Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
2020 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment & Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2020 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations. This report provides ARB’s analysis of the current status and near-term projections of FCEV deployment and station network development and the actions necessary to maintain progress and enable continued future expansion.

Hydrogen Station Permitting Guidebook Brazil Vacin, G.; Eckerle, T.; Kashuba, M. 9/1/2020 Reports

California Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz), Sacramento, California

This guidebook is comprised of six parts and is intended to help station developers and local jurisdictions navigate and streamline the infrastructure development process. It reflects the latest best practices collected from stations developers and local jurisdictions with experience in the hydrogen stations development process.

Update on Electric Vehicle Adoption Across U.S. Cities Bui A.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey. N. 8/31/2020 Reports

The International Council on Clean Transportation, San Francisco, California

This briefing builds upon the International Council on Clean Transportation’s annual U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market analysis of state, local, and utility actions to promote PEVs. It assesses relationships between PEV uptake and various underlying factors including incentives, charging infrastructure, model availability, access to high-occupancy vehicle lanes, and regional policy actions. The analytical focus is primarily on the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas, which collectively accounted for 55% of the nation’s population.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2020 Brown, A; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 8/28/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, and ICF

The US. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2020 (Q1). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

SMART Mobility Decision Science Capstone Report Spurlock, C.; Gopal, A.; Auld, J.; Leiby, P.; Sheppard, C.; Wenzel, T.; Belal, S.; Duvall, A.; Enam, A.; Fujita, S.; Henao, A.; Jin, L.; Kontou, E.; Lazar, A.; Needell, Z.; Rames, C.; Rashidi, T.; Sears, T.; Sim, A.; Stinson, M.; Taylor, M.; Todd-Blick, A.; Verbas, O.; Walker, V.; Ward, J.; Wong-Parodi, G.; Wu, K.; Yang, H. 8/5/2020 Reports

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California; Stanford University, Stanford, California; Youngstown State University, Youngstown, Ohio; University of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale.</p><p>This report summarizes the work of the Mobility Decision Science Pillar. The Mobility Decision Science Pillar sought to fill gaps in existing knowledge about the human role in the mobility system including travel decision-making and technology adoption in the context of future mobility. The objective was to study how underlying preferences, needs, and contextual factors might constrain or hasten future transportation system scenarios.</p>

SMART Mobility Multi-Modal Freight Capstone Report Zhao, Y.; Birky, A.; Moore, A.; Walker, V.; Stinson, M.; Smith, D.; Jones, P. 8/3/2020 Reports

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale.</p><p>This report summarizes the work of the Multi-Modal Freight Pillar. The Multi Modal Freight Pillar’s objective is to assess the effectiveness of emerging freight movement technologies and understand the impacts of the growing trends in consumer spending and e-commerce on parcel movement considering mobility, energy, and productivity.</p>

High-Potential Regions for Electric Truck Deployments 8/1/2020 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency and Rocky Mountain Institute, Basalt, Colorado

Regional haul, heavy-duty trucking operations are good candidates for electrification due to the segment’s relatively short-hauls and return-to-base operations. Many early electric truck deployments have taken place in California, but as the market matures, fleets, utilities, manufacturers, policymakers, charging companies, and other industry stakeholders are seeking assistance to prioritize regions outside California for future deployments of this technology. This guidance report proposes a three-part framework that the industry can use to prioritize regions for electric truck deployments based on technology, need, and support.

Notes: This report is copyrighted and can be accessed through North American Council for Freight Efficiency website.

SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow Development, Implementation, and Results Capstone Report Rousseau, A.; Sheppard, C.; Auld, J.; Souza, F.; Enam, A.; Freyermuth, V.; Gardner, M.; Garikapati, V.; Needell, Z.; Stinson, M.; Verbas, O.; Wood, E. 7/28/2020 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale.</p><p>This report summarizes the work of the SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow effort. The SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow was developed to evaluate new transportation technologies such as connectivity, automation, sharing, and electrification through multi-level systems analysis that captures the dynamic interactions between technologies. By integrating multiple models across different levels of fidelity and scale, the Workflow yields insights about the influence of new mobility and vehicle technologies at the system level.</p>

SMART Mobility Connected and Automated Vehicles Capstone Report Rask,E.; Auld, J.; Bush, B.; Chen,Y.; Freyermuth, V.; Gohlke, D.; Gonder, J.; Greenblatt, J.; Han, J.; Holden, J.; Islam, E.; Javanmardi, M.; Jeong, J.; Karbowski, D.; Kim, N.; Lammert, M.; Leiby, P.; Lin, Z.; Lu, X.; Mohammadian, K.; Parsa, A.; Rios-Torres, J.; Rousseau, A.; Shabanpour, R.; Shladover, S.; Shen, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Sun, B.; Verbas, O.; Zhang, C. 7/22/2020 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Argonne National Laboratory Lemont, Illinois; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale. </p><p>This report summarizes the work of the Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) Pillar. This Pillar investigated the energy, technology, and usage implications of vehicle connectivity and automation and identified efficient CAV solutions.</p>

SMART Mobility Advanced Fueling Infrastructure Capstone Report Smart, J.; Bi, J.; Birky, A.; Borlaug, B.; Burrell, E.; Kontou, E.; Lee, D.; Lipman, T.; Meintz, A.; Miller, E.; Mohamed, A.; Moniot, M.; Moore, A.; Motoaki, Y.; Needell Z.; Onar, O.; Rames, C.; Reinicke, N.; Roni, M.; Salisbury, S.; Sheppard, C.; Toba, A.; Walker, V.; Weigl, D.; Wood, E.; Xie, F.; Yi, Z.; Zeng T.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z. 7/22/2020 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale.</p><p>This report summarizes the work of the Advanced Fueling Infrastructure Pillar. This Pillar investigated the charging infrastructure needs of electric ride-hailing and car-sharing vehicles, automated shuttle buses, and freight-delivery truck fleets.</p>

Levelized Cost of Charging Electric Vehicles in the United States Borlaug, B.; Salisbury, S.; Gerdes, M.; Muratori, M. 7/15/2020 Reports

Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, Netherlands

The cost to charge an electric vehicle (EV) varies depending on the price of electricity at different charging sites (home, workplace, or public), vehicle use, region, and time of day, and for different charging power levels and equipment and installation costs. This paper provides a detailed assessment of the 2019 levelized cost of light-duty PEV charging in the United States, considering the purchase and installation costs of charging equipment and electricity prices from real-world utility tariffs.

Notes:

This Joule article (Vol. 4, Issue 7, (July 2020): pp. 1470-1485) is copyrighted by Elsevier Inc. and can be accessed through Science Direct.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Showcases: Consumer Experience and Acceptance Singer, M. 7/2/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In 2016 the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) announced three awardees to hold plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) showcases to demonstrate available technologies and provide a hands-on consumer experience at conveniently located, brand-neutral settings. The events varied in style from long term stationary storefront settings to weekend events at a variety of regional venues. Attendees could interact with the technology through ride-and-drives and longer-term test drives. The events began in the spring of 2017 and continued through 2019.

Electric Vehicles at Scale - Phase I Analysis: High Electric Vehicle Adoption Impacts on the Western U.S. Power Grid Kintner-Meyer, M.; Davis, S.; Sridhar, S.; Bhatnagar, D.; Mahserejian, S.; Ghosal, M. 7/1/2020 Reports

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

The use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the United States has grown significantly during the last decade. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed a study on how PEVs at scale affect the electric grid as an aggregated new load. The Phase I study focused on the bulk power electricity impacts on the Western grid. This analysis addresses the following two key questions: 1) Are there sufficient resources in the U.S. bulk power grid to provide the electricity for charging a growing PEV fleet? and 2) What are the likely operational changes necessary to accommodate a growing PEV fleet?

Financial Analysis of Battery Electric Transit Buses Johnson, C.; Nobler, E.; Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 6/10/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

A baseline bus fleet and battery electric bus investment scenario was developed based on the average or common parameters of existing battery electric bus (BEB) fleets. A discounted cashflow analysis was done that found the baseline fleet to have a net present value of $785,000 and simple payback of 3.3 years. The 33 main parameters were then swung ±50% to determine their relative influence on NPV and were ranked accordingly. Then parameter volatility was estimated by dividing the range of observed values by the baseline value. The parameters that are most influential and volatile were highlighted as the ones fleet managers should focus on when determining if BEBs are a good investment option for them. These top parameters are 1) BEB purchase price, 2) purchase price of foregone diesel bus, 3) grant amount, 4) maintenance costs of foregone diesel bus, 5) annual vehicle miles traveled.

The Automated Mobility District Implementation Catalog – Insights from Ten Early-Stage Deployments Young, S.; Lott J. S. 6/1/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Major disruptive technologies are set to redefine the way in which people view travel, particularly in dense urban areas. Already, ride-hailing services have redefined mobility expectations of a new generation of urban dwellers in some places around the country. Over the next few decades, the proliferation of automated vehicles1 (AVs), will be enhanced by the next generation of shared mobility. This combination of AV operations with on-demand service will provide convenience of mobility similar to that being exhibited in today’s transportation networking companies (TNCs). Shared, automated, public mobility resulting from the cross- hybridization of AVs with on-demand mobility service will bring economic and system efficiencies. Economic efficiencies may be realized by less vehicle ownership and more vehicle “usership.” Many companies are already exploring avenues for shared automated mobility through fleet operations as the wave of the future.

Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010-2019 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y. 6/1/2020 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report examines properties of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) sold in the United States from 2010 to 2019, exploring vehicle sales, miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, vehicle manufacturing, and battery production, among other factors. Over 1.4 million PEVs have been sold, driving over 37 billion miles on electricity since 2010, thereby reducing national gasoline consumption by 0.34% in 2019 and 1.4 billion gallons cumulatively through 2019. In 2019, PEVs used 4.1 terawatt-hours of electricity to drive 12.7 billion miles, offsetting 470 million gallons of gasoline. Since 2010, 69% of all PEVs have been assembled in the United States, and over 60 gigawatt-hours of lithium-ion batteries have been installed in vehicles to date.

Grid Impact Analysis of Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Zhu, X.; Mather, B.; Mishra, P. 5/7/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This paper presents a grid impact analysis of heavy-duty electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. Authors assumed heavy-duty EVs will have battery capacities high enough to provide a range of 250 to 500 miles on a single charge. Heavy-duty EVs will require extremely fast charging rates to reduce charging time and will induce very high charging loads (at the multiple-megawatt scale) if several vehicles charge at the same time. This project develops a systematic procedure to analyze the potential impact of the placement of charging stations on the grid. Additionally, it develops initial mitigation solutions based on insights from this analysis.

Notes: This report is copyrighted by IEEE and can be accessed through IEEE.

Foundations of an Electric Mobility Strategy for the City of Mexicali Johnson, C.; Nanayakkara, S.; Cappellucci, J.; Moniot, M. 5/4/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Foundations of an Electric Mobility Strategy for the city of Mexicali aligns with numerous energy, environmental, and transport plans and will help Mexicali meet multiple related goals. Mexicali’s energy mix, with 28% renewables, already enables plugin electric vehicles (PEVs) to reduce the mass of greenhouse gases (GHGs) per km driven 2/3 below that of their conventional counterparts. This GHG benefit will increase should Mexicali take steps to further increase their share of renewables in their electricity supply. Beyond increasing renewables, Mexicali could possibly deploy PEVs so that electric load is added in the right location (depending on further analysis of substations and feeders) and at the right time (between 21:00 and 11:00) in order to minimize grid upgrade costs. There are a handful of charge timing control mechanisms –at various stages of development– that Mexicali could implement. Transport electrification can facilitate mass transit by powering buses, trains, and small vehicles that get people from their homes or work to the transit stations and vice versa. Mexicali could utilize fleets as early PEV adopters in order to gain acceptance and add electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). Recommended prioritization of different types of fleets are suggested in this report: transit buses, school buses, airport ground support equipment (GSE), refuse trucks, taxis, shuttle buses, campus vehicles, delivery trucks, utility trucks, and finally semitrailers. There are a handful of policy options that Mexicali could use to incentivize fleets to purchase PEVs, including mandates, economic incentives, energy performance contracts, waivers to access restrictions, electricity discounts, and EVSE requirements in building codes. Mexicali’s taxi fleet was an early adopter of PEVs and had experienced some challenges—mostly related to the insufficient range of the taxis due to hot weather.

Public Electric Vehicle Charging Business Models for Retail Site Hosts Satterfield, C.; Nigro, N. 4/29/2020 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

As the passenger plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market grows in the United States, public PEV charging stations will become increasingly important to serve the charging needs of millions of drivers. For retailers, PEV charging stations offer an opportunity to produce new revenue streams or expand on existing ones while also advancing broader efforts to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. This brief provides an overview of PEV market growth and the role of public charging options, along with the potential benefits to retailers of hosting PEV charging infrastructure.

Development and Demonstration of a Class 6 Range-Extended Electric Vehicle for Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation Jeffers, M.A.; Miller, E.; Kelly, K.; Kresse, J.; Li, K.; Dalton, J.; Kader, M.; Frazier, C. 4/14/2020 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Range-extended hybrids are an attractive option for medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle fleets because they offer the efficiency of an electrified powertrain with the driving range of a conventional diesel powertrain. The vehicle essentially operates as if it was purely electric for most trips, while ensuring that all commercial routes can be completed in any weather conditions or geographic terrain. Fuel use and point-source emissions can be significantly reduced, and in some cases eliminated, as many shorter routes can be fully electrified with this architecture.

Notes: This report is copyrighted and can be accessed through SAE International in United States website.

Guidebook for Deploying Zero-Emission Transit Buses Linscott, M.; Posner, A. 4/1/2020 Reports

Center for Transportation and the Environment, Atlanta, Georgia

The zero‐emission bus market, including electric buses and fuel cell electric buses, has seen significant growth in recent years. Zero-emission buses do not rely on fossil fuels for operation and have zero harmful tailpipe emissions, improving local air quality. The increase in market interest has also helped decrease product pricing. This guidebook is designed to provide transit agencies with information on current best practices for zero-emission bus deployments and lessons learned from previous deployments, industry experts, and available industry resources.

Notes: This report is copyrighted and can be accessed through the National Academy of Sciences website.

Charging Infrastructure Requirements to Support Electric Ride-Hailing in U.S. Cities Nicholas, M.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey, N. 3/24/2020 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This working paper assesses the charging infrastructure needs to support the growth of electric ride-hailing in U.S. cities. The analysis quantifies the amount and type of infrastructure needed and specifically analyzes the extent to which electric ride-hailing fleets can take advantage of underutilized public charging infrastructure capacity.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

R&D Insights for Extreme Fast Charging of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Insights from the NREL Commercial Vehicles and Extreme Fast Charging Research Needs Workshop, August 27-28, 2019 Walkowicz, K.; Meintz, A.; Farrell, J. 3/1/2020 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As battery costs have declined and battery performance has improved, the applicability of vehicle electrification has expanded beyond passenger cars to the commercial vehicle sector. However, due to the larger batteries that would be needed for the medium- and heavy-duty (MDHD) sector, the electric charging capabilities to serve these larger commercial vehicles will need to be substantially more powerful than light-duty chargers. More specifically, such 'extreme fast charging' (XFC) will likely need to reach the megawatt scale to provide a full charge in less than 30 minutes in some applications. In addition, the combined cost of electrified vehicles and charging must be competitive with the costs of petroleum-based technologies and other alternatives to encourage widespread adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) among MDHD fleets. Most of these fleets have a commercial mission and demand low total cost of ownership (TCO) (which motivates minimal refueling times) and high performance from their vehicles.

Insights on Electric Trucks for Retailers and Trucking Companies Leung, J.; Peace, J. 2/28/2020 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) has partnered with the Retail Industry Leaders Association, Atlas Public Policy, and David Gardiner and Associates to explore the landscape and outlook for electric trucks for freight movement. This joint initiative assesses the market landscape, challenges, and opportunities for electric truck adoption among retailer shippers and their transportation partners.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 38 Davis, S.C.; Boundy, R.G. 2/26/2020 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 38 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (tedb.ornl.gov).

Assessing Financial Barriers to the Adoption of Electric Trucks Satterfield, C.; Nigro, N. 2/20/2020 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

Medium- and heavy-duty electric vehicles (EVs) are a relatively new technology and many freight industry stakeholders lack access to independent analysis to help make informed decisions about electric trucks and charging infrastructure options. This paper assesses the market landscape, challenges, and opportunities for electric truck adoption among major shippers and their transportation partners by performing a total cost of ownership analysis for EVs under a wide range of procurement scenarios and comparing these results with those from an equivalent diesel vehicle procurement.

Public charging infrastructure for plug-in electric vehicles: What is it worth? Greene, D.L.; Kontou, E.; Borlaug, B.; Brooker, A.; Muratori, M. 2/7/2020 Journal Articles & Abstracts

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Lack of charging infrastructure is a significant barrier to the growth of the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market. Quantifying the value of public charging infrastructure can inform analysis of investment decisions and can help predict the impact of charging infrastructure on future PEV sales. This report focuses on quantifying the value of public chargers in terms of their ability to displace gasoline use for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and to enable additional electric vehicle miles for all-electric vehicles, thereby mitigating the limitations of shorter range and longer charging time.

Notes:

This Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment article (Vol. 78, January 2020, 102182) is copyrighted by Elsevier Ltd. and can be accessed through Science Direct.

Battery Second Life: Frequently Asked Questions Kelly, J.C. 2/6/2020 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This fact sheet describes possible second-life applications for lithium-ion batteries when they no longer meet the demands of an electric vehicle.

Cost Reduction of School Bus Fleet Electrification With Optimized Charging and Distributed Energy Resources Becker, W.; Miller, E.; Mishra, P.P.; Jain, R.; Olis, D.; Li , X. 2/1/2020 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents considerations for electrifying school buses with an analysis of battery sizing to match bus-driving requirements. This study optimizes the electric school bus charging and vehicle-to-building dispatch to evaluate the potential to reduce the impact of the bus charging on a school’s electric utility bill. Further, it analyzes the effect of degradation on the school bus batteries to determine if the smart-charging and vehicle-to-building battery operation decreases the life of the battery.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be viewed on The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers's website.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2018 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 12/27/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an energy use impact (EUI) of over 1 billion gasoline-gallons equivalent (GGE), comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2018. Participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, as did alternative fuel use and resulting overall EUI. Clean Cities coalition activities reduce emissions as they impact energy use. Coalition-reported activities prevented 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous (non-DOE) outside sources. For other Federal, State, and local agencies and private sector foundations, see funding section on page 25. The 84 project grant awards in 2018 generated $251 million in funds from coalition members and project partners along with $1.9 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.1 million in stakeholder dues and $2.9 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this supplemental funding represents nearly a 7:1 leveraging of the $37.8 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in Fiscal Year 2018. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 121,000 hours pursuing their coalitions' goals in 2018. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held his or her position for at least eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,805 outreach, education, and training activities in 2018, which reached an estimated 35 million people.

Best Practices for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Installations in the National Parks - Challenges, Lessons Learned, Installation Best Practices, and Recommendations for the National Park Service Kelly, K.; Noblet., S.; Brown, A. 12/27/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Golden, Colorado

This report captures challenges, lessons learned, and best practices from recent National Park Service (NPS) electric vehicle supply equipment projects based on interviews with NPS employees and stakeholders involved in the projects. The report summarizes notable takeaways and makes recommendations to help ensure the success of future charging installation projects. Preserving this information will be valuable for informing and ensuring the success of future charging installation efforts at national parks, as well as for organizations outside of NPS. Note that this report focuses on light-duty plug-in electric vehicle projects, though NPS is also pursuing medium- and heavy-duty electric vehicle efforts.

Preparing to Plug-In Your Bus Fleet: 10 Things to Consider 12/5/2019 Reports

Edison Electric Institute, Washington, D.C.

The purpose of this guide is to identify some of the key areas where electric companies and their customers can work together to streamline the fleet electrification process. This guide is applicable to any company that operates a fleet, but it is particularly focused on medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleets that likely will have higher power charging needs. Included in this guide is are 10 key considerations that fleets should know about electric companies and fleet electrification.

Notes:

This report is copyrighted and can be accessed on the Edison Electric Institute’s website.

Alternative Fuels Data Center 12/4/2019 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) provides a wealth of information and data on alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, fuel-saving strategies, and emerging transportation technologies. The site features a number of interactive tools, calculators, and mapping applications to aid in the implementation of these fuels, vehicles, and strategies. The AFDC functions as a dynamic online hub, enabling thousands of stakeholders in the transportation system to interact with one another.

Reducing EV Charging Infrastructure Costs Nelder, C.; Rogers, E. 12/3/2019 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Basalt, Colorado

This report finds that while the cost of hardware components is already falling as manufacturers gradually find ways to lower costs, there are significant “soft costs” that need to be reduced. The costs of permitting delays, utility interconnection requests, compliance with regulations, and the reengineering of projects because they were based on incorrect information, among others, are frequently cited as more significant cost drivers than charging station hardware in the United States.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from Rocky Mountain Institute's website.

Viable Class 7 and 8 Electric, Hybrid, and Alternative Fuel Tractors 12/1/2019 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency

Trucking is at the start of significant changes in powertrains. The purpose of this report is to help clarify in an unbiased way the differences and similarities in a wide spectrum of developing powertrain choices facing fleets. This report focuses on the primary near-term drivetrain choices for the Class 7 and 8 North American heavy-duty tractor market.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through North American Council for Freight Efficiency's website.

Electric Vehicle Capitals: Showing the Path to a Mainstream Market Hall, D.; Cui, H.; Lutsey, N. 11/20/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This briefing assesses metropolitan area-level data on plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) registrations and identifies the 25 largest PEV markets, which together represent 42% of new passenger PEV sales globally through 2018. To provide a blueprint for other governments, this briefing analyzes the incentives, charging infrastructure, and city promotion actions in these areas that are spurring PEVs into the mainstream.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Tiger Team Site Assessment Findings from Army Facilities Bennett, J.; Hodge, C.; Kurnik, C.; Kiatreungwattana, K.; Lynch, L.; Salasovich, J. 10/31/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report examines how the U.S. Army can cost-effectively install electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to prepare for anticipated electric vehicle acquisitions, and summarizes results from 30 EVSE site visits completed at U.S. Army garrisons from 2016 to 2019. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Army, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory deployed Tiger Teams consisting of engineers and fleet experts to review garrison charging needs and develop recommendations for installing EVSE as well as compressed natural gas stations in certain locations.

Foothill Transit Agency Battery Electric Bus Progress Report, Data Period Focus: Jan. 2019 through Jun. 2019 Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 10/29/2019 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare the performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through December 2018. This report extends the data analysis through June 2019. The data period focus of this report is January 2019-June 2019. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every 6 months through 2020.

Mobility Data and Models Informing Smart Cities Sperling, J.; Young, S.; Garikapati, V.; Duvall, A.; Beck, J.M. 10/14/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

Using emerging data platforms, new mobility technologies, and travel demand models (TDMs), researchers, industry, and communities seek to improve the quality of transportation while maximizing the energy efficiency, equity, and safety of transportation services. As transportation may soon reach over 30% of U.S. energy consumption and with urban areas representing an increasing proportion of the U.S. population (>80% since 2010), a critical need exists to engage in urban data science-informed approaches to enhancing mobility. The objective of this study is to explore and document how aspiring Smart Cities are using data and models to inform mobility and energy initiatives within Smart City programs and in so doing identify gaps in knowledge and processes guiding Smart City mobility investment strategies, programs, projects, and pilots. A primary focus of the Smart Cities studied was the creation of an integrated data sharing environment approach. Most of these systems are being developed in parallel with multiple new data analysis tools, while regional metropolitan planning organizations continue to slowly evolve TDMs to take into account impacts of long-term strategies for emerging mobility technologies and services. Smart City initiatives in the United States have keen interests in leveraging knowledge and research on the mobility benefits and risks of automated, connected, efficient/electric, and shared on-demand mobility services; and understanding the related energy, environmental, economic, and societal impacts of these shifts. The results serve to identify key gaps in data, knowledge, and methods required to advance energy efficient urban mobility innovation, and to enable research and analysis collaboration between Smart Cities and the U.S. Department of Energy's efforts enabling new Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility.

What's Afoot in DOE's Clean Cities? AFLEET! 10/9/2019 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET factsheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

Transportation Electrification: States Rev Up Rogotzke, M.; Eucalitto, G.; Gander, S. 9/26/2019 Reports

National Governor's Association, Washington, D.C.

States are pivotal to transitioning the transportation sector to electric drive vehicles. The transition necessitates decisions regarding a wide range of issues, including education and outreach efforts, vehicle and charging infrastructure incentives, the location and specifications of public charging infrastructure, electrification corridor designations and signage and, in some states, allowable vehicle emissions levels. This white paper explores state incentives and other policy tools to advance electrification.

How Can Taxes and Fees on Ride-Hailing Fleets Steer Them to Electrify? Slowik, P.; Wappelhorst, S.; Lutsey, N. 9/19/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation. Washngton D.C.

The early transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) continues in many markets. Likewise, the use of ride-hailing services continues to greatly expand. However, only a limited number of vehicles used for ride-hailing—about 1%—are electric, which is less than the global PEV sales share of new vehicles in 2018. This paper analyzes the economic opportunity for government taxes and fees to steer ride-hailing fleets toward electric.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Assessing the Business Case for Hosting Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in New York State 9/12/2019 Reports

New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, New York

As the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market grows, so does the demand for public charging stations. Public charging infrastructure expansion is limited by high upfront costs of equipment and installation, uncertain usage of charging services, and consumers’ willingness to pay for public charging. To date, public funding has been an important component of cost recovery and value maximization for station hosts. This white paper evaluates the business case of hosting a Level 2 charging station in New York State. In addition, the report explores scenarios that vary charging-use and revenue sources to better understand the key factors that drive profitability from hosting these stations. The goal of the report is to harness real-world experience to establish an understanding of current charging behavior and inform future efforts to expand the PEV market in New York.

Curb Enthusiasm: Report for On-Street Electric Vehicle Charging 8/15/2019 Reports

NYSERDA, Albany, New York

A critical barrier to the successful large-scale adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in metropolitan areas is the availability of public access charging infrastructure. Charging PEVs in areas with limited off-street parking, where charging equipment is typically installed, becomes a perceptual and logistical barrier for prospective PEV drivers who primarily park on-street. The targeted deployment of curbside Level 2 charging stations is one of the most cost-effective and catalytic ways that local government can support a shift toward PEVs in cities. Through original research, analysis, and case studies, this report seeks to define the potential for curbside Level 2 charging station implementation in New York City and to establish guidelines to ensure success. The report and its accompanying guidebook are intended to be a resource for New York City agencies as well as local governments looking to pilot curbside charging.

Telematics and Data Science: Informing Energy-Efficient Mobility Daley, R.; Helm, M. 8/6/2019 Reports

Sawatch Group, LLC, Denver, Colorado

Fleets exploring the possibility of adding plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) seek an efficient, data-driven means to estimate both expenditures for vehicle and charging infrastructure and the appropriate placement of them to help ensure the cost-effective adoption of these technologies. Exploring data collection and analytic methodologies across different telematics providers offers the opportunity to better understand the strengths, weaknesses, and possibilities for employing different methods of data collection, including smartphone-based telematics and more traditional telematics with hardware installed on a vehicle’s onboard diagnostics port. This report presents results of five pilot programs that collected data from the operation of conventional light-duty fleet vehicles to generate estimates for transitioning these fleet vehicles to PEVs, implementing charging infrastructure, and establishing management practices to maximize the benefits of these new fleet technologies.

Electric Vehicle Charging Station Permitting Guidebook Eckerle, T.; Brazil Vacin, G. 7/16/2019 Books & Chapters

California Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development, Sacramento, California

This guidebook is comprised of eight parts and is intended to help navigate station developers and local jurisdictions through the infrastructure development process from selecting sites for electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through the permitting and construction processes. It reflects the latest best practices collected from stations developers and local jurisdictions with experience in developing and approving EVSE. It also provides clarity and tips on implementing statewide permitting streamlining requirements in California.

Get Your Building Ready for Electric Vehicles 7/3/2019 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

By the year 2030, there may be as many as 19 million plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) on the road in the United States, representing a market share of 10%. With effective PEV charging implementation, commercial building owners and managers can add value to properties, increase the convenience and affordability of driving PEVs for tenants and employees, and show leadership in adopting advanced, sustainable technologies. This fact sheet provides recommendations for building owners to make commercial buildings and new construction PEV-ready.

Summary of Best Practices in Electric Vehicle Ordinances Cooke, C.; Ross, B. 6/18/2019 Reports

Great Plains Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota

This document is a summary guide to electric vehicle (EV) and electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) ordinances in the United States. The guide is sorted into best practice categories and provides a summary of typical provisions used by cities for each category. Each category includes a table with key points and text examples from actual ordinances, as well as recommendations from model codes for that topic, drawn from one of several model ordinances or ordinance guidance documents that have been developed to inform cities on developing EV-ready zoning standards. This summary is provided as a reference to cities seeking to develop EV zoning standards or development regulations.

Clean Cities Coalitions Overview 6/11/2019 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Office Clean Cities coalitions, which advance affordable, domestic transportation fuels and technologies nationwide. Nearly 100 coalitions serve as the foundation of Clean Cities, working in communities across the country to help local decision makers and fleets understand and implement alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, new mobility choices, and emerging transportation technologies. At the national level, VTO develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources to support coordinators. At the local level, coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

The Surge of Electric Vehicles in United States Cities 6/10/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This briefing paper analyzes 2018 plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) uptake in the United States and the policy factors that are driving it. The paper catalogs 43 unique city, state, and utility PEV promotion actions and their implementation across the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas in 2018. The work identifies best practices across various state and local policies, public and workplace charging infrastructure, consumer incentives, model availability, and the share of new vehicles that are PEV.

Fuel Diversification to Improve Transportation Resilience: A Backgrounder Johnson, C. 6/6/2019 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Transportation fuel (like most other necessities) can be made more resilient to natural disasters by improving the redundancy of its supply, increasing local storage, strategizing access to that storage, expediting resupply, and improving the efficiency at which that fuel is used for transportation purposes. Alternative fuels such as natural gas, propane, and electricity have very different sources and distribution, and therefore add resilience to the fuel supply through redundancy. However, it is important to examine the inter-dependencies of these fuels and timing that may present vulnerabilities during a hurricane. This workshop presented a variety of perspectives to assist in making Tampa Bay's transportation system more resilient through the strategic use of alternative fuels.

Vehicle Electrification: Federal and State Issues Affecting Deployment Canis. B.; Clark, C.E.; Sherlock, M.F. 6/3/2019 Reports

Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C.

Motor vehicle electrification has emerged in the past decade as a potentially viable alternative to internal combustion engines. Although only a small proportion of the current motor vehicle fleet is electrified, interest in passenger vehicle electrification has accelerated in several major industrial countries, including the United States, parts of Europe, and China. Despite advances in technology, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) continue to be significantly more expensive than similarly sized vehicles with internal combustion engines. For this reason, governments in many countries have adopted policies to promote development and sales of PEVs. This report discusses federal and state government policies in the United States to support electrification of light vehicles and transit buses, as well as proposals to reduce or eliminate such support.

Foothill Transit Agency Battery Electric Bus Progress Report, Data Period Focus: Jul. 2018 through Dec. 2018 Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/28/2019 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare the performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through June 2018. This report extends the data analysis through the end of 2018. The data period focus of this report is July 2018-December 2018. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every 6 months through 2020.

Impact of Time-Varying Passenger Loading on Conventional and Electrified Transit Bus Energy Consumption Liu; L.; Kotz, A.; Salapaka, A.; Miller, E.; Northrop, W.F. 5/24/2019 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Transit bus passenger loading changes significantly over the course of a workday. Therefore, time-varying vehicle mass as a result of passenger load becomes an important factor in instantaneous energy consumption. Battery-powered electric transit buses have restricted range and longer 'fueling' time compared with conventional diesel-powered buses; thus, it is critical to know how much energy they require. Our previous work has shown that instantaneous transit bus mass can be obtained by measuring the pressure in the vehicle's airbag suspension system. This paper leverages this novel technique to determine the impact of time-varying mass on energy consumption. Sixty-five days of velocity and mass data were collected from in-use transit buses operating on routes in the Twin Cities, MN metropolitan area. The simulation tool Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator was modified to allow both velocity and mass as time-dependent inputs. This tool was then used to model an electrified and conventional bus on the same routes and determine the energy use of each bus. Results showed that the kinetic intensity varied from 0.27 to 4.69 mi-1 and passenger loading ranged from 2 to 21 passengers. Simulation results showed that energy consumption for both buses increased with increasing vehicle mass. The simulation also indicated that passenger loading has a greater impact on energy consumption for conventional buses than for electric buses owing to the electric bus's ability to recapture energy. This work shows that measuring and analyzing real-time passenger loading is advantageous for determining the energy used by electric and conventional diesel buses.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2017 Activity Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 5/14/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) national network of Clean Cities Coalitions advance the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to promote the use of domestic fuels within transportation. The nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, bring together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to use alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. To ensure success, coalitions leverage a robust set of expert resources and tools provided by national laboratories and DOE. Each year, Clean Cities coordinators submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online tool that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels; use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs); IR initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the submitted data to determine how broadly energy use in the U.S. has shifted due to coalition activities, which are summarized in this report.

Utilities and Electric Vehicles: The Case for Managed Charging 5/9/2019 Reports

Smart Electric Power Alliance

Electric vehicles (EVs) are quickly becoming one of the largest flexible loads on the grid in certain parts of the United States. While most industry analysts see EVs as a boon for utilities, load management risks could be an issue. Managed charging allows a utility or third-party to remotely control vehicle charging by turning it up, down, or even off to better correspond to the needs of the grid, much like traditional demand response programs. This research report provides a wide-lens overview of the managed charging ecosystem, including examples of utility programs, a list of vehicle-grid integration and connected-car platform providers, a list of compatible electric vehicle supply equipment, and examples of automotive industry activities.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through Smart Electric Power Alliance's website.

Electricity Rates for Electric Vehicle Direct Current Fast Charging in the United States Muratori, M.; Kontou, E.; Eichman, J. 4/26/2019 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report assesses the electricity cost for different scenarios of direct current (DC) fast charger station size and use, based on over 7,500 commercial and industrial electricity rates available for 2017 across the United States. Results show that the cost of electricity for DC fast chargers varies dramatically, ranging from less than $0.10 to over $2 per kilowatt-hour, depending on station design and high uncertainty in use. It explores the cost drivers for low- and high-utilization stations.

Notes: This Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews article (Vol. 113 (October 2019): pp. 415-426) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Feasibility Analysis of Taxi Fleet Electrification using 4.9 Million Miles of Real-World Driving Data; SAE Paper No. 2019-01-0392 Moniot, M.; Rames, C.; Burrell, E. 4/2/2019 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Ride hailing activity is rapidly increasing, largely due to the growth of transportation network companies such as Uber and Lyft. However, traditional taxi companies continue to represent an important mobility option for travelers. Columbus Yellow Cab, a taxi company in Columbus, Ohio, offers traditional line-of-sight hailing as well as digital hailing through a mobile app. Data from Columbus Yellow Cab was provided to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to analyze the potential for taxi electrification. Columbus Yellow Cab data contained information describing both global positioning system trajectories and taxi meter information. The data spanned a period of 13 months, containing approximately 70 million global system positioning system points, 840 thousand trips, and 170 unique vehicles. A variety of scenarios were evaluated using Columbus Yellow Cab data and the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) to understand challenges and opportunities associated with operating an electrified taxi fleet. Two main factors-access to home charging and vehicle specifications-are shown to be major variables affecting successful electric fleet operation. The analysis indicates that 95.7% of taxi travel days can be successfully completed by a 250-mile-range electric vehicle assuming access to overnight and public charging infrastructure. However, when no overnight access is available to fleet vehicles, only 39.9% of taxi travel days are possible with 250-mile range electric vehicles. An additional scenario, reducing the vehicle range from 250 miles to 100 miles (while controlling for infrastructure access and permitting overnight charging) resulted in only 34.4% of taxi travel days being completed.

Update on electric vehicle costs in the United States through 2030 Lutsey, N.; Nicholas, M. 4/1/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This working paper assesses battery electric vehicle (EV) costs from 2020 through 2030, collecting the best battery pack and EV component cost data available through 2018. The assessment also analyzes the anticipated timing for price parity for representative EVs, crossovers, and sport utility vehicles compared to their conventional gasoline counterparts in the U.S. light-duty vehicle market.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the International Council on clean Transportation website.

Technology Solutions to Mitigate Electricity Cost for Electric Vehicle DC Fast Charging Muratori, M.; Elgqvist, E.; Cutler, D.; Eichman, J.; Salisbury, S.; Fuller, Z.; Smart, J. 3/16/2019 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

Widespread adoption of alternative fuel vehicles is being hindered by high vehicle costs and refueling or range limitations. For plug-in electric vehicles, direct current (DC) fast charging is proposed as a solution to support long-distance travel and relieve range anxiety. However, DC fast charging has also been shown to be potentially more expensive compared to residential or workplace charging. In particular, electricity demand charges can significantly impact electricity cost for fast charging applications. This study explores technological solutions that can help reduce the electricity cost for DC fast charging.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the Elsevier ScienceDirect website.

On-Road Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Evaluation: Overview Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur. G.; Onorato, S. 3/14/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents an overview of an evaluation of on-road fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The project addressed the need for current, on-road FCEV data and sought to validate improved performance and longer durability from comprehensive sets of early FCEVs, including early market vehicles. This report provides an overview of the evaluation project and partners, describes NREL's evaluation approach, and presents a summary of the results. Detailed results for durability, fuel economy, deployment and driving behavior, and specifications are published in separate reports.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Driving and Fueling Behavior Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.; Onorato, S. 3/6/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The objectives of this project are to validate hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles in real-world settings and to identify the current status and evolution of the technology. The analysis objectively assesses progress toward targets and market needs defined by the U.S. Department of Energy and stakeholders, provides feedback to hydrogen research and development, and publishes results for key stakeholder use and investment decisions. Fiscal year 2018 objectives focused on analysis and reporting of fuel cell electric vehicle driving range, fuel economy, drive and fill behaviors, durability, fill performance, and fuel cell performance. This report specifically addresses the topics of driving range, fuel economy, drive and fill behaviors, and fill performance.

Amping Up: Charging Infrastructure for Electric Trucks 3/1/2019 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency

The report covers charging considerations for commercial electric vehicles (EVs) currently in production for freight delivery. Because most commercial EVs are currently being deployed in the goods movement sector, specifically the medium-duty urban delivery and drayage sectors, much of the best practices and lessons learned come from these applications. Based on lessons learned thus far, this report provides a roadmap for medium- and heavy-duty fleets.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through North American Council for Freight Efficiency's website.

Meeting 2025 Zero Emission Vehicle Goals: An Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure in Maryland Moniot, M.; Rames, C.; Wood, E. 2/20/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been enlisted to conduct a statewide assessment of the electric vehicle charging infrastructure requirements for Maryland to meet its goal of supporting 300,000 zero emission vehicles by 2025. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) was used to generate scenarios of statewide charging infrastructure to support consumer plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption based on travel patterns provided by INRIX (a commercial mapping/traffic company) that are used to characterize regional travel in Maryland and to anticipate future demand for PEV charging. Results indicate that significant expansion of Maryland's electric vehicle charging infrastructure will be required to support the state's PEV goal for 2025. Analysis shows that a fleet of 300,000 PEVs will require 17,400 workplace Level 2 plugs, 9,300 public Level 2 plugs, and 1,000 fast charge plugs. These estimates assume that future PEVs will be driven in a manner consistent with present day gasoline vehicles and that most charging will happen at residential locations. A sensitivity study explores edge cases pertaining to several assumptions, highlighting factors that heavily influence the projected infrastructure requirements. Variations in the makeup of the PEV fleet, evolving consumer charging preferences, and availability of residential charging are all shown to influence 2025 infrastructure requirements.

Assessing Ride-Hailing Company Commitments to Electrification Slowik, P.; Fedirko, L.; Lutsey, N. 2/7/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington D.C.; ClimateWorks Foundation, Denver, Colorado

This briefing assesses electric vehicle adoption among five of the world’s largest ride-hailing companies. It discusses company-specific electric vehicle adoption, examines plans for future growth, and catalogs the unique actions that companies are exploring to promote electric ride-hailing on their platforms.

Next-Generation Grid Communications for Residential Plug-in Electric Vehicles Patadia, S.; Rodine, C. 1/25/2019 Reports

ChargePoint, Campbell, California; California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

As residential plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging loads increase, they represent significant contributions to local distribution circuits, and if not managed, can have negative effects on local electricity grid stability. For residential PEV participation to be effective for grid stabilization, it is key to have detailed data collection, coordination at charging stations owned by different parties, sensitivity to each driver’s needs and preferences, and real-time understanding of each vehicle’s state of charge or charge necessary. This pilot project tested the technology ecosystems required to handle adding significant PEV load to the grid.

Quantifying the Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Gap Across U.S. Markets Nicholas; M.; Hall, D.; Lutsey, N. 1/23/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

The electrification of the United States vehicle market continues, with the most growth occurring in markets where barriers are addressed through policy, charging infrastructure, and consumer incentives. This report quantifies the gap in charging infrastructure from what was deployed through 2017 to what is needed to power more than 3 million expected electric vehicles by 2025, consistent with automaker, policy, and underlying market trends. Based on the expected growth across the 100 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas, this report estimates the amount of charging of various types that will be needed to power these vehicles.

When Does Electrifying Shared Mobility Make Economic Sense? Pavlenko, N.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey, N. 1/14/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Over the past several years, the reach and use of shared vehicles has expanded significantly throughout the United States, particularly in large metropolitan areas. Use of ride-hailing fleets, often referred to as transportation network companies, is especially on the rise. The deployment of plug-electric vehicles (PEVs) has accelerated in many of the same urban areas experiencing growth in shared mobility. This report assesses the timing of cost-effectively electrifying shared mobility fleets in U.S. cities, with a focus on ride-hailing. The study includes a total cost of operation metric for conventional vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and PEVs in eight U.S. cities to assess changing purchase and operating costs through 2025.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Increasing Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Deployment: Electricity Rate Design and Site Host Options 1/1/2019 Reports

The Brattle Group, Boston, Massachusetts for Edison Electric Institute, Washington, D.C.

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide customer, environmental, energy grid, and national security benefits. However, limited access to charging infrastructure remains a major hurdle to more rapid PEV adoption. While most PEV charging occurs at home, additional publicly located charging stations – both Level 2 and direct current (DC) fast charging stations – are needed. This paper presents a range of options to increase the deployment of DC fast charging infrastructure, either through rate design or through implementation by the site host. Given the early stages of DC fast charging infrastructure deployment, learning-by-doing is an important option to consider.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through the Brattle Group's website.

Model Year 2020 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 12/19/2018 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Model Year 2019 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 12/19/2018 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Zero-Emission Bus Evaluation Results: County Connection Battery Electric Buses Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 12/10/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT's) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) supports the research, development, and demonstration of low- and zero-emission technology for transit buses. FTA funds research projects with a goal of facilitating commercialization of advanced technologies for transit buses that will increase efficiency and improve transit operations. DOT's Research, Development, and Technology Office (OST-R) also has an interest in zero-emission bus (ZEB) technology deployment and commercialization. OST-R is coordinating and collaborating with FTA on the evaluation process and results by providing funding to cover additional evaluations. FTA and OST-R are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct in-service evaluations of advanced technology buses developed under its programs. NREL uses a standard evaluation protocol for evaluating the advanced technologies deployed under the FTA programs. FTA seeks to provide results from new technologies being adopted by transit agencies. The eight evaluations selected to date include battery electric buses (BEBs) and fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) from different manufacturers operating in fleets located in both cold and hot climates. The purpose of this report is to present the results from Central Contra Costa Transit Authority (County Connection) deployment of four BEBs in Concord, California. NREL's evaluation of the BEBs at County Connection was funded by OST-R.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2016 Activity Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/10/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) national network of Clean Cities Coalitions advance the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to promote the use of domestic fuels within transportation. The nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, bring together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to use alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. To ensure success, coalitions leverage a robust set of expert resources and tools provided by national laboratories and DOE. Each year, Clean Cities coordinators submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online tool that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels; use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs); IR initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the submitted data to determine how broadly energy use in the U.S. has shifted due to coalition activities, which are summarized in this report.

Foothill Transit Agency Battery Electric Bus Progress Report, Data Period Focus: Jan. 2018 through Jun. 2018 Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 10/8/2018 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare the performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through December 2017. This report extends the data analysis through June 2018. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every six months through 2020. performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through December 2017. This report extends the data analysis through June 2018. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every six months through 2020.

Value to the Grid from Managed Charging Based on California's High Renewables Study Zhang, J.; Jorgenson, J.; Markel. T.; Walkowicz, K. 10/1/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Managed charging of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) loads has the potential to use renewable energy more effectively, shave peak demand, and fill demand valleys while serving transportation needs. However, to date the potential value to the grid from managed charging has not been fully quantified. This paper quantifies value to the grid from managed charging by using three levels of managed loads for 13 terawatt-hours of annual load from three million PEVs in a 2030 California grid scenario.

Notes: This IEEE Transactions on Power Systems article (Vol. 34, Issue 2, (March 2019): pp. 831-840) is copyrighted by IEEE and can be accessed through IEEE Xplore.

Policies that Impact the Acceleration of Electric Vehicle Adoption Kettles, C. 9/26/2018 Reports

Electric Vehicle Transportation Center, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, Florida

To better understand the influence of policy initiatives that relate to electric vehicles (EVs) have on accelerated deployment, this project focused on a number of successful public and private initiatives and policies designed to encourage the adoption of EVs and related infrastructure. This report highlights programs that have influenced adoption, provides a critique of best practices, and includes references to databases EV policy initiatives.

The Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation 8/24/2018 Brochures & Fact Sheets

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

This fact sheet provides an overview of California’s zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) regulation, which is designed to achieve the state’s long-term emission reduction goals by requiring manufacturers to offer for sale specific numbers of the very cleanest cars available. The ZEV regulation has been adopted by other states.

Demonstrating Plug-in Electric Vehicles Smart Charging and Storage Supporting the Grid Gadh, R. 8/23/2018 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

This report presents the development and deployment of a PEV charging system consisting of smart charging, vehicle-to-grid, vehicle-to-building, demand response, and power quality sustainable capabilities. The goal of this system is to achieve grid resiliency and economic benefit to PEV fleet owners. As a result of the project, the research team from the University of California, Los Angeles validated the viability of bi-directional electric vehicle infrastructure, as well as the associated air quality improvements and financial benefits from the system.

Electrification Futures Study: Scenarios of Electric Technology Adoption and Power Consumption for the United States Mai, T.; Jadun, P.; Logan, J.; McMillan, C.; Muratori, M.; Steinberg, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Jones, R.; Haley, B.; Nelson, B. 8/8/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report is the second publication in a series of Electrification Futures Study publications. The report presents scenarios of electric end-use technology adoption and resulting electricity consumption in the United States. The scenarios reflect a wide range of electricity demand growth through 2050 that result from various electric technology adoption and efficiency projections in the transportation, residential and commercial buildings, and industrial sectors.

Workplace Charge Management with Aggregated Building Loads Jun, M.; Meintz, A. 8/1/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This paper was presented at the 2018 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo (ITEC), 13-15 June 2018, Long Beach, California. It describes a workplace charge management system developed to control plug-in electric vehicle charging stations based on aggregated building loads. A system to collect information from drivers was also developed for better charge management performance since the present AC charging station standard does not provide battery state of charge information. First, simulations with uncontrolled charging data were conducted to investigate several scenarios and control methods, and then one method with the most power curtailment during peak load was selected for verification tests. This paper illustrates load reduction test results for 36 charging stations and real-time campus net load data.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be viewed and purchased on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers's website.

Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) Validation Report Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.; Moniot, M. 7/27/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) captures the most important factors influencing vehicle power demands and performs large-scale fuel efficiency calculations very quickly. These features make FASTSim well suited to evaluate a representative distribution of real-world fuel efficiency over a large quantity of in-use driving profiles, which have become increasingly available in recent years owing to incorporation of global positioning system data collection into various travel surveys and studies. In addition, by being open source, computationally lightweight, freely available, and free from expensive third-party software requirements, analyses conducted using FASTSim may be easily replicated and critiqued in an open forum. This is highly desirable for situations in which technical experts seek to reach consensus over questions about what vehicle development plans or public interest strategies could maximize fuel savings and minimize adverse environmental impacts with an evolving vehicle fleet. While FASTSim continues to be refined and improved on an on-going basis, this report compiles available runs using versions of the tool from the past few years to provide illustrative comparison of the model results against measured data.

2018 Annual Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 7/23/2018 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state's decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

The Role of Demand-Side Incentives and Charging Infrastructure on Plug-in Electric Vehicle Adoption: Analysis of US States. Paper No. 074032 Narassimhan, E.; Johnson, C. 7/13/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Tufts University, Medford, Massachussets; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In the U.S., over 400 state and local incentives have been issued to increase the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) since 2008. This article quantifies the influence of key incentives and enabling factors like charging infrastructure and receptive demographics on PEV adoption. The study focuses on three central questions. First, do consumers respond to certain types of state level vehicle purchase incentives? Second, does the density of public charging infrastructure increase PEV purchases? Finally, does the impact of various factors differ for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and vehicle attributes within each category? Based on a regression of vehicle purchase data from 2008 to 2016, we found that tax incentives and charging infrastructure significantly influence per capita PEV purchases. Within tax incentives, rebates are generally more effective than tax credits. BEV purchases are more affected by tax incentives than PHEVs. The correlation of public charging and vehicle purchases increases with the battery-only driving range of a PHEV, while decreasing with increasing driving range of BEVs. Results indicate that early investments in charging infrastructure, particularly along highways; tax incentives targeting BEVs at the lower end of the price premium and PHEVs with higher battery only driving range, and better reflection of the environmental cost of owning gasoline vehicles are likely to increase PEV adoption in the U.S.

Notes:

This journal article (Environmental Research Letters, Volume 13, Number 7) is copyrighted by IOP Publishing and can be downloaded from the IOPScience website.

Empirical Analysis of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Under Cold Temperatures Motoaki, Y.; Yi, W.; Salisbury, S. 7/1/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Systems Engineering, Ithaca, New York

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the effects of temperature on direct current fast charger (DCFC) charging rate and discusses the impact of such effects on wider adoptions of electric vehicles. The authors conducted statistical analysis on the effects of temperature and constructed an electric vehicle charging model that can show the dynamics of DCFC charging process under different temperatures. The results indicate that DCFC charging rate can deteriorate considerably in cold temperatures. These findings may be used as a reference to identify and assess the regions that may suffer from slow charging.

Notes: This Energy Policy article (Vol. 122 (2018): pp. 162-168) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Elsevier's website.

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). SAE Paper No. 2018-37-0026 Chowdhury, S.; Leitzel, L.; Zima, M.; Santacesaria, M.; Titov, G.; Lustbader, J.; Rugh, J.; Winkler, J.; Khawaja, A.; Govindarajalu, M. 5/30/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Mahle Behr Troy Inc., Troy, Michigan; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorardo; FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, Michigan

The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal subsystem loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below -10 degrees C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs. Demonstrated on a 2015 Fiat 500e BEV, this system integrates a semi-hermetic refrigeration loop with a coolant network and serves three functions: (1) heating and/or cooling vehicle traction components (battery, power electronics, and motor) (2) heating and cooling of the cabin, and (3) waste energy harvesting and re-use. The modes of operation allow a heat pump and air conditioning system to function without reversing the refrigeration cycle to improve thermal efficiency. The refrigeration loop consists of an electric compressor, a thermal expansion valve, a coolant-cooled condenser, and a chiller, the latter two exchanging heat with hot and cold coolant streams that may be directed to various components of the thermal system. The coolant-based heat distribution is adaptable and saves significant amounts of refrigerant per vehicle. Also, a coolant-based system reduces refrigerant emissions by requiring fewer refrigerant pipe joints. The authors present bench-level test data and simulation analysis and describe a preliminary control scheme for this system.

Foothill Transit Agency Battery Electric Bus Progress Report, Data Period Focus: Jan. 2017 through Dec. 2017 Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/16/2018 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare the performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through December 2016. This report extends the data analysis through December 2017. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every six months through 2020.

Electric Trucks: Where They Make Sense 5/1/2018 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency

This report assesses the viability for North American Class 3 to 8 commercial electric vehicles to help the industry understand the many arguments for and against them. This report provides a foundation for understanding the key pro and con discussions of this rapidly evolving technology alternative to diesel powertrains.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through North American Council for Freight Efficiency's website.

Electric School Bus Pilot Project Evaluation 4/20/2018 Reports

Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, Vermont

This report provides an overview of a Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources pilot project to test electric school buses in school transportation operations. Through this project, three electric school buses were deployed at three school districts around the state and bus operations and reliability tracked for approximately one year. The project was designed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with using electric school buses as a strategy to provide safe, reliable, cost effective school transportation. Key findings and recommendations are also provided.

Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-0667 Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Kontou, E.; Motoaki, Y.; Smart, J.; Zhou, Z. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Today's electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations. Results suggest that the hypothetical transportation network company fleet increases daily vehicle miles traveled per EV with less overall down time, resulting in increased demand for DCFC. Sites with overhead service lines are recommended for hosting DCFC stations to minimize the need for trenching underground service lines. A negative relationship was found between cost per unit of energy and fast charging utilization, underscoring the importance of prioritizing utilization over installation costs when siting DCFC stations. Although this preliminary analysis of the impacts of new mobility paradigms on alternative fueling infrastructure requirements has produced several key results, the complexity of the problem warrants further investigation.

Range Extension Opportunities While Heating a Battery Electric Vehicle. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-0066 Meyer, J.J.; Lustbader, J.; Agathocleous, N.; Vespa, A.; Rugh, J.; Titov, G. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Hanon Systems, Carey, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc, Chino, California

The Kia Soul battery electric vehicle (BEV) is available with either a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) heater or an R134a heat pump (HP) with PTC heater combination (1). The HP uses both ambient air and waste heat from the motor, inverter, and on-board-charger (OBC) for its heat source. Hanon Systems, Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory jointly, with financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy, developed and proved-out technologies that extend the driving range of a Kia Soul BEV while maintaining thermal comfort in cold climates. Improved system configuration concepts that use thermal storage and waste heat more effectively were developed and evaluated. Range extensions of 5%-22% at ambient temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C to -18 degrees C were demonstrated. This paper reviews the three-year effort, including test data of the baseline and modified vehicles, resulting range extension, and recommendations for future actions.

Development of 80- and 100- Mile Work Day Cycles Representative of Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation Duran, A.; Li, K.; Kresse, J.; Kelly, K. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Cummins Inc, Columbus, Indiana

When developing and designing new technology for integrated vehicle systems deployment, standard cycles have long existed for chassis dynamometer testing and tuning of the powertrain. However, to this day with recent developments and advancements in plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle technology, no true 'work day' cycles exist with which to tune and measure energy storage control and thermal management systems. To address these issues and in support of development of a range-extended pickup and delivery Class 6 commercial vehicle, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in collaboration with Cummins analyzed 78,000 days of operational data captured from more than 260 vehicles operating across the United States to characterize the typical daily performance requirements associated with Class 6 commercial pickup and delivery operation. In total, over 2.5 million miles of real-world vehicle operation were condensed into a pair of duty cycles, an 80-mile cycle and a 100-mile cycle representative of the daily operation of U.S. class 3-6 commercial pickup and delivery trucks. Using novel machine learning clustering methods combined with mileage-based weighting, these composite representative cycles correspond to 90th and 95th percentiles for daily vehicle miles traveled by the vehicles observed. In addition to including vehicle speed vs time drive cycles, in an effort to better represent the environmental factors encountered by pickup and delivery vehicles operating across the United States, a nationally representative grade profile and key status information were also appended to the speed vs. time profiles to produce a 'work day' cycle that captures the effects of vehicle dynamics, geography, and driver behavior which can be used for future design, development, and validation of technology.

California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projections: 2017-2025 - Future Infrastructure Needs for Reaching the State's Zero Emission-Vehicle Deployment Goals Bedir, A.; Crisostomo, N.; Allen, J.; Wood, E.; Rames, C. 3/27/2018 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report analyzes plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure needs in California from 2017 to 2025 in a scenario where the State's zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) deployment goals are achieved by household vehicles. The statewide infrastructure needs are evaluated by using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool, which incorporates representative statewide travel data from the 2012 California Household Travel Survey. The infrastructure solution presented in this assessment addresses two primary objectives: (1) enabling travel for battery electric vehicles and (2) maximizing the electric vehicle-miles traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis is performed at the county-level for each year between 2017 and 2025 while considering potential technology improvements. The results from this study present an infrastructure solution that can facilitate market growth for PEVs to reach the State's ZEV goals by 2025. The overall results show a need for 99k-130k destination chargers, including workplaces and public locations, and 9k-25k fast chargers. The results also show a need for dedicated or shared residential charging solutions at multi-family dwellings, which are expected to host about 120k PEVs by 2025. An improvement to the scientific literature, this analysis presents the significance of infrastructure reliability and accessibility on the quantification of charger demand.

Impact of Uncoordinated Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on Residential Power Demand Muratori, M. 3/6/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the Nature Energy website.

Charging Electric Vehicles in Smart Cities: An EVI-Pro Analysis of Columbus, Ohio Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Muratori, M.; Raghavan, S.; Young, S. 2/7/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

With the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) worked with the City of Columbus, Ohio, to develop a plan for the expansion of the region's network of charging stations to support increased adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the local market. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection (EVI-Pro) model was used to generate scenarios of regional charging infrastructure to support consumer PEV adoption. Results indicate that approximately 400 Level 2 plugs at multi-unit dwellings and 350 Level 2 plugs at non-residential locations are required to support Columbus' primary PEV goal of 5,300 PEVs on the road by the end of 2019. This analysis finds that while consumer demand for fast charging is expected to remain low (due to modest anticipated adoption of short-range battery electric vehicles), a minimum level of fast charging coverage across the city is required to ease consumer range anxiety concerns by providing a safety net for unexpected charging events. Sensitivity analyses around some key assumptions have also been performed; of these, consumer preference for PHEV versus BEV and for their electric driving range, ambient conditions, and availability of residential charging at multi-unit dwellings were identified as key determinants of the non-residential PEV charging infrastructure required to support PEV adoption. The results discussed in this report can be leveraged by similar U.S. cities as part of a strategy to accelerate PEV adoption in the light-duty vehicle market.

New EVSE Analytical Tools/Models: Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) Wood, E.; Rames, C. Muratori, M. 1/29/2018 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This presentation addresses the fundamental question of how much charging infrastructure is needed in the United States to support PEVs. It complements ongoing EVSE initiatives by providing a comprehensive analysis of national PEV charging infrastructure requirements. The result is a quantitative estimate for a U.S. network of non-residential (public and workplace) EVSE that would be needed to support broader PEV adoption. The analysis provides guidance to public and private stakeholders who are seeking to provide nationwide charging coverage, improve the EVSE business case by maximizing station utilization, and promote effective use of private/public infrastructure investments.

Impacts of Electrification of Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States, 2010-2017 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y. 1/25/2018 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; US Department of Energy, Washington D.C.

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are among the fastest growing drivetrains in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the aggregate impact of PEVs is important when exploring electricity use and petroleum consumption. This report examines the sales of PEVs in the United States from 2010 to 2017, exploring vehicle sales, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and battery production.

Electric Vehicle Charger Selection Guide 1/11/2018 Reports

Redwood Coast Energy Authority, Eureka, California; Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, California; Siskiyou County Economic Development Council, Yreka, California; Local Government Commission/Civic Spark, Sacramento, California

The goal of this guide is to help site hosts and others learn about, evaluate, and compare the features of EV charging equipment to assist them in selecting a charger for their application. Additionally, this guide provides an overview of electric vehicle charger equipment, how it works, and considerations when making a purchase.

Navigation API Route Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment on Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data for Conventional Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint Zhu, L.; Holden, J.; Gonder, J. 12/22/2017 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The green routing strategy instructing a vehicle to select a fuel-efficient route benefits the current transportation system with fuel-saving opportunities. This paper introduces a navigation API route fuel-saving evaluation framework for estimating fuel advantages of alternative API routes based on large-scale, real-world travel data for conventional vehicles (CVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The navigation APIs, such Google Directions API, integrate traffic conditions and provide feasible alternative routes for origin-destination pairs. This paper develops two link-based fuel-consumption models stratified by link-level speed, road grade, and functional class (local/non-local), one for CVs and the other for HEVs. The link-based fuel-consumption models are built by assigning travel from a large number of GPS driving traces to the links in TomTom MultiNet as the underlying road network layer and road grade data from a U.S. Geological Survey elevation data set. Fuel consumption on a link is calculated by the proposed fuel consumption model. This paper envisions two kinds of applications: 1) identifying alternate routes that save fuel, and 2) quantifying the potential fuel savings for large amounts of travel. An experiment based on a large-scale California Household Travel Survey GPS trajectory data set is conducted. The fuel consumption and savings of CVs and HEVs are investigated. At the same time, the trade-off between fuel saving and time saving for choosing different routes is also examined for both powertrains.

Electric Ground Support Equipment at Airports Johnson, C. 12/12/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Airport ground support equipment (GSE) is used to service airplanes between flights. Services include refueling, towing airplanes or luggage/freight carts, loading luggage/freight, transporting passengers, loading potable water, removing sewage, loading food, de-icing airplanes, and fire-fighting. Deploying new GSE technologies is a promising opportunity in part because the purchasers are generally large, technologically sophisticated airlines, contractors, or airports with centralized procurement and maintenance departments. Airlines could particularly benefit from fuel diversification since they are highly exposed to petroleum price volatility. GSE can be particularly well-suited for electrification because it benefits from low-end torque and has frequent idle time and short required ranges.

Overcoming Barriers to Electric Vehicle Charging in Multi-unit Dwellings: A Westside Cities Case Study 12/1/2017 Reports

University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California

The purpose of this case study is to explore barriers to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption for residents of multi-unit dwellings (MUDs) within the Westside Cities subregion of Los Angeles County and then identify MUDs within the study region that may exhibit high PEV demand and demand for low-cost electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installation. This report also reviews the costs associated with EVSE installation at MUD sites, which are highly variable across properties. The report closes with a discussion of policy tools for scaling up charging infrastructure at MUD sites across the Westside Cities subregion.