Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Clean Cities Coalitions Overview 2/3/2023 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Office Clean Cities Coalition Network, which advances affordable, domestic transportation fuels and technologies nationwide. More than 75 active coalitions serve as the foundation of Clean Cities, working in communities across the country to help local decision makers and fleets understand and implement alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, new mobility choices, and emerging transportation technologies. At the national level, VTO develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources to support coordinators. At the local level, coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2021 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 1/24/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) works with local Clean Cities coalitions across the country as part of its Technology Integration Program. These efforts help businesses and consumers make smarter and more informed transportation energy choices that can save energy, lower costs, provide resilience through fuel diversification, and reduce air emissions. This report summarizes the success and impact of coalition activities based on data and information provided in their annual progress reports.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 12/23/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2022 (Q2). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the tenth report in a series.

Public Electric Vehicle Charging Station Utilization in the United States Borlaug, B.; Yang, F.; Pritchard, E.; Wood, E., Gonder, J. 12/12/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Energetics, Columbia, Maryland

The utilization of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment is a key driver of charging station economics, but current trends and factors related to the utilization of public charging infrastructure in the United States are not well understood. This study analyzes EV charging data from 3,705 nationwide public Level 2 and direct current fast charging stations over 2.5 years (2019–2022), observing utilization patterns over time. This study fills a critical research gap by reporting updated public charging station utilization statistics and analysis for the U.S. market.

Electric Vehicle Batteries and Recycling Argonne National Laboratory 12/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Demand for electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing. Electricity is cheaper and cleaner than conventional fuel, and EV maintenance costs are low. Also attractive are EVs' instant torque and quiet operation. In addition to advantages for individual drivers and for fleets, the multiple fuel sources used to generate the electricity that powers EVs create more energy resilience for the transportation sector, which supports national security. With this uptick in EV demand comes questions about their batteries, how they are made, their safety, and what happens to them at the end of a vehicle's life.

United States EV Market Summary: Q1 and Q2 2022 Lepre, N. 12/1/2022 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

Atlas Public Policy presents a market summary report for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Clean Cities network. This report summarizes major developments in transportation electrification in the United States with a focus on activities during the first and second quarters of 2022.

Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010 – 2021 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, X.; Courtney, C. 11/1/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report examines properties of electric vehicles (EVs) sold in the United States from 2010 to 2021, evaluating range, energy efficiency, costs, and performance. Given the vehicle characteristics, this report estimates miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and greenhouse gas emissions attributable to EVs. It also explores vehicle manufacturing and battery production, considering supply chains from battery cells to assembly.

Assessment of Light-Duty EV Costs and Consumer Benefits in the United States in the 2022–2035 Time Frame Slowik, P.; Isenstadt, A.; Pierce, L.; Searle, S. 10/3/2022 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This paper analyzes bottom-up vehicle component-level costs to assess average battery electric vehicle, plug-in hybrid vehicle, and conventional vehicle prices across major U.S. light-duty vehicle classes through 2035. These cost estimates are used to evaluate broader consumer benefits, as well as to discuss the implications for vehicle emission regulations in the United States.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; Schayowitz, A.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 9/21/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2022 (Q1). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the ninth report in a series.

Cracking the Code to EV Readiness in New Buildings Banwell, P.; Steiner, K.; Miller, K.; Kelly, E.; Kay, S.; Noblet, S. 9/1/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington D.C.

While incentives for electric vehicles (EVs) and charging infrastructure have contributed to growth in EV adoption, building codes are effective tools to advance “EV-readiness” by requiring new construction to support convenient EV charging. This paper presents considerations, guidance, and examples for municipalities and other jurisdictions establishing policies for EV readiness in new buildings. It provides an introduction to EV readiness in building codes and discusses best practices in infrastructure development such as intelligent load sharing. It presents an overview of why and how EV readiness was incorporated into the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system. Further, it includes case studies of municipal codes and a utility program that partners with builders to incentivize EV readiness in new homes. Finally, it summarizes key opportunities for advancing transportation electrification through EV-ready building codes.

Title Utility Transportation Electrification Planning— Emerging Practices to Support EV Deployment Huether, P.; Cohn, C.; Jennings, B. 9/1/2022 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C.

Utilities are expecting millions of new electric vehicles (EVs) to hit the road over the next decade. To accelerate and adapt to this shift, they are planning increased investments in the grid, greater outreach to customers, special rates for EV charging, and direct investments in transportation electrification (e.g., charging infrastructure and vehicle purchases). This report examines a select sample of utility transportation electrification planning efforts to identify emerging trends and make recommendations on the planning process.

Duluth Transit Authority Battery-Electric Bus Evaluation Jeffers, M.; Eudy, L.; Bigelow, E.; Olberding, G.; Posner, A. 9/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Center for Transportation and the Environment

In 2018, Duluth Transit Authority (DTA) began operating a fleet of seven battery-electric buses (BEBs) in its service area of Duluth, Minnesota. DTA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of the evaluation is to compare performance and cost of the BEBs to that of conventional technology in similar service and track progress over time. DTA enlisted the help of the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) to manage the project and provide technical services with the BEB fleet and infrastructure. This report contains a combination of analyses performed by NREL and by CTE.

Design Recommendations for Accessible EV Charging Stations 8/11/2022 Reports

U.S. Access Board, Washington, D.C.

This technical assistance document covers Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) accessibility requirements applicable to electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. It provides multiple recommendations for designing accessible EV charging stations by offering guidance on elements not addressed in the current ADA and ABA. This technical assistance will aid in the development of a national network of EV charging stations that is accessible to everyone, including people with disabilities. The technical assistance document is a valuable resource for those involved in the planning, designing, building, installing, and use of EV charging stations, including state and local governments, designers and developers, electrical and construction professionals, equipment manufacturers, automakers, utility providers, charge point operators and e-mobility service providers, EV owners, and people with disabilities.

Electric Vehicle Charger Deployment Optimization 8/1/2022 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

As consumers begin to purchase electric vehicles (EVs) in greater volumes, the need for charging stations will increase. A one-size-fits-all deployment strategy of EV charging stations will not satisfy all needs or economic considerations. This study investigates how many charging stations and outlets may be required at various stages of the EV market development in different regions of the United States to satisfy actual demand and to instill within end users the confidence that availability will be sufficient. In addition, this study aims to better understand what types of chargers will be required at different locations to optimize deployment while reducing overall infrastructure costs and accelerating the business case for charger installation.

Charged Up! TLC Electrification Report 7/1/2022 Reports

New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission, New York City, New York

The New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission (TLC) is committed to transitioning the majority of its licensed fleet to electric vehicles (EVs) by 2030. Charged Up! is TLC’s roadmap to support this movement, outlining ways to support TLC’s EV drivers, incentivize more EVs, and support the for-hire industry’s charging needs. New York City’s for-hire transportation landscape presents distinct challenges to electrification, with high daily mileage driven due to high trip volumes, drivers living in the outer boroughs and in environmental justice communities, as well as the various charging needs of industry stakeholders. Given these considerations, the report identifies policy levers and formulates recommendations to address three major barriers that currently impede the expansion of for-hire EVs.

EV Sales and the Charging Infrastructure Required Through 2030 Satterfield, C.; Schefte, K. 6/1/2022 Reports

Edison Electric Institute, Washington, D.C.

This report estimates the number of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment needed to support the EV market through 2030. It projects the number of EVs on U.S. roads to reach 26.4 million in 2030 and that nearly 12.9 million charge ports will be needed to support the projected number of EVs. Approximately 140,000 direct current fast charging ports will be needed to support the level of EVs expected to be on U.S. roads in 2030.

Electric School Bus U.S. Market Study and Buyers Guide Huntington, A.; Wang, J.; Burgoyne-Allen, P.; Werthmann, E.; Jackson, E. 6/1/2022 Reports

World Resources Institute, Washington, DC

This guide offers school districts and others an overview of the electric school bus market. It presents electric school bus models available today with detailed vehicle specifications allowing users to compare various models and weigh important considerations.

Mini Guide on Transportation Electrification: State-Level Roles and Collaboration among Public Utility Commissions, State Energy Offices, and Departments of Transportation Dixon, D.; Powers, C.; McAdams, J.; Stephens, S.; Sass Byrnett. D.; Peters, D. 6/1/2022 Reports

National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, Virginia; National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, D.C.; American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C.

Many states across the country have set ambitious electric vehicle (EV) adoption goals and are working to establish policies and programs to support transportation electrification. State energy offices, public utility commissions, and departments of transportation, among other important state-level partners each have a unique and vital role to support EV rollout. This guide explores roles among state agencies and partners in planning and implementing EV charging infrastructure. This mini guide is part of a series that features collaborative approaches, lessons learned, and interviews with leading state and local decision makers.

Deploying Charging Infrastructure for Electric Transit Buses Lepre, N.; Burget, S.; McKenzie, L. 6/1/2022 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

This study is aimed at assisting transit agencies as they begin to plan for significant electrification of their bus fleets. It focuses on battery electric technologies and is limited in scope to charging technologies, designs, and choices. It incorporates learnings from 28 industry interviews completed between January and April 2022 by Atlas Public Policy staff. These interviews sought to understand latest developments, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned in battery electric bus charging, and to compile specific examples, anecdotes and on-the-ground experiences from those at the forefront of deployment.

Review of Electric Vehicle Charger Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities, Potential Impacts, and Defenses Johnson, J.; Berg, T.; Anderson, B.; Wright, B. 5/26/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Worldwide growth in electric vehicle use is prompting new installations of private and public electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). EVSE devices support the electrification of the transportation industry but also represent a cornerstone for power systems and transportation infrastructures. Cybersecurity researchers have recently identified several vulnerabilities that exist in EVSE devices, communications to electric vehicles (EVs), and upstream services, such as EVSE vendor cloud services, third party systems, and grid operators. The potential impact of attacks on these systems stretches from localized, relatively minor effects to long-term national disruptions. Fortunately, there is a strong and expanding collection of information technology and operational technology cybersecurity best practices that may be applied to the EVSE environment to secure this equipment. This paper summarizes publicly disclosed EVSE vulnerabilities, the impact of EV charger cyberattacks, and proposed security protections for EV charging technologies.

Electric Vehicles for Fleets 5/17/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric vehicles can fulfill many daily driving needs, making them a great solution for fleets. They offer several benefits and can fill roles in light-duty, medium-/heavy-duty (MD/HD), and even off-road applications. The unique fleet environment presents considerations beyond those that consumers must address before going electric. For example, fleet managers must understand the impacts of charging multiple vehicles while maintaining fleet operations. Larger MD/HD vehicles bring additional factors to consider.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; White, E. 5/4/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2021 (Q4). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the eighth report in a series.

Charting the Course for Early Truck Electrification Lund, J.; Mullaney, D.; Porter, E.; Schroeder, J. 5/2/2022 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

Trucks in the United States produce 25% of transportation greenhouse gas emissions even though they only make up 10% of vehicles on the road. Across the United States, fleets have already committed to deploying over 140,000 electric vehicles. Although this trend is enabled by technology, regulation is also encouraging electric truck adoption. California now requires truck builders to sell an increasing percentage of electric trucks in the state. And 15 additional states signed a joint memorandum of understanding to follow California’s path. This report uses real-world observed trucking telematics data from Geotab to investigate which trucks in California and New York can electrify the fastest based on currently available electric truck models. The report also examines the amount of energy and charging infrastructure that these early electrifiable trucks need, in addition to emissions from the grid under various charging schedules.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Rocky Mountain Institute website.

Global EV Outlook 2022 5/2/2022 Reports

International Energy Agency, Paris, France

Sales of electric vehicles (EVs) doubled in 2021 from the previous year to a new record of 6.6 million. Back in 2012, just 120,000 EV were sold worldwide. In 2021, more than that many are sold each week. The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to 2030, the report examines key areas of interest such as EV and charging infrastructure deployment, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions, battery demand, and related policy developments. The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate lessons learned from leading markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders with regard to policy frameworks and market systems for EV adoption.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Energy Agency’s website.

Electric Trucks Have Arrived: The Use Case for Heavy-Duty Regional Haul Tractors 5/2/2022 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency, Fort Wayne, Indiana

This report documents the four heavy-duty regional haul tractors that participated in the Run on Less - Electric demonstration by the North American Council for Freight Efficiency, which was conducted in September of 2021. It provides data from the demonstration, research and interviews with fleets, vehicle manufacturers, and other industry experts about this market segment. The report shares key findings for electrifying heavy-duty regional haul tractors.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the North American Council for Freight Efficiency website.

Golden Gate National Recreation Area Federal Fleet Tiger Team EVSE Site Assessment Boyce, L.; Bennett, J.; Desai, R. 5/2/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for the Sustainable Federal Fleets program. A key element of this assistance involves supporting agencies in the transition to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs). In developing and implementing their ZEV fleet strategies, agencies should focus on evaluating electric vehicle deployment opportunities at individual fleet locations, which have unique site, vehicle operating, and utility service characteristics. This is best achieved through site assessments to evaluate opportunities for ZEV acquisitions, identify optimal ZEV candidates, and determine optimal electric vehicle supply equipment deployment strategies. This site report supports the development of a ZEV deployment plan for the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, which can ultimately be incorporated into the overall U.S. Department of the Interior ZEV fleet strategy.

United States EV Market Summary: Q3 and Q4 2021 Lepre, N.; Taylor, T. 5/2/2022 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

Atlas Public Policy presents its first market summary report for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Clean Cities network. This report summarizes major developments in transportation electrification in the United States with a focus on activities during the third and fourth quarters of 2021.

Using Mapping Tools to Prioritize Electric Vehicle Charger Benefits to Underserved Communities Zhou, Yan; Gohlke, David; Sansone, Michael; Kuiper, Jim; Smith, Margaret P. 5/1/2022 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory; U.S. Department of Energy

This report describes the important role mapping tools play in incorporating equity goals in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of investments in electric vehicle (EV) chargers such as the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure formula program. Building upon the Justice40 Initiative, the report provides examples of how to apply mapping tools to identify priority locations for installing EV chargers with the best potential to benefit energy and environmental justice (EEJ) underserved communities. Four approaches are described: corridor charging, community charging, fleet electrification, and diversity in STEM and workforce development. The report also explores various methodologies for calculating low public-EV charger density.

Federal Funding is Available for EV Charging Infrastructure on the National Highway System 4/22/2022 Reports

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Washington, District of Columbia

The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) supports the Biden-Harris Administration’s goal of installing 500,000 new electric vehicle (EV) chargers by 2030. To accelerate the deployment of EV chargers, FHWA is highlighting the policies and funding available for partners in states, tribes, territories, metropolitan planning organizations, and federal land management agencies to build out EV chargers along the National Highway System. This document summarizes eligibilities under each of the funding and finance programs to plan for and build EV chargers, support workforce training for new technologies, and integrate EVs as part of strategies to address commuter, freight, and public transportation needs.

2021 Zero Emission Vehicle Market Study: Volume 2: Intra-California Regions Defined by Air Districts Kurani, K. 4/14/2022 Reports

University of California, Davis, Plug-in Hybrid & Electric Vehicle Research Center, Davis, California

California set a goal to transition new light-duty vehicle sales to 100% zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs) by 2035. To assist California and the other ZEV states to monitor and manage the success of policies promoting ZEVs and ZEV fueling infrastructure deployment, this research assesses car-owning households’ responses to these new technology vehicles and new fueling behaviors. This report assesses the readiness of household consumers in California to support state goals, i.e., as goals become more ambitious and requirements on manufacturers increase, are more car-owning households poised to become ZEV buyers? The analysis explores differences within California, based on boundaries of air quality districts. This study question is addressed via comparison of two large sample surveys of car-owning households. These surveys were completed in first calendar quarters of 2019 and 2021. Both questionnaires measure consumer awareness, knowledge, assessments, and consideration of ZEVs. Note: <p> This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the eScholarship <a href="https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8738w7m3/">website</a>.</p>

Electrifying New York City Ride-Hailing Fleets: An Examination of the Need for Public Fast Charging Moniot, M.; Borlaug, B.; Ge, Y.; Wood, E.; Zimbler, J. 3/28/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, New York

Ride-hailing electrification has gained momentum in recent years as regulators have set aggressive targets for fleet electrification. This report assesses the scale of public fast charging needed to electrify approximately 20,000 vehicles across the yellow cab and for-hire segments in New York City. The analysis considers real-world trip data in conjunction with driver home locations, overnight charging access rates, driver schedules, and more.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 3/10/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Considerations for Department of Defense Implementation of Zero-Emission Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure Hodge, C.; Bennett, J.; Bentley, J.; Boyce, L. 3/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Bentley Energy Consulting, Oakton, Virginia

In December 2021, the president issued Executive Order (EO) 14057 on Catalyzing Clean Energy Industries and Jobs Through Federal Sustainability. The EO requires the Department of Defense to transition its non-tactical vehicles to a 100% zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) fleet, including 100% of light-duty acquisitions by 2027 and 100% of medium- and heavy-duty acquisitions by 2035. This document provides considerations to comply with these requirements and transition to a ZEV fleet efficiently and quickly. It covers planning for ZEVs and electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment, suggested roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders in designing EV charging equipment, and execution issues including acquisition, installation, and ongoing fleet management.

Electric Trucks Have Arrived: The Use Case for Terminal Tractors 3/1/2022 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency, Fort Wayne, Indiana

This report documents the three terminal tractors that participated in the Run on Less - Electric demonstration by the North American Council for Freight Efficiency, which was conducted in September of 2021. It provides data from the demonstration, research and interviews with fleets, vehicle manufacturers, and other industry experts about this market segment. The report shares key findings for electrifying terminal tractors.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the North American Council for Freight Efficiency website.

Cargo Handling Equipment at Ports Andrew Burnham 3/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory

Ports, critical to trade and economic vitality, depend on a wide range of vehicles and machinery to move goods. Historically, most port equipment has been powered by diesel, contributing to poor air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. Increasingly, however, port equipment is powered by less-polluting fuels, including electricity, CNG, LNG, and LPG. This fact sheet describes the specific types of cargo handling equipment, their functions, and the fuel types currently available to power them.

Impacts of Increasing Electrification on State Fleet Operations and Charging Demand Booth,S.; Bennett, J.; Helm, M., Arnold, D.; Baker, B.; Clay, R.; Till, M.; Sears, T. 2/1/2022 Reports

Sawatch Labs, Denver, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

State fleets represent an enticing opportunity to explore the near-term feasibility of fleet electrification. In many instances, state fleet operations encompass a wide geographic area with fleet locations for many vehicles. Serving these wide areas will require a significant amount of energy and, in the case of electric vehicles (EVs), a significant level of charging power. The peak demand as a result of this charging demand is of interest for fleets, with impacts on both utility bills and installation costs ranking among some of the greatest concerns. The combination of a wide operational area and multiple fleet locations positions state fleets as ideal candidates to understand the impacts of vehicle charging on fleet operations. As the availability of electric drivetrains expands beyond light-duty sedans, fleets need to understand when it will be appropriate operationally and financially to start adding electric drivetrains to their fleets. Throughout this process, it will also be important to understand the charging implications of fleet electrification and the resulting impacts to facility electrical systems. To better understand these considerations, NREL contracted Sawatch Labs to analyze the role that increasing state fleet electrification may have on the charging demand at fleet parking facilities.

Supporting Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Deployment 2/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies electrify their fleets and support the deployment of charging infrastructure. To assist agencies with the transition to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through on-site and virtual EVSE Tiger Teams.

A Meta-Study of Purchase Costs for Zero-Emission Trucks Sharpe, B.; Basma, H. 2/1/2022 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This study reviews recent literature on current and projected battery-electric and hydrogen fuel cell tractor truck costs. In addition, this study provides information about the costs of key components for zero-emission trucks, including the battery pack, motor, and energy storage systems. Note: This copyrighted publication can be accessed through the International Council on Clean Transportation website.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 40 Davis, S.C.; Boundy, R.G. 2/1/2022 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 40 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (tedb.ornl.gov).

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Standards Technology Review 2/1/2022 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

Zero-emission transportation is critical to achieving California’s air quality and climate goals. To support the adoption and use of zero-emission vehicles, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Standards Regulation in 2019 to reduce barriers to accessing public charging stations. The EVSE Standards Regulation establishes minimum requirements for payment methods an EVSE must allow, facilitates roaming agreements between electric vehicle service providers, creates a more complete database of location and pricing information for consumer use, and ensures clarity in the cost of a charging session. To assess barriers drivers may face and understand whether the requirements of the Regulation, particularly the requirement that EVSE must accept both chip payment cards and contactless, “tap” cards, CARB staff conducted a Technology Review. The Technology Review included an evaluation of the availability and use of different payment methods and a survey of drivers’ experiences accessing public charging stations. This report presents the findings and recommendations from that work.

Evaluation of Policies for EV Charging Infrastructure Deployment 2/1/2022 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

To help guide federal, state, and local policymakers in the development of policies and programs focused on electric vehicle (EV) charging station deployment, this study evaluates the effectiveness of various policy approaches in contributing to deployments and broader EV charging market development. Using both statistical analysis and interviews of policymakers and business leaders across key states, this study aims to identify the major existing U.S. policies adopted between 2016 and 2020, to evaluate the effectiveness of these policies, to evaluate the relationship between policies and the development of the broader EV charging market, and to identify opportunities for future policy formulation.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Fuels Institute website.

Identifying Electric Vehicles to Best Serve University Fleet Needs and Support Sustainability Goals Booth, S.; Bennett, J.; Helm, M.; Arnold, D.; Baker, B.; Clay, R.; Till, M.; Sears, T. 2/1/2022 Reports

Sawatch Labs, Denver, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

University fleets represent an enticing opportunity to explore the near-term feasibility of achieving net-zero-carbon emissions in transportation. In many instances, universities operate much like a small, self-contained ecosystem with all the same transportation needs as a larger municipality, but with a smaller geographic footprint. Their fleets often include a wide variety of vehicle types serving the campus, including low-speed vehicles (e.g., golf carts), light-duty sedans, SUVs, and pickups, as well as medium-duty trucks and delivery vehicles. The mix of vehicle and operational needs combined with broader activities related to net-zero campuses makes universities and colleges unique microcosms to determine the feasibility of and path to achieving net-zero fleets. As the availability of electric drivetrains expands beyond light-duty sedans, fleets need to understand when it will be operationally and financially appropriate to start adding electric drivetrains to their fleets. To better understand these opportunities, NREL contracted Sawatch Labs to analyze the role electric vehicles (EVs) can have in helping universities meet net-zero emissions and fleet sustainability goals they have instituted.

Charging Forward: A Toolkit for Planning and Funding Rural Electric Mobility Infrastructure 2/1/2022 Reports

Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This toolkit is meant to be a one-stop resource to help rural communities scope, plan, and fund EV charging infrastructure for light-duty electric passenger vehicles. Rural stakeholders, including states, local communities, tribes, transportation providers, nonprofits, businesses, and individuals, can use the toolkit to identify key partners for a project, take advantage of relevant planning tools, and identify available funding or financing to help make that project a reality. Armed with the resources in this toolkit, rural communities will have the tools and information they need to start planning and implementing EV infrastructure projects and ultimately realize the benefits of electric mobility.

Assessing the Value of EV Managed Charging: A Review of Methodologies and Results Anwar, M.; Muratori, M.; Jadun, P.; Hale, E.; Bush, B.; Denholm, P.; Ma, O.; Podkaminer, K. 1/7/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Driven by technological progress and growing global attention for sustainability, the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is on the rise. Large-scale EV adoption would both disrupt the transportation sector and lead to far-reaching consequences for energy and electricity systems, including new opportunities for significant load growth. Unmanaged EV charging can stress existing grid infrastructure, possibly leading to operational, reliability, and planning challenges both at the bulk and distribution levels. However, effective management of EV charging can resolve these challenges and provide additional value. This report summarizes the benefits of managed EV charging, provides an overview of the landscape of existing implementations and costs of managed charging in the United States, critically reviews the state of the art of methodologies in analysis/modeling studies, and quantifies the cost and benefits of managed charging as reported in the reviewed studies. Additionally, it distills several key insights outlining the factors affecting the value of managed EV charging and identifies critical gaps and remaining challenges to fully realize effective EV-grid integration.

EV Charging at Multi-Family Dwellings Lepre, N. 1/3/2022 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, DC

Approximately 30% of U.S. households are multi-family dwellings (MFDs), such as apartments and condos, and almost 75% of MFD households have at least one vehicle. Therefore, it is essential for electric vehicle (EV) charging to be available to MFD residents in order to make EVs an option for a large portion of the population. This paper draws on case studies, other research, and charging use data from the Columbus, Ohio area and New York state to summarize the key drivers and barriers for MFD building managers to install EV charging.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2020 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 12/29/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an EUI of nearly 1 billion GGE, comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2020. Clean Cities coalition and stakeholder participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, although transportation activity and resulting EUI decreased in 2020 due to the COVID 19 pandemic. Coalition-reported activities prevented nearly 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only GHG emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). The GHG benefits increased in 2020 despite a decrease in EUI because coalitions focused more on technologies with higher GHG benefits per GGE reduced and because the lifecycle of many alternative fuels such as electricity or biofuels is becoming less carbon intense. Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous outside (non-DOE) sources. The 90 project grant awards in 2020 generated $151 million in funds from coalition members and project partners in addition to $12.8 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.1 million in stakeholder dues and $3.1 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this non-DOE supplemental funding represents a 4:1 leveraging of the $38 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in 2020. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 135,700 hours pursuing their coalitions’ goals in 2020. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held the coordinator position for nearly eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,290 outreach, education, and training activities in 2020, which reached an estimated 31 million people. Activities that reached underserved communities were tracked for the first time in 2020 and accounted for 17% of all activities.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Levene, J.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 12/16/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Ride-Hailing Charging Infrastructure: Needs Assessment and Equitable Siting in Houston Hsu C.; Slowik, P. 10/21/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

The reach and use of ride-hailing services have greatly expanded in major urban areas in the United States and globally. As ride-hailing continues to grow as an important pillar of the mobility ecosystem, such fleets raise questions related to their environmental and mobility impacts, and electrification offers an opportunity to eliminate the vehicles’ local emissions. This paper quantifies the number of ride-hailing direct current fast chargers needed in Houston to support a growing electric ride-hailing fleet from 2021 through 2030. It identifies priority sites that expand infrastructure equity and access in the city, with a focus on city-owned properties. The paper also summarizes best practices in equitable clean mobility investments and discusses the policies and actions that can facilitate ride-hailing electrification and contribute to equitable outcomes.

Notes: This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation website.

Future-Proofing Convenience Stores for EV Charging 10/12/2021 Reports

Petroleum Equipment Institute, Tulsa, Oklahoma; National Association of Convenience Stores, Alexandria, Virginia; Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

Direct current fast charging is the optimal technology for electric vehicle (EV) charging at convenience stores. This document helps convenience retailers plan for EV charging infrastructure at new liquid fueling sites. With careful planning and efficient site design, ground-up facilities can be constructed to keep fuels convenient and safe for store personnel and the public.

There's No Place Like Home: Residential Parking, Electrical Access, and Implications for the Future of EV Charging Infrastructure Ge, Y.; Simeone, C; Duvall, A.; Wood, E. 10/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The current foundation of U.S. charging infrastructure has been built upon charging at residential locations, where vehicles tend to be parked for long durations overnight. As the electric vehicle (EV) market expands beyond early adopters (typically high-income, single-family homes that have access to off-street parking) to mainstream consumers, planners must consider developing charging infrastructure solutions for households without consistent access to overnight home charging. In situations where residential off-street charging access is unattainable, a portfolio of solutions may be possible, including providing access to public charging in residential neighborhoods (on street), at workplaces, at commonly visited public locations, and (when necessary) at centralized locations via high power fast charging infrastructure (similar to existing gas stations). This report identifies charging access trends with respect to residence type and infers national residential charging access scenarios as a function of the national EV fleet size.

A Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel, Natural Gas, and Electric Vehicles Muncrief, R. 9/21/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Diesel, natural gas, and electric heavy-duty vehicles can be designed and manufactured with the capability of complying with the ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NOx) limits envisioned in the next set of California and federal heavy-duty vehicle regulations. This briefing compares the capabilities of these three powertrain types in meeting an ultra-low NOx standard across four key areas: feasibility, cost, health impacts, and climate impacts.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Evaluating EV Market Growth Across U.S. Cities Bui, A.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey, N. 9/14/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This briefing paper analyzes the development of the U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market in 2020 and the underlying state, city, and utility actions that were driving it. The paper evaluates state, local, and utility company actions to promote PEVs, and demonstrates that the states and cities with the greatest PEV market success continue to have the strongest and most comprehensive policy supports.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Infrastructure to Support a 100% Zero-Emission Tractor-Trailer Fleet in the United States by 2040 Minjares, R.; Rodríguez, F.; Sen, A.; Braun, C. 9/14/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This analysis estimates the number of charging points and hydrogen fueling stations needed to enable the transition to 100% sales of zero-emission Class 7 and Class 8 tractor-trailers by 2040 in the United States.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 9/10/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Total Cost of Ownership for Class 8 Tractors and Class 4 Parcel Delivery Trucks Hunter, C.; Penev, M.; Reznicek, E.; Lustbader, J.; Birky, A.; Zhang, C. 9/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The medium- and heavy-duty transportation sector is experiencing rapid changes in powertrain technology innovation, with recent announcements of battery electric and fuel cell electric trucks being offered. The economics of these alternative powertrain vehicles are uncertain and difficult to compare directly. This report evaluates the total cost of ownership of six different truck powertrain technologies (diesel, diesel hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, compressed natural gas, battery electric, and fuel cell electric) for three different truck vocations (Class 8 long haul, Class 8 short haul, and Class 4 parcel delivery, for three different time frames (2018, 2025, and 2050).

Need Help Planning for the Future of Electric Vehicles? 9/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

This brochure helps states find tools to make informed decisions about implementing electric vehicles (EVs) and their charging infrastructure. To do so, many states will use funds from the Environmental Mitigation Trust Agreements from the Volkswagen Clean Air Act Settlement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories provide extensive information on EVs including both community planning and charging infrastructure. This information can help states implement EV and charging infrastructure projects using settlement funds. The tools in this brochure represent a sampling of key DOE resources available to states and other jurisdictions.

At A Glance: Electric Vehicles 8/23/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. Electric vehicles (EVs) include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Electric Vehicles 8/23/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: All-electric vehicles and Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as electric vehicles (EVs).

Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Power Demand of Retail Buildings Gillerana, M.; Bonnemaa, E.; Woodsa, J.; Mishraa, P,; Doebberb, I.; Huntera, C.; Mitchella, M.; Mann, M. 8/15/2021 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As electric vehicle (EV) penetration increases, charging is expected to have a significant impact on the grid. EV charging stations will greatly affect a building site’s power demand, especially with the onset of fast charging with power levels as high as 350 kilowatts per charger. This paper assesses how EV charging stations would impact a retail big box grocery store, exploring numerous station sizes, charging power levels, and utilization factors in various climate zones and seasons. It measures the effect of charging by assessing changes in monthly peak power demand, electricity usage, and annual electricity bill, computed using three distinct rate structures.

Installing and Operating Public EV Charging Infrastructure 8/6/2021 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

This report analyzes the issues site hosts are expected to encounter as they contemplate development of public electric vehicle (EV) charging by separating them into three key buckets: assessing the business case, utility engagement, and working with local authorities having jurisdiction over the site’s location. The report also presents several case studies from early adopters who’ve invested in the public EV charging space. In addition, the report includes crucial lessons learned from real world experience.

Notes:

This publication is copyrighted by Fuels Institute and can be downloaded from the Fuels Institute’s website.

Success Factors for Electric Carsharing Nicholas, M.; Bernard, M 8/2/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

Using electric vehicles for carsharing can enhance the environmental benefits of such programs. This briefing examines electric carsharing and the elements that are found in successful programs in North America and Europe. Specifically, it describes the benefits of electric carsharing, presents examples of carsharing, provides charging infrastructure insights, and identifies best practices for electric carsharing.

Assembly Bill 2127 Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Assessment Analyzing Charging Needs to Support Zero Emission Vehicles in 2030 Alexander, M.; Crisostomo, N.; Krell, W.; Lu, J.; Ramesh, R. 7/1/2021 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

Assembly Bill 2127, 2018, requires the California Energy Commission (CEC) to prepare a statewide assessment of the charging infrastructure needed to achieve the goal of five million zero-emission vehicles on the road by 2030. Executive Order N-79-20, 2020, directed the CEC to expand this assessment to support the levels of plug-in electric vehicle adoption required by the executive order. This report identifies trends and market, technical, and policy solutions that would advance transportation electrification to benefit all Californians. It outlines a vision where charging is accessible, smart, widespread, and easier than a trip to the gas station.

Electric Vehicle Charging for Residential and Commercial Energy Codes Salcido, V.; Tillou, M.; Franconi, E. 7/1/2021 Reports

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

This technical brief presents a compilation of information on electric vehicles (EVs), examining market trends, benefits to consumers and society, and means of expanding the EV charging infrastructure by way of energy codes for new construction. A description of the concept is provided along with supporting justification and examples of similar concepts which have been adopted by states and local jurisdictions, as well as technical information on expected costs and benefits. In addition, the brief provides sample energy code language developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory following consultations with the International Code Council that can be overlaid directly onto model energy codes for EV charging infrastructure. This brief can be a resource for stakeholders, particularly those charged with considering the impacts of proposed code updates.

Fuel Cell Electric Trucks: A Vision for Freight Movement in California and Beyond 7/1/2021 Reports

California Fuel Cell Partnership, West Sacramento, California

The California Fuel Cell Partnership represents public entities and private global companies with vested interests in both battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell electric technologies. This document presents the California Fuel Cell Partnership shared vision of the fundamental role of fuel cell electric trucks in the complete transition of California’s freight movement sector to zero-emission. While the insights shared are applicable to many vehicle types, this document focuses on the largest and highest-priority, on-road freight vehicle: the Class 8 tractor.

Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Market Structure, Environmental Impact, and Electric Vehicle Readiness 7/1/2021 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, Massachusetts

This report summarizes an analysis of the U.S. medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) in-use truck fleet to identify the most common vehicle types/uses, estimate the environmental impact of each, and assess readiness for greater adoption of zero emitting technologies over the next decade. It is intended to help inform the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s deliberations involving future criteria and greenhouse gas emissions standards and policies for MD and HD engines and vehicles.

Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative 7/1/2021 Reports

Western Governors’ Association, Denver, Colorado

Oregon Governor Kate Brown launched the Electric Vehicles (EVs) Roadmap Initiative in July 2020, to examine opportunities to improve the planning and siting of EV charging infrastructure in western states. The Chair Initiative of the Governor assembled states engaged in the West Coast Electric Highway (which includes California, Oregon, and Washington) and the Regional Electric Vehicle Plan for the West (REV West, which includes Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming). Together, they assessed opportunities for enhanced coordination on voluntary technical standards related to EV infrastructure hardware, payment methods, signage, and best practices for siting and location. This report presents findings from these sessions and examines state programs and coordination opportunities, grid infrastructure planning and the role of utilities, medium-and heavy-duty EVs, EV fleets, permitting and siting practices, and economic and workforce development opportunities associated with EVs.

Electric Transportation Rate Design Principles for Regulated Utilities Jones, P., Edelston, B. 7/1/2021 Reports

Alliance for Transportation Electricifiction, Washington, D.C.

Growth in interest in electric vehicles (EVs) among policy makers in the United States is prompting utilities and state regulatory commissions to consider changes to traditional utility rate designs that more efficiently reflect the drivers of electric system costs, thereby allowing customers to better manage electric bills associated with EV charging in a manner that benefits the system. This paper proposes ratemaking and rate design principles applicable to transportation electrification where state commissions have authority to approve both investor-owned utility rates and rate design.

Electrifying Trucks: From Delivery Vans to Buses to 18-Wheelers Nadel, S.; Huether, P. 6/10/2021 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, D.C.

Electrification of trucks and buses can bring many benefits, including lower energy use, emissions, and operating costs. However, compared to conventional trucks, these vehicles currently cost more up front, often have reduced range, and must depend on limited charging infrastructure. Efforts to address these limitations are making substantial progress, and leading experts expect electric trucks to be widespread by 2040. This paper summarizes the current state of the industry, including electric truck benefits and challenges, current and imminent models, charging, electric rates, and policies to promote electric trucks.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Benefits of Transportation Electrification in a Post Pandemic World Smith, C.; Nigro, N.; Lepre, N. 6/1/2021 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

The first three months of 2021 saw early actions from the Biden administration and strong commitments to transportation electrification made by automakers, utilities, and other key players in the U.S. electric vehicle market. This activity has increased the number and breadth of pathways that policymakers can pursue to accelerate the shift towards transportation electrification and capture more of the billions of dollars in investments committed to the technology worldwide. This paper outlines three key opportunities for the country to achieve success and rapidly decarbonize the transportation sector by taking decisive action at federal level, expanding state policy frameworks, and prioritizing underserved communities.

Town of Colonie Enhanced Development Regulations: Electric Vehicle Zoning Guidance & Best Practices 5/24/2021 Reports

Capital District Clean Communities Coalition, Albany, New York; Capital District Transportation Committee, Colonie, New York; Capital District Regional Planning Commission, Colonie, New York

Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) requirements have become an area of interest to the Town of Colonie (Colonie) staff and planning board members. This report provides electric vehicle zoning guidance and best practices for Colonie codes. It includes a review of existing conditions in Colonie, a comprehensive plan and zoning audit, and general recommendations and best practices for municipalities to allow, require, and streamline the installation of EVSE.

AFLEET: Assess the Impacts of Conventional and Alternative Fuel Vehicles 5/20/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET fact sheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2019 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 5/6/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an energy use impact (EUI) of over 1 billion gasoline-gallons equivalent (GGE), comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2019. Participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, as did alternative fuel use and resulting overall EUI. Clean Cities coalition activities reduce emissions as they impact energy use. Coalition-reported activities prevented nearly 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous (non-DOE) outside sources. For other Federal, State, and local agencies and private sector foundations, see funding section on page 24. The 82 project grant awards in 2019 generated $225 million in funds from coalition members and project partners along with $9.5 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.2 million in stakeholder dues and $1.6 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this supplemental funding represents nearly a 6:1 leveraging of the $38 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in Fiscal Year 2019. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 136,000 hours pursuing their coalitions' goals in 2019. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held his or her position for at least eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,525 outreach, education, and training activities in 2019, which reached an estimated 23 million people.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 5/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electrifying Transit: A Guidebook for Implementing BEBs Aamodt, A.; Cory, K.; Coney, K. 4/20/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The use of battery electric bus (BEBs) fleets is becoming more attractive to cities seeking to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. While BEB fleets may provide benefits such as lower fuel and maintenance costs, improved performance, lower emissions, and energy security, many challenges need to be overcome to support BEB deployment. These include upfront cost premiums, planning burdens, BEB range, and unfamiliarity with BEB technology. To assist stakeholders with interest in deploying BEBs, this guidebook describes the decisions and considerations required for successful BEB implementation.

Charging Station Design Guidance Toolbox 4/1/2021 Reports

Island Regional Transportation Planning Organization, Coupeville , Washington

This resource provides information collected by the Island Regional Transportation Planning Organization on electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment to assist municipal fleet and facility managers with vehicle electrification. It provides an overview of EV charger types, key considerations to selecting EV charging equipment, and recommendations for EV charging equipment placement and installation.

Siting EVSE with Equity in Mind Huether, P. 4/1/2021 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, District of Columbia

To reduce pollution from road vehicles, states are setting policies to support transportation electrification and directing utilities to support electric vehicles with widespread charging infrastructure. States and utility commissions also recognize the need to ensure that historically underserved communities benefit from electrification. To make this happen, electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) must be sited in a way that promotes geographic, racial, and economic equity. This paper analyzes the extent to which states and utilities are including equity in their siting. Additionally, this paper provides guidance for utilities wanting to ensure that the benefits of transportation electrification are shared widely.

Clean Mobility Equity: A Playbook Lessons from California’s Clean Transportation Programs Creger, H.; Aguayo, L.; Partida-Lopez, R.; Sanchez, A. 3/25/2021 Reports

The Greenlining Institute, Oakland, California

Clean mobility programs can help fight climate change and clean the air, and improve mobility for residents of underserved communities, reduce traffic and dependence on cars, and be engines of economic empowerment that help reduce the racial wealth gap. This report reviews California’s clean mobility equity programs to better understand whether and how clean transportation programs truly address equity in a comprehensive and effective way. The report notes successes, pitfalls, and areas for improvement for clean mobility programs. It serves as both a guide for California as it continues evolving its clean mobility programs to more meaningfully center equity and as a guide for other states and the federal government as they move to develop and implement clean transportation equity programs.

User Perceptions of the Risks of Electric, Shared, and Automated Vehicles Remain Largely Unexplored Kurani, K. 2/12/2021 Reports

UC Davis, National Center for Sustainable Transportation, Davis, California

Advocates of electric, shared, and automated vehicles (e-SAVs) envision a future in which people no longer need to drive their privately owned, petroleum-fueled vehicles. Instead, for daily travel they rely on fleets of electric, automated vehicles that offer travel services, including the option to share, or “pool,” rides with strangers. The design, deployment, and operation of e-SAVs will require widespread willingness of users to share with strangers vehicles that are capable of fully automated driving. To achieve the environmental and societal goals of e-SAVs it is critical to first understand and address safety and security concerns of potential and actual users. Researchers at the University of California, Davis, reviewed the literature to understand potential users’ perceptions of safety and security risks posed by intertwined social and technical systems of e-SAVs and proposed a framework to advance research, policy, and system design. This policy brief summarizes the findings of that work and provides policy implications.

When Might Lower-Income Drivers Benefit from EVs? Quantifying the Economic Equity Implications of EV Adoption Bauer, G.; Hsu, C.; Lutsey, N. 2/1/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), Washington, DC

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can dramatically reduce local air pollution and carbon emissions, but relatively little analysis has been done on the broader potential economic benefits as the technology matures and costs decline. As governments seek to integrate decarbonization policy with environmental justice goals, it will be critical to ensure equal access to clean technology. This report focuses on the potential benefits of equitable electrification and assesses when PEVs will become affordable more broadly across different households.

National Park Service Bus Electrification Study: 2020 Report Gilleran, M.; Kotz, A.; Eudy, L.; Kelly, K. 2/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes important considerations for implementing battery electric buses (BEBs) in the three national park fleets, detailing information about current buses at each fleet, electric bus demonstration vehicles, and performance evaluations of BEBs in Zion, Bryce, and Yosemite. Results include in-use data collection metrics such as average bus speed, energy usage per trip, and daily distance traveled. Also covered are effects of high heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system use to both heat and cool the buses, emissions estimations before and after use of electric buses, operating costs, electric vehicle infrastructure, maintenance, and bus driver user experience survey information.

Transportation Electrification in North Carolina Smith, C. 2/1/2021 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, DC

This brief provides an overview of the state of the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market and deployment in North Carolina while also highlighting travel patterns and transit agency statistics, along with snapshots of PEV policy and program examples from other states. Statewide transportation electrification roadmaps and funding available through the Volkswagen Settlement have generated momentum in North Carolina and can be harnessed to accelerate the PEV market across the state and position it as a regional and national leader.

EV Charging Needs Assessment: Identifying Needs and Opportunities for EV Fast Charging in Rural and Underserved Areas of the Intermountain West Powers, C. 2/1/2021 Reports

National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, Virginia; Utah Clean Cities, Salt Lake City, Utah

Corridors of the West (CORWest) is a three-year initiative to support plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure investment and educational opportunities in rural and underserved areas of the intermountain west. A key first step under the project is to understand barriers to PEV adoption and, more specifically, direct current (DC) fast charger station deployment in rural and underserved areas of the intermountain west, and identify potential pathways for addressing these barriers. To understand barriers to EV adoption and station deployment in rural and underserved areas, the CORWest project team developed a questionnaire that was disseminated to select stakeholder groups to gather feedback. This report provides a summary of trends and typical issues being faced in the region and offers recommendations for ways to address high-priority needs and support PEV deployment and DC fast charger investment.

Final Technical Report-WestSmart EV: Western Smart Plug-in Electric Vehicle Community Partnership Campbell, James 1/19/2021 Reports

Department on Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC

The WestSmartEV (WSEV) project has accelerated adoption of electric vehicles (EV) throughout the PacifiCorp/Rocky Mountain Power’s service territory in the intermountain west by developing a large-scale, sustainable EV charging infrastructure network with coordinated EV adoption programs. The project objectives have strategically deployed 79 direct current fast charging to create two primary electric interstate highway corridors along I-15 and I-80. Additionally, it has incentivized installation of Level 2 chargers at workplace locations, incentivized the purchase of EVs, provided all electric solutions for first- and last-mile trips, provided centralized data collection, analysis, modeling, and tool development to inform investment and policy decisions, and developed education outreach materials and conducted workshops across the WSEV region. This report summarizes the WSEV project efforts.

The Shape of Electrified Transportation Muratori, M.; Mai, T. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

For more than a century, petroleum fuels have been relied upon to move people and goods within and between towns and cities, and on roads, railways, farms, waterways, and in the air. These fuels have provided reliable and convenient mobility options to power the modern global economy. However, these benefits have also created challenges associated with geopolitics, energy security, price volatility, and environmental impacts. Electric vehicles could dramatically disrupt the transportation energy demand landscape. Such a change comes with its own challenges and benefits. This report summarizes the trends driving vehicle electrification and explores the associated challenges and benefits.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electrification Futures Study: Scenarios of Power System Evolution and Infrastructure Development for the United States Murphy, C.; Mai, T.; Sun, Y.; Jadun, P.; Muratori, M.; Nelson, B.; Jones, R. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona; Evolved Energy Research, San Francisco, California

This report is the fifth publication in a series of Electrification Futures Study (EFS) publications. The report presents scenarios of the U.S. electricity and energy systems through 2050. The scenarios encompass a wide range of future conditions, including the different electrification levels that were developed for the <a href=" https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/electrification_futures_study.pdf">second EFS report</a>. The scenario results include projected changes to the physical infrastructure of the U.S. power system, the utilization of that infrastructure, and estimates of other impacts of electrification to the power system and broader energy system.

Developing Markets for Zero Emission Vehicles in Short Haul Goods Movement Giuliano, G., Dessouky, M., Dexter, S., Fang, J., Hu, S., Steimetz, S. 12/10/2020 Reports

University of California, Davis, California

This report examines the potential market share for zero emission heavy duty trucks (ZEHDTs) via simulation modeling, case studies, interviews, and a survey. It assesses the impacts of ZEHDTs on freight operations. Additionally, it compares the costs and benefits of using diesel, natural gas hybrid, and all-electric vehicles for 2020, 2025, and 2030. Lastly, this report presents recommendations for promoting and increasing the market share of ZEHDTs and hybrids.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through the University of California, Davis National Center for Sustainable Transportation website.

Accelerating Ride-Hailing Electrification: Challenges, Benefits, and Options for State Action Hunt, J.; McKearnan, S. 12/2/2020 Reports

Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management, Boston, Massachusetts

In the United States, use of ride-hailing services has grown at a steep rate over the last decade, and this trend is expected to continue. A rapid transition in ride-hailing fleets from internal combustion engine vehicles to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) would reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants, increase consumer exposure to PEVs, deliver maintenance and fuel cost savings to drivers, and improve the business case for fast charging infrastructure by increasing utilization. This paper identifies the benefits and challenges associated with transitioning vehicles driving on transportation network company platforms to PEVs and recommends specific actions states can take to support and accelerate the transition.

Assessing the Potential for Low-Carbon Fuel Standards as a Mode of EV Support Kelly, C.: Pavlenko, N. 12/1/2020 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Low-carbon fuel standards (LCFS), which regulate the carbon intensity of fuels supplied to transportation, can provide long-term, durable funding for plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure and PEV purchasing incentives as other policies such as rebates expire or are phased-down. This study assesses the role that a national LCFS program can play in accelerating the rate of light-duty passenger PEV and charging infrastructure deployment.

Florida Electric Vehicle Roadmap Smith Burk, K.; Groover Combs, A.; Kettles, D.; Reed, K. 12/1/2020 Reports

FDACS and Central Florida Clean Cities, Tallahassee, Florida; Central Florida Clean Cities Coalition, Cocoa, Florida

In May 2019, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Office of Energy began working on a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) roadmap for the state of Florida. This roadmap provides a comprehensive investigation into the status and needs of PEV charging infrastructure in Florida for the following three to four years. This roadmap identifies PEV charging infrastructure impacts on the electric grid, solutions for any negative impacts, areas that lack PEV charging infrastructure, best practices for siting PEV charging stations, and technical or regulatory barriers to expansion of PEV charging infrastructure. It also provides recommendations that address permitting, emergency evacuation needs, and education.

Electrification Assessment of Public Vehicles in Washington Satterfield, C.; Nigro, N.; Wood, E.; Jensen, J.; Smith, C.; Desai, R.; Lepre, N.; Ge, Y. 11/30/2020 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, District of Columbia; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

Washington State is positioned to cost effectively electrify nearly all public vehicles by the year 2035. With near-term policy action and targeted investments in infrastructure, the state can accelerate ongoing efforts to advance electric vehicles (EVs) and solidify its leadership position in the EV market in the United States. This assessment evaluates the electrification potential for all publicly owned vehicles in the State of Washington. It provides Washington with comprehensive, vehicle-specific electrification cost estimates both today and in the future along with actionable information on how to efficiently move forward with fleet electrification.

Federal Workplace Charging Program Guide 11/2/2020 Reports

Federal Energy Management Program, Washington, District of Columbia

The Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act authorizes the installation, operation, and maintenance of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment for the purpose of charging privately owned vehicles (POVs) under the custody or control of the General Services Administration or other federal agencies. It requires the collection of fees to recover the costs of installing, operating, and maintaining this equipment and imposes reporting requirements. This model program guide reviews those requirements and describes when and how fees may be required to cover costs of electricity, network costs, EV charging equipment, and installations in various scenarios. This model program guide is designed to support federal agencies developing and refining workplace charging programs for employee POVs.

Electrifying Freight: Pathways to Accelerating the Transition Buholtz, T.; Burger, A.; Gander, S.; Nelson, B.; Prochazka, B.; Swalnick, N 11/1/2020 Reports

Electrification Coalition, Washington, District of Columbia

The U.S. economy is heavily dependent on the functionality of our freight and goods transportation services. Road freight transportation in the United States is projected to grow steadily in the coming decades, and electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as a clean and cost-effective alternative. This report outlines the benefits of electric trucks, explains the major barriers impeding their production, sales, and deployment, and establishes the next steps that manufacturers, policymakers, fleet operators, and other stakeholders should take to facilitate and accelerate freight electrification.

Fleet-Wide Electrification Impacts Assessment for the Valley Transportation Authority Eichman, J.; Kotz, A.; Miller, E.; Kelly, K.; Ficenec, K. 11/1/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report explores the long-term electrification opportunities for the Valley Transit Authority’s (VTA) transit bus fleet. It also explores the potential for transit bus electrification at VTA as well as the economic impacts of partial and complete electrification. Further, the report includes the optimal charging, operation and lowest capital and operating cost solution to achieve different levels of electrification to meet VTA’s existing routes.

Summary Report on Electric Vehicles at Scale and the U.S. Electric Power System 11/1/2020 Reports

Department of Energy, D.C., United States

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can meet U.S. personal transportation needs using domestic energy resources while at the same time offering carbon emissions benefits. However, wide scale light-duty PEV adoption will necessitate assessment of and possibly modification to the U.S. electric power generation and distribution systems. This report gauges the sufficiency of both energy generation and generation capacity in the U.S. electric power system to accommodate the growing fleet of light duty PEVs.

Expanding Equitable Access to EV Mobility: Examples of Innovative Policies and Programs 9/21/2020 Reports

This document describes examples of how state governments and their partners across the United States are working on improving equitable access to light-duty plug-in electric vehicle mobility in low- and moderate-income (LMI) communities. In addition, this document covers the importance of early engagement for assessing the mobility needs and gaps in LMI communities, identifying strategic approaches to expanding equitable mobility, and finding local leaders.

Electric Vehicle Market Status - Update Lowell, D.; Huntington, A. 9/1/2020 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, Massachusetts

This paper summarizes the current status, and projected growth, of the U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) industry over the next five to ten years. Key topics addressed include drivers of U.S. and global PEV growth, original equipment manufacturer (OEM) investments in PEV development and in building a robust charging network for drivers, announced new PEV model introductions, projected PEV sales, projected battery pack costs, and projected date of PEV price parity with internal combustion engine vehicles. The data summarized here are based on formal statements and announcements by OEMs, as well as analysis by the automotive press and by financial and market analysis firms that regularly cover the auto industry.

Hydrogen Station Permitting Guidebook Brazil Vacin, G.; Eckerle, T.; Kashuba, M. 9/1/2020 Reports

California Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz), Sacramento, California

This guidebook is comprised of six parts and is intended to help station developers and local jurisdictions navigate and streamline the infrastructure development process. It reflects the latest best practices collected from stations developers and local jurisdictions with experience in the hydrogen stations development process.