotechnical sectors as well as from standards developing organizations (SDOs or "developers") and government agencies.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1 5/24/2013 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country. This issue celebrates the 20th anniversary of the Clean Cities program.

U.S. DRIVE 2012 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments 3/1/2013 Reports

U.S. DRIVE Partners

U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary government-industry partnership focused on precompetitive, advanced automotive and related infrastructure technology research and development (R&D). Partners are the United States Department of Energy (DOE); the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR)--a consortium composed of Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors; Tesla Motors, Inc.; five energy companies--BP America, Chevron Corporation, Phillips 66 Company, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Oil Products US; two electric utilities--DTE Energy and Southern California Edison; and the Electric Power Research Institute.</p><p>By providing a framework for frequent and regular interaction among technical experts in common areas of expertise, the Partnership accelerates technical progress, helps to avoid duplication of efforts, ensures that publicly funded research delivers high-value results, and overcomes high-risk barriers to technology commercialization.</p><p>U.S. DRIVE partners selected the technical highlights contained in this document from hundreds of DOE-funded projects conducted by some of the nation's top scientists and engineers. Each one-page summary represents what DOE and automotive, energy, and utility industry partners collectively consider to be significant progress in the development of advanced automotive and infrastructure technologies.

Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment: Interim Report (2013) 1/1/2013 Reports

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC

This interim report by the Committee on Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment, was commissioned by the Department of Energy at the request of Congress to address market barriers to adoption of electric vehicles. The report focuses on near-term options, and specifically addresses infrastructure needs for electric vehicles; barriers to deploying the infrastructure; and possible roles of the federal government in overcoming the barriers. It also begins an initial discussion of the pros and cons of the possible roles.

Notes: This document is copyrighted by The National Academies Press. It can be located on their website

Harmonization of Road Signs for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations 11/1/2012 Reports

Clean Fuels Consulting, Washington, D.C.

This report details the state-of-play for international road signage for EVs, including the background and status of the creation of international on-road signage for electric vehicle charging stations at the United Nations where international legal recognition of signage is regulated.

Advanced Biofuel Market Report 2013; Capacity through 2016 Solecki, M.; Scodel, A.; Epstein, B. 9/1/2013 Reports

Environmental Entrepreneurs (E2), San Francisco, California; Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California

This report catalogs the growth and challenges of the advanced biofuel industry and provides updates on developments since the publication of last year's report in 2012. The scope of this work includes active advanced biofuel projects in the United States and Canada. Each project included in this report achieves at least a 50% reduction in carbon intensity relative to a petroleum baseline, using the direct and indirect effects as measured by the California Air Resources Board.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Deployment in the Northeast; A Market Overview and Literature Review Zhu, C.; Nigro, N. 9/1/2012 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions; Arlington, Virginia

Electric vehicles have the potential to decrease our nation's dependence on oil and drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. In an effort to stimulate economic growth, decrease the United States' dependence on oil, and lessen the operating cost of personal transportation, the federal government issued a final rule in 2012 requiring new cars to average 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. This goal is ambitious and will be difficult to accomplish without significant numbers of alternative fuel vehicles. Several alternative fuels are currently available, but electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as the predominant alternative for passenger vehicles. While EVs are hitting the market and offer numerous advantages, such as zero tailpipe emissions, lower fuel costs, and the convenience of filling up at home, a number of barriers stand in the way of wide-scale EV deployment.</p><p>This literature review, prepared by the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, provides an overview of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) deployment in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states. The report assesses current electric vehicle and electric vehicle charging station technology, looks at the state of PEV markets, reviews the benefits of PEV deployment, and identifies the barriers and challenges to PEVs in gaining market acceptance. The literature review is intended to serve as a resource for consumers and policy makers who seek to better understand the nature of electric vehicle deployment in this region and related challenges.

Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Challenges and Opportunities Khan, S., Kushler, M. 6/12/2013 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC

This report discusses the challenges facing widespread adoption of PEVs from both transportation and utility sector perspectives. It explains the importance of addressing those challenges and presents recommendations to achieve that end.

Notes: This copyrighted document can be downloaded from the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy website.

Increasing Electric Vehicle Charging Access in Multi-Unit Dwellings in Los Angeles Balmin, J.; Bonett, G.; Kirkeby, M. 7/1/2012 Reports

UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs, UCLA Luskin Center for Innovation, Los Angeles, California

This report is a graduate student research project which aims to identify barriers, evaluate existing policies supporting home EV charging installations, and recommend policy options to address challenges to charging in multi-unit dwellings in the City of Los Angeles.

Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.; Toops, T.; Wereszczak, A. A.; Fox, E. E.; Lance, M. J.; Cavataio, G.; Dobson, D.; Warner, J.; Brezny, R.; Nguyen, K.; Brookshear, D. W. 4/8/2013 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan; Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association, Washington, DC; University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.

Notes: Posted with permission. Presented at the SAE 2013 World Congress and Exhibition, 16-18 April 2013, Detroit, Michigan.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical Contractors 4/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colordao

This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, charging equipment installation, and training for electrical contractors.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers 4/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts 4/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, and considerations for station owners, property owners, and station hosts.

Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 3/1/2012 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas.

Electric Vehicle Policies, Fleet, and Infrastructure: Synthesis Lindquist, K.; Lindquist, K.; Wendt, M. 11/1/2011 Reports

Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, Washington

Transportation Synthesis Reports (TSRs) are brief summaries of currently available information on topics of interest to WSDOT staff. Online and print sources may include newspaper and periodical articles, NCHRP and other TRB programs, AASHTO, the research and practices of other state DOTs and related academic and industry research. Internet hyperlinks in the TSRs are active at the time of publication, but host server changes can make them obsolete.

U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan Johnson, C. 9/1/2011 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO

The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 60% by 2025 compared to the business-as-usual scenario. Ground-based transportation is responsible for 40% of USVI petroleum use, so the USVI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) set up a Transportation working group (TWG) to devise a way to meet the 60% reduction goal in the transportation sector. This report lays out the TWG's plan.

NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use Project Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A. 6/1/2010 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) is restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery's cost via reuse in other applications after it is retired from service in the vehicle, when the battery may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy storage applications.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 15, No. 1 4/1/2011 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now features news and articles about Clean Cities coalition activities in promoting the reduction in the use of petroleum transportation fuel. The April 2011 issue features several stories about electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.

Plug-in Electric Vehicles: A Practical Plan for Progress 2/1/2011 Reports

Transport Electrification Panel, commissioned by the Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Bloomington, Indiana

This report examines public policies toward plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) including all electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). It examines the pros and cons of PEVs, recent improvements in battery technology, market dynamics, and the proliferation of policies around the world that promote the use of PEVs. The focus is primarily near term (i.e., 2011-25), recognizing that the transportation electrification process will evolve in stages based on lessons learned in the years ahead. The report represents the views of the Transport Electrification Panel (TEP), a group of experts from multiple disciplines and organizations commissioned by the Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs.

Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide 1/1/2011 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Guidebook to available Model Year 2011 alternative fuel and advanced vehicles including electric, plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles as well as vehicles powered by natural gas, propane, ethanol and biodiesel.

Vehicle Technologies Program: Goals, Strategies, and Top Accomplishments 12/1/2010 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) is meeting this American dependence on oil with an integrated portfolio of advanced vehicle and fuel research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities. VTP accomplishes this work in collaboration with industryleaders, national laboratories, universities, state and local governments, and other stakeholders--harnessing a vast resource of expertise to help technologies developed in the laboratory make the transition to commercially successful products.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 14, No. 2 9/1/2010 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now, a semi-annual publication, is a roundup of events and news about the Clean Cities Coalitions including the Plug-In Vehicle and Infrastructure Workshop (July 2010), propane conversions, and stories about successful applications of alternative fuels.

Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Guide for Local Governments in Washington State Technical Advisory Committee 7/1/2010 Reports

Washington State Department of Commerce, Olympia, Washington; Puget Sound Regional Council, Seattle, Washington

In 2009 the Washington State Legislature enacted a new law designed to encourage electric vehicles. To create a consistent regulatory framework that would help this industry grow across Washington State, the legislature required the Puget Sound Regional Council and Department of Commerce to develop guidance for local governments. To meet this requirement, a broad-based technical advisory committee made up of local governments, charging equipment vendors, utilities, ports, state agencies, and consumer interests was formed. The state's new electric vehicle law requires that all local governments in Washington State allow electric vehicle charging stations in most of their zoning categories. Allowing charging stations creates the need to address a number of issues beyond zoning. These include on-street and off-street signage, charging station design standards, parking enforcement, accessibility for all users, SEPA exemptions, and more. These issues are addressed in this document.

Technology Improvement Pathways to Cost-Effective Vehicle Electrification Brooker, A.; Thornton, M.; Rugh, J. 2/1/2010 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This paper evaluates several approaches aimed at making plug-in electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) cost-effective including opportunity charging, replacing the battery over the vehicle life, improving battery life, reducing battery cost, and providing electric power directly to the vehicle during a portion of its travel. Many combinations of PHEV electric range and battery power are included. For each case, the model accounts for battery cycle life and the national distribution of driving distances to size the battery optimally. Using the current estimates of battery life and cost, only the dynamically plugged-in pathway was cost-effective to the consumer. Significant improvements in battery life and battery cost also made PHEVs more cost-effective than today's hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (CVs).

Test Procedures and Benchmarking: Blended-Type and EV-Capable Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Duoba, M.; Carlson, R.; Wu, J. 12/1/2007 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

SAE J1711 testing procedures for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) were issued in 1999. Since that time, full hybrids with larger plug-in battery packs (blended type) and a "range-extender" PHEV type have necessitated a new review of these test procedures. A full-charge test is given to a PHEV to find the capacity and to characterize the vehicle's operation. Driving statistics are useful in processing the full-charge test and in combining depleting with sustaining operation. But just as in the mid-1990s, the lack of refined prototypes with all-electric range capability slows the rate of progress in developing a suitable procedure.

Fuel Permeation from Automotive Systems: E0, E6, E10, E20 and E85 Haskew, H.M.; Libery, T.F.; McClement, D. 12/1/2006 Reports

Harold Haskew & Associates, Inc., Milford, Michigan; Harold Haskew & Associates, Inc., Milford, Michigan; Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc., Mesa, Arizona

An earlier CRC report (CRC Project E-65) investigated the effects of three different fuels on the permeation rates of the fuel systems from 10 different California vehicles, covering model years from 1978 to 2001. As a result of that study, four issues were identified for further study in the present report: (1) investigate permeation characteristics of "near zero" evaporative emission control systems scheduled for California in MY 2004 and later; (2) determine if changes in ethanol content affect permeation levels; (3) establish the permeation effects of E85 in a flexible fuel vehicle; (4) determine if permeation rates are sensitive to changes in aromatics content of the fuel.

Ralphs Grocery EC-Diesel Truck Fleet: Final Results Chandler, K.; Vertin, K.; Alleman, T.; Clark, N. 1/1/2003 Reports

Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies sponsored a research project to collect and analyze data on the performance and operation costs of 15 of Ralph's Grocery's diesel trucks fueled by Emissions Control Diesel (ECD, also known as EC-Diesel) or a related fuel, ECD-1, in commercial service, compared with the performance of 5 diesel trucks fueled by California Air Resources Board (CARB) diesel fuel and operating on similar routes. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory managed this project. This evaluation was part of the larger EC-Diesel Technology Validation Program sponsored by ARCO (a division of BP) to evaluate ECD (an ultra-low-sulfur diesel [ULSD] fuel) and passive regenerative catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology on urban diesel vehicles. DPFs are intended to replace the original equipment muffler system and remove harmful emissions from the truck exhaust stream. ECD is intended to provide improved emission control and performance characteristics.

Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Emission Impacts of Fuel Ethanol Wang, M. 5/8/2003 Presentations

Argonne National Laboratory, Center for Transportation Research. Argonne, Illinois

This presentation outlines the <b>GREET</b> (<b>G</b>reenhouse gases, <b>R</b>egulated <b>E</b>missions, and <b>E</b>nergy use in <b>T</b>ransportation) Model, and addresses the energy and emission effects of ethanol using graphs, diagrams, and various analyses. Version 1.8b includes calculations for ethanol produced from Brazilian sugarcane.

Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource Guide for Project Development 7/1/2002 Reports

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC),McLean,Virginia

This report provides national and international project developers with a guide on how to estimate and document the GHG emission reduction benefits and/or penalties for battery-powered and hybrid-electric vehicle projects. This primer also provides a resource for the creation of GHG emission reduction projects for the Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) Pilot Phase and in anticipation of other market based project mechanisms proposed under the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change (UNFCC). Though it will be necessary for project developers and other entities to evaluate the emission benefits of each project on a case-by-case basis, this primer will provide a guide for determining which data and information to include during the process of developing the project proposal.

Demonstration of Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs) 7/1/2002 Reports

Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cupertino, CA

Neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) are designed for low-speed, local trips in neighborhoods and urban areas, to run errands, commute to and from work or school, and to make small, local deliveries. NEVs are ideal candidates for a "shared-car use" or station car demonstration. The goal of this effort is to demonstrate how community layout and land use can maximize transportation efficiency through vehicle and technology choices.

Notes: Copies of this document are available from the California Energy Commission Web site: http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/2002-08-28_600-02-020F.PDF

Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development Anastasia, O.; Checklick, N.; Couts, V.; Doherty, J.; Findsen, J.; Gehlin, L.; Radoff, J. 9/1/2002 Reports

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), 8301 Greensboro Drive, E-5-7, McLean, Virginia 22102

In response to the significant growth in transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods of addressing this trend. However, do to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions related to the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world's roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emission from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. These activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as natural gas vehicles (NGVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities.

Notes: Copies of this document are available from the NETL Web site: http://www.netl.doe.gov/products/ccps/pubs/NGV_guide.PDF

Demonstration and Evaluation of U.S. Postal Service Electric Carrier Route Vehicles 1/1/2002 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Southern California Edison, Electric Vehicle Technical Center

Evaluation of electric carrier route vehicles was based on the following objectives: understanding of the USPS mission requirements; review of the electric carrier route vehicle characteristics; review of existing field operations test procedures; confirmation of relevant existing procedures; proposal of new specific procedures; finalization of alternate procedures; testing; and reporting of test results.

Ralphs Grocery EC-Diesel? Truck Fleet Final Data Report 10/1/2001 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

This is the final data report for the Ralphs Grocery ARCO EC-Diesel? Technology Validation Program, which was conducted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with federal and state agencies and industry partners. The purpose of the validation program was to evaluate trucks retrofitted with catalyzed diesel particulate filters and fueled with a new ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel called ECD? , which was developed by ARCO, a BP Company.

Ralphs Grocery EC-Diesel? Truck Fleet Start-Up Experience Peterson, G; LeTavec, C.;Hallstrom, K.;Lassen, M.; Keski-Hynnila, D.;Vertin, K.; Chandler, K.;Clark, N. 10/1/2001 Reports

National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO

Ralphs Grocery volunteered to participate in the ARCO EC-Diesel? Technology Validation Program, which is being conducted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with federal and state agencies and industry partners. NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory. The Program is supported by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT), Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The purpose of the validation program is to evaluate trucks retrofitted with catalyzed diesel particulate filters and fueled with a new ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel called ECD? , which was developed by ARCO, a BP Company.

Consumer Views on Transportation and Energy Steiner, E. 8/1/2003 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report has been assembled to provide the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) with an idea of how the American public views various transportation, energy, and environmental issues.

Which is Greener: Idle, or Stop and Restart? Comparing Fuel Use and Emissions for Short Passenger-Car Stops Gaines, L., Rask, E., Keller, G. 2/11/2013 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

The argument against parking and going into a business, rather than using a drive-through window, has been that the emissions and fuel use associated with restarting your car are greater than those incurred by idling for that time. Argonne National Laboratory undertook a series of measurements to determine whether this was true, by comparing actual idling fuel use and emissions with those for restarting. This work seeks to answer the question: Considering both fuel use and emissions, how long can you idle in a queue before impacts from idling are greater than they are for restarting? Fuel use and carbon dioxide emissions are always greater for idling over 10 seconds; the crossover times are found to vary by pollutant.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, January 2014 Bourbon, E. 3/4/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for January 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between January 1, 2014 and January 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has decreased 11 cents from $3.45 to $3.34; diesel decreased 2 cents from $3.91 to $3.89; CNG price remained the same at $2.09; ethanol (E85) also remained the same at $3.04; propane increased 16 cents from $2.96 to $3.12; and biodiesel (B20) has decreased 5 cents from $4.02 to $3.97.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.25 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $0.95 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, April 2014 Bourbon, E. 6/3/2014 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for April 2014 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between April 1, 2014 and April 15, 2014, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 1 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 31 cents from $3.34 to $3.65; diesel increased 8 cents from $3.89 to $3.97; CNG price increased 6 cents from $2.09 to $2.15; ethanol (E85) increased 37 cents from $3.04 to $3.41; propane increased 19 cents from $3.12 to $3.31; and biodiesel (B20) has increased 5 cents from $3.97 to $4.01.</p><p>According to Table 2, CNG is $1.50 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis, while E85 is $1.17 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, July 2015 Bourbon, E. 7/31/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Landover, Maryland

The Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report for July 2015 is a quarterly report on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue describes prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between July 1, 2015, and July 15, 2015, and then averaged in order to determine regional price trends by fuel and variability in fuel price within regions and among regions. The prices collected for this report represent retail, at-the-pump sales prices for each fuel, including Federal and state motor fuel taxes.</p><p>Table 2 reports that the nationwide average price (all amounts are per gallon) for regular gasoline has increased 40 cents from $2.42 to $2.82; diesel increased 5 cents from $2.88 to $2.93; CNG increased 3 cents from $2.09 to $2.12; ethanol (E85) increased 23 cents from $2.13 to $2.36; propane decreased 3 cents from $2.93 to $2.90; and biodiesel (B20) increased 1 cent from $2.92 to $2.93.</p><p>According to Table 3, CNG is $0.70 less than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis while E85 is $0.25 more than gasoline on an energy-equivalent basis.