Massachusetts Laws and Incentives
Listed below are the summaries of all current Massachusetts laws, incentives, regulations, funding opportunities, and other initiatives related to alternative fuels and vehicles, advanced technologies, or air quality. You can go directly to summaries of:
Massachusetts’ National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (NEVI) Plan
The U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT) NEVI Formula Program requires the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) to submit an EV Infrastructure Deployment Plan (Plan) to the DOT and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Office by August 1, 2022, describing how MassDOT intends to distribute NEVI funds. Plans must be established according to NEVI guidance.
For more information about Massachusetts’ NEVI planning process, see the MassDOT NEVI Plan website.
Diesel Emissions Reductions Grants
The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) provides U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) funding for projects that reduce diesel emissions in Massachusetts. Funding for eligible project costs is available for local or state agencies and public colleges and universities that reduce diesel emissions by converting engines to alternative fuels, retrofitting exhaust controls, purchasing new vehicles, or adding idle reduction equipment. MassDEP prioritizes projects that benefit environmental justice communities. Additional terms and conditions apply. For more information, including funding amounts and how to apply, see the MassDEP Apply for a DERA Open Solicitation Grant website.
Public Access Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Grants
The Public Access Charging Program provides grants to non-residential entities for 80% of the cost of Level 2 EVSE and installation, and a maximum of $50,000 per street address for hardware and installation costs. Installations at government property qualify for 100% of the cost, up to $50,000. Qualified EVSE must be available to the public at least 12 hours per day. This program is part of Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Incentive Program (MassEVIP) and is funded by Massachusetts’ portion of the Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust. For more information, including future funding availability, application, and eligibility requirements, visit the Apply for MassEVIP Public Access Charging Incentives website.
Multi-Unit Dwelling (MUD) and Educational Campus Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Grants
The Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Incentive Program (MassEVIP) provides grants for 60% of the cost of Level 1 or Level 2 EVSE installed at MUDs and educational campuses, up to $50,000 per street address. Eligible entities include private, public, or non-profit MUDs with five or more residential units, and educational campuses with at least 15 students on campus. The program is funded by Massachusetts’ portion of the Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust. Applications are accepted on a first-come, first-served basis until funds are exhausted. For more information, including funding availability, application, and eligibility requirements, visit the Apply for MassEVIP MUD Charging and Educational Campus Incentives website.
Workplace and Fleet Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Grants
The Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Incentive Program (MassEVIP) provides grants for 60% of the cost of Level 1 or Level 2 EVSE, up to $50,000 per street address. Eligible entities include private, public, or non-profit workplaces and fleets with 15 or more employees on site. The program is funded by Massachusetts’ portion of the Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust. Applications are accepted on a first-come, first-served basis until funds are exhausted. For more information, including funding availability, application, and eligibility requirements, visit the Apply for MassEVIP Workplace and Fleet Charging Incentives website.
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Grants for Public Fleets
The Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Incentive Program (MassEVIP) provides grants for the purchase or lease of qualified PEVs and zero emission motorcycles. Eligible applicants include local governments, public universities and colleges, and state agencies. Vehicle incentives are available in the following amounts:
|Vehicle Type||Incentive for Purchase||Incentive for Lease|
|All-electric vehicle (EV)||Up to $7,500||Up to $5,000|
|Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)||Up to $5,000||Up to $3,000|
|Zero emission motorcycle||Up to $750||N/A|
Applicants may receive funding for a maximum of 25 vehicles, including EVs, PHEVs, and zero emission motorcycles.
Applications are accepted on a first-come, first-served basis until funds are exhausted. For more information, including funding availability, application, and eligibility requirements, visit the Apply for MassEVIP Fleet Incentives website.
Plug-In and Zero Emission Vehicle Rebates
Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources' Massachusetts Offers Rebates for Electric Vehicles (MOR-EV) Program offers residents, non-profits, and businesses rebates of up to $2,500 toward the purchase or lease of eligible all-electric and fuel cell electric vehicles and up to $1,500 for the purchase or lease of eligible plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Eligible non-profit and business fleet vehicles may include rental cars, company cars, and delivery vehicles. Vehicle purchase prices must be below $50,000. Applicants must apply within three months of the vehicle purchase or lease date and must retain ownership of the vehicle for a minimum of 36 months. For more information, including application and eligibility requirements, visit the MOR-EV website.
Zero-Emission Truck Rebates
Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources' Massachusetts Offers Rebates for Electric Vehicles (MOR-EV) Trucks Program offers rebates to public and private fleets for the purchase of all-electric and fuel cell electric trucks with a purchase price of more than $50,000 and gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than 8,500 pounds (lbs.). Rebate amounts are available in a declining three block rate structure, determined by the number of trucks per weight group. Rebates will be offered in the following amounts:
|GVWR (lbs.)||Block Size (Number of Trucks, per Block)||Block 1||Block 2||Block 3|
Purchasers of vehicles with a GVWR of greater than 14,000 lbs. can apply for a voucher to reserve a rebate at the current rebate block value. A voucher may be provided to an applicant who has demonstrated an intent to purchase, which may be evidenced by a completed purchase order. Applicants must apply for a rebate following the purchase and registration of the truck in Massachusetts and must retain ownership of the truck for a minimum of 36 months. MOR-EV Trucks rebates cannot be combined with funds from the Department of Environmental Protection Volkswagen Settlement-Funded Grant & Incentive Programs.
Additional terms and conditions apply. For more information, visit the MOR-EV Rebate Program website.
Electric Vehicle Emissions Inspection Exemption
Vehicles powered exclusively by electricity are exempt from state motor vehicle emissions inspections. For more information, see the Massachusetts Vehicle Check website. (Reference Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Laws and Rules 310 CMR 60.02)
Idle Reduction Weight Exemption
Any motor vehicle equipped with qualified idle reduction technology may exceed the state gross, axle, tandem, or bridge weight limits by up to 400 pounds to account for the weight of the technology. The idle reduction technology must be able to provide electrical service, heating, or cooling to the vehicle. The additional weight may not exceed the actual weight of the idle reduction unit. The vehicle operator must also be able to prove the weight of the idle reduction technology and demonstrate that the technology is fully functional. (Reference Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 90, Section 19A)
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Rebate
Residential customers of participating Massachusetts municipal light plants (MLPs) may be eligible for a free or discounted Level 2 EVSE through the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company's Home Energy Loss Prevention Services (HELPS) program. Incentives vary by MLP. Additional terms and conditions apply. For more information, including participating MLPs, see the HELPS EV Charger Incentive website.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Installation Incentive - Eversource
Eversource’s Electric Vehicle Charging Station program provides make-ready installation costs for non-residential customers to install approved Level 2 or direct current fast (DC) EVSE at businesses, multi-unit dwellings, workplaces, and fleet facilities. To qualify, customers must own, lease, or operate a site where vehicles are typically parked for at least two hours. Eligible installation expenses include trenching, dedicated service meter, conduit, and wiring costs. Additional terms and conditions apply. For more information, including funding and waitlist availability, see the Eversource Charging Stations website.
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Incentive - Eversource
Eversource Electric Vehicle (EV) Home Charger Demand Response program offers an rebate of up $300 to residential customers that charge their PEV during off-peak periods. Additional terms and conditions apply. For more information, see the Eversource EV Home Charger Demand Response website.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Discount - Braintree Electric Light Department (BELD)
BELD offers customers a discount of $250 for the purchase of a qualified Level 2 EVSE. To qualify, customers must enroll in the Bring Your Own Charger Program. Additional terms and conditions apply. For more information, including eligible EVSE criteria, see the BELD Charging Incentives website.
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging Incentive - Braintree Electric Light Department (BELD)
BELD’s Smart Charging Program offers a bill credit of $8 per month to customers that charge their PEVs during off-peak hours.. Additional terms and conditions apply. For more information, see the BELD Rebates and Incentives (Charging) website.
Non-Residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Program - National Grid
National Grid’s Electric Vehicle Charging Station Program provides non-residential customers with installation and funding support to install approved Level 2 or direct current (DC) fast EVSE at businesses, multi-unit dwellings, and workplaces. Additional terms and conditions apply. For more information, see the EV Charging Station program website.
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Infrastructure Support
Massachusetts utilities joined the National Electric Highway Coalition (NEHC), committing to create a network of direct current fast (DC Fast) charging stations connecting major highway systems from the Atlantic Coast to the Pacific of the United States. NEHC utility members agree to ensure efficient and effective fast charging deployment plans that enable long distance EV travel, avoiding duplication among coalition utilities, and complement existing corridor DC fast charging sites. For more information, including a list of participating utilities and states, see the NEHC website.
Laws and Regulations
State Emissions Reductions Requirements
Building upon the framework in the Massachusetts 2050 Decarbonization Roadmap Report, the Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) and Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (DOER) must adopt a statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions limit that achieves net zero statewide GHG emissions by 2050, or at least 85% below the 1990 level. By 2025, and every five years thereafter until 2050, EEA and DOER must set interim statewide GHG emissions limit, accompanied by a roadmap to achieve that limit. EEA and DOER must also set numerical benchmarks to track the adoption of electric vehicles (Reference Senate Bill 9, 2021, and Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 21N, Section 3, and Massachusetts Session Laws Chapter 8, Section 5, 2021).
State Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) and Infrastructure Deployment Requirements
Massachusetts executive branch agencies and public institutions of higher education must collectively work to meet the following targets, to the extent feasible:
Acquire ZEVs so that the total state fleet consists of:
- 5% ZEVs in 2025;
- 20% ZEVs in 2030;
- 75% ZEVs in 2040; and
- 100% ZEVs in 2050
- Fiscal year (FY) 2023, all vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 8,500 pounds (lbs.) or less.
- FY 2025, all vehicles with a GVWR of 14,000 lbs. or less.
- FY 2030, all vehicles with a GVWR of 14,000 lbs. or more.
- 350 EVSE in 2025; and
- 500 EVSE in 2030.
Police vehicles are exempt from these requirements, but public safety agencies are encouraged to meet these requirements as long as vehicles meet operational needs.
Additional conditions apply. For more information, see the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources Leading by Example Program website.
(Reference Executive Order 594, 2021)
Biodiesel Use Requirement
All agencies that purchase and store diesel fuel at their own facilities as of July 1, 2021, must purchase and use a biodiesel blend that contains at least 5% biodiesel (B5) in any diesel-powered vehicle owned or operated by the state. To the highest level practical, agencies must identify opportunities to increase the biodiesel portion of vehicle fuel consumed. Agencies may be exempt from this requirement if biodiesel is not readily available, cost-prohibitive, or if a specific performance constraint is identified. (Reference Executive Order 594, 2021)
Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) and Autonomous Vehicles (AV) Support
The Massachusetts Commission on the Future of Transportation in the Commonwealth (Commission) was established to advise the Governor's Office on how to understand and plan for transportation advancements, including the increasing deployment of PEVs and AVs, in the Commonwealth from 2020 through 2040. The Commission investigated the following topics:
- Transportation electrification and the infrastructure necessary to support the increasing deployment of PEVs;
- Autonomous and connected vehicles and the infrastructure necessary to support the increasing deployment of these technologies;
- Impact of on-demand transit and mobility services on public transportation;
- Impact of greenhouse gas emissions on transportation and methods to increase resiliency of transportation infrastructure; and
- Land use or demographic changes that will shape future transportation planning.
(Reference Executive Orders 579 and 580, 2018)
Autonomous Vehicle (AV) Testing and Operation Support
The Secretary of Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) established a working group to assess the safe development of AVs. The AV Working Group convenes and consults with experts on motor vehicle safety and vehicle automation, and works with the Legislature on any proposed AV legislation. MassDOT, with input from the AV Working Group, will issue guidance to allow for the safe testing of automated technologies on designated state highways and on other public roadways. In 2019, the AV Working Group released a report of their findings. For more information, see the AV Working Group website. (Reference Executive Order 572, 2017)
Public Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Requirements
Owners and operators of public EVSE that require payment must provide payment options that allow access by the public. In addition, payment should not require users to pay a subscription fee or obtain a membership of any kind; however, required fees may be conditional on such memberships. Owners and operators can impose reasonable restrictions on EVSE use, such as limiting access to visitors of the business. In addition, owners and operators of public EVSE must provide the location, hours of operation, payment, and characteristics of each EVSE to the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center. (Reference Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 25A, Section 16B-16E)
Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Parking Space Regulations
A city or town may restrict certain parking areas for ZEVs, which includes all-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. A person who is found responsible for a violation of the restricted parking area may be subject to a penalty of no more than $50 and the vehicle may be removed from the parking spot. (Reference Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 40, Section 22A)
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Efficiency Requirements
EVSE sold in Massachusetts must meet energy efficiency standards established by the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (DOER). For more information, see the DOER Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards website. (Reference Session Law Chapter 8, Section 49, 2021, and Massachusetts DOER 225 CMR 9).
Voluntary Biofuels Program
The Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (DOER) manages voluntary biofuels program through which DOER will work with biodiesel suppliers to certify biofuels. Lessons learned from this voluntary program will provide the basis for future expansion and full implementation of a state biofuels mandate. For more information, refer to the DOER Advanced Biofuels website.
Medium- and Heavy-Duty Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Deployment Support
California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington (signatory states) signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to support the deployment of medium- and heavy-duty ZEVs through involvement in a Multi-State ZEV Task Force (Task Force).
By January 2021, the Task Force will develop a multi-state action plan to support electrification of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. The Task Force will consider actions to accomplish the goals of the MOU, including limiting all new medium- and heavy-duty vehicles sales in the signatory states to ZEVs by 2050. The signatory states will also seek to accelerate the deployment of medium- and heavy-duty ZEVs to benefit disadvantaged communities and explore opportunities to coordinate and partner with key stakeholders.
For more information, see the Medium- and Heavy-Duty ZEVs: Action Plan Development Process website.
Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Deployment Support
Massachusetts joined California, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont in signing a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to support the deployment of ZEVs through involvement in a ZEV Program Implementation Task Force (Task Force). In May 2014, the Task Force published a ZEV Action Plan (Plan) identifying 11 priority actions to accomplish the goals of the MOU, including deploying at least 3.3 million ZEVs and adequate fueling infrastructure within the signatory states by 2025. The Plan also includes a research agenda to inform future actions. On an annual basis, each state must report on the number of registered ZEVs, the number of public electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen fueling stations, and available information regarding workplace fueling for ZEVs.
In June 2018, the Task Force published a new ZEV Action Plan for 2018-2021. Building on the 2014 Action Plan, the 2018 Action Plan makes recommendations for states and other key partners in five priority areas:
- Raising consumer awareness and interest in electric vehicle technology;
- Building out a reliable and convenient residential, workplace and public charging/fueling infrastructure network;
- Continuing and improving access to consumer purchase and non-financial incentives;
- Expanding public and private sector fleet adoption; and
- Supporting dealership efforts to increase ZEV sales.
For more information, see the Multi-State ZEV Task Force website.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Building Standards
At least one parking space in any new commercial construction with over 15 parking spaces must be made-ready for EVSE. An electric vehicle-ready space is defined as a designated parking space with a dedicated branch circuit for EVSE. Additional terms and conditions apply. (Reference Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 143, Section 94 and 95 and Massachusetts State Building Code 780 CMR 13.00 Subsection C405.10)
Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) and Infrastructure Support
Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Commission is established to recommend policies to expand access to ZEV infrastructure and to encourage the purchase and lease of these vehicles. The ZEV Commission, comprised of state agencies, is tasked with conducting ZEV feasibility studies on the following topics:
- Evaluating opportunities for electrification of the state fleet, including vehicles used by the regional transit authorities;
- Authorizing ZEVs, including plug-in electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or fuel cell vehicles, for use in high occupancy vehicle lanes regardless of the number of occupants in the vehicle; and
- Assessing surcharges, levies, or other assessments to offset projected gas tax revenue loss from the purchase or operation of ZEVs.
(Reference Session Law Chapter 448, Section 5, 2016)
Alternative Fuel Offering Requirement
The Massachusetts Department of Transportation may not enter into, renew, or renegotiate a contract with a fuel provider for services on the Massachusetts Turnpike without requiring the provider to offer alternative fuel. Alternative fuel is defined as an energy source that is used to power a vehicle and is not gasoline or diesel. (Reference Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 6C, Section 75 and Chapter 90, Section 1)
State Energy Policy
The Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) leads and coordinates efforts between state agencies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, build resilience, and adapt to the impacts of climate change. In December 2018, EEA published the Massachusetts Comprehensive Energy Plan (CEP), which includes transportation strategies to meet GHG emissions limits. EEA must update the CEP every five years. For more information, see the CEP website. (Reference Executive Order 569, 2016)
Public Utility Definition
An entity that owns, operates, leases, or controls electric vehicle supply equipment is not defined as a public utility. (Reference Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities 13-182)
Direct Current (DC) Fast Charger Alternative Rate Structure Requirement
Public electric utilities must file at least one commercial tariff or program with the Department of Public Utilities to provide DC fast charger alternative rate structures for demand charges. Each tariff or program must evaluate the relative costs and benefits associated with rate designs for multiple PEV adoption scenarios and be filed by July 14, 2021. (Reference Session Law Chapter 21N, Section 3)
Transportation Emissions Reduction Reporting
Massachusetts must meet annually declining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions limits for mobile sources, as specified in the Massachusetts Global Warming Solutions Act. By July 1, the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) must quantify and report aggregate MassDOT transportation GHG emissions annually. Among other measures to achieve reductions, MassDOT must increase plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) within the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority and MassDOT fleet and promote PEV use by motorists. (Reference Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Regulations and Standards 310 CMR 60.05 and Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 21N, Section 3)
Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Sales Requirements and Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Standards
The Massachusetts LEV Program requires all new passenger cars and light-duty trucks, medium-duty vehicles, and heavy-duty vehicles and engines sold and registered in Massachusetts to meet California motor vehicle emissions standards and compliance requirements specified in Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations. Manufacturers must meet the greenhouse gas emissions standard and the ZEV production and sales requirements. For more information, see the Massachusetts LEV Program website. (Reference Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Laws and Rules 310 CMR 7.40)
State Hybrid Electric (HEV) Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements
When purchasing new motor vehicles, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts must purchase HEVs or AFVs to the maximum extent feasible and consistent with the ability of such vehicles to perform their intended functions. HEVs and AFVs must be acquired at a rate of at least 5% annually for all new motor vehicle purchases so that not less than 50% of the motor vehicles the Commonwealth owns and operates will be HEVs or AFVs by 2018.
State fleets must also acquire AFVs according to the requirements of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 and the Massachusetts Office of Vehicle Management (OVM) must approve any light-duty vehicle acquisition. All agencies must purchase the most economical, fuel-efficient, and low emission vehicles appropriate to their mission. OVM, in collaboration with the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, will set new minimum standards for vehicle fuel economy and work with agencies to acquire vehicles that provide the best value for the Commonwealth on a total cost of ownership basis.
By July 1 of each year, OVM must compile a report detailing the progress made towards these requirements.
(Reference Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 7, Section 9A)
Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Access to Massachusetts Turnpike and Tunnels
An AFV powered by propane or natural gas may only use the Massachusetts Turnpike at or between Interchange 1 in West Stockbridge and Interchange 14 in Weston if the vehicle has a special fuel transportation permit issued by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation. The AFV must conform to applicable federal and state laws and regulations. An AFV powered by compressed natural gas or propane may only use Massachusetts tunnels if the vehicle conforms to applicable federal regulations and industry standards, displays required markings to identify its alternative fuel system, and is not used to transport fuel. (Reference 700 Code of Massachusetts Regulations 7.07)
Idle Reduction Requirement
A motor vehicle may not idle for more than five consecutive minutes. This regulation does not apply to: 1) vehicles being serviced, provided that operation of the engine is essential to the repair; 2) vehicles delivering or accepting goods or merchandise for which engine assisted power is necessary and substitute alternate power cannot be made available; or 3) vehicles requiring auxiliary power for an associate power need other than movement that cannot be substituted by an alternate power source provided that such operation does not cause or contribute to air pollution. Violators are subject to fines. Local boards of health, local police, and state and federal officials may enforce the state anti-idling law. (Reference Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 90, Section 16A, and Department of Environmental Protection Laws and Rules 310 CMR 7.11(1)(b))
State Agency Alternative Fuel Use Requirement
All Massachusetts agencies must use a minimum of 15% biodiesel (B15) in all on- and off-road diesel engines, provided that the Commonwealth Office of Vehicle Management and other appropriate agencies have determined that a B15 goal is appropriate. Each year, the Executive Office for Administration and Finance and the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (DOER) must set minimum percentage requirements for E85 use in state flexible fuel vehicles, depending on the availability of the fuel in the state. Agencies may apply for exemptions from the biodiesel and E85 fuel use requirements if the agencies demonstrate that the alternative fuel is not available within a reasonable distance, cannot be purchased by state vehicle operators through state procurement, or the price of the alternative fuel is cost prohibitive, as determined by DOER. (Reference Massachusetts Executive Office of Administration and Finance Administrative Bulletin 13, 2006)
Deregulation of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Motor Fuel
The sale of CNG by a fueling station for use as fuel to operate a motor vehicle is deregulated; however, separate records, books, and accounts of such sales must be maintained. Investments in related infrastructure must not reduce the availability or increase the cost of natural gas to customers who purchase natural gas for use other than as fuel to operate a motor vehicle. (Reference Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 164, Section 941/2)