Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Electric Vehicles for Fleets 5/17/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric vehicles can fulfill many daily driving needs, making them a great solution for fleets. They offer several benefits and can fill roles in light-duty, medium-/heavy-duty (MD/HD), and even off-road applications. The unique fleet environment presents considerations beyond those that consumers must address before going electric. For example, fleet managers must understand the impacts of charging multiple vehicles while maintaining fleet operations. Larger MD/HD vehicles bring additional factors to consider.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; White, E. 5/4/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2021 (Q4). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the eighth report in a series.

Global EV Outlook 2022 5/2/2022 Reports

International Energy Agency, Paris, France

Sales of electric vehicles (EVs) doubled in 2021 from the previous year to a new record of 6.6 million. Back in 2012, just 120,000 EV were sold worldwide. In 2021, more than that many are sold each week. The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to 2030, the report examines key areas of interest such as EV and charging infrastructure deployment, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions, battery demand, and related policy developments. The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate lessons learned from leading markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders with regard to policy frameworks and market systems for EV adoption.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Energy Agency’s website.

Using Mapping Tools to Prioritize Electric Vehicle Charger Benefits to Underserved Communities Zhou, Yan; Gohlke, David; Sansone, Michael; Kuiper, Jim; Smith, Margaret P. 5/1/2022 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory; U.S. Department of Energy

This report describes the important role mapping tools play in incorporating equity goals in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of investments in electric vehicle (EV) chargers such as the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure formula program. Building upon the Justice40 Initiative, the report provides examples of how to apply mapping tools to identify priority locations for installing EV chargers with the best potential to benefit energy and environmental justice (EEJ) underserved communities. Four approaches are described: corridor charging, community charging, fleet electrification, and diversity in STEM and workforce development. The report also explores various methodologies for calculating low public-EV charger density.

Federal Funding is Available for EV Charging Infrastructure on the National Highway System 4/22/2022 Reports

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Washington, District of Columbia

The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) supports the Biden-Harris Administration’s goal of installing 500,000 new electric vehicle (EV) chargers by 2030. To accelerate the deployment of EV chargers, FHWA is highlighting the policies and funding available for partners in states, tribes, territories, metropolitan planning organizations, and federal land management agencies to build out EV chargers along the National Highway System. This document summarizes eligibilities under each of the funding and finance programs to plan for and build EV chargers, support workforce training for new technologies, and integrate EVs as part of strategies to address commuter, freight, and public transportation needs.

2021 Zero Emission Vehicle Market Study: Volume 2: Intra-California Regions Defined by Air Districts Kurani, K. 4/14/2022 Reports

University of California, Davis, Plug-in Hybrid & Electric Vehicle Research Center, Davis, California

California set a goal to transition new light-duty vehicle sales to 100% zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs) by 2035. To assist California and the other ZEV states to monitor and manage the success of policies promoting ZEVs and ZEV fueling infrastructure deployment, this research assesses car-owning households’ responses to these new technology vehicles and new fueling behaviors. This report assesses the readiness of household consumers in California to support state goals, i.e., as goals become more ambitious and requirements on manufacturers increase, are more car-owning households poised to become ZEV buyers? The analysis explores differences within California, based on boundaries of air quality districts. This study question is addressed via comparison of two large sample surveys of car-owning households. These surveys were completed in first calendar quarters of 2019 and 2021. Both questionnaires measure consumer awareness, knowledge, assessments, and consideration of ZEVs. Note: <p> This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the eScholarship <a href="https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8738w7m3/">website</a>.</p>

Clean Cities Coalitions Overview 3/11/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Office Clean Cities Coalition Network, which advances affordable, domestic transportation fuels and technologies nationwide. More than 75 active coalitions serve as the foundation of Clean Cities, working in communities across the country to help local decision makers and fleets understand and implement alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, new mobility choices, and emerging transportation technologies. At the national level, VTO develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources to support coordinators. At the local level, coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 3/10/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Considerations for Department of Defense Implementation of Zero-Emission Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure Hodge, C.; Bennett, J.; Bentley, J.; Boyce, L. 3/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Bentley Energy Consulting, Oakton, Virginia

In December 2021, the president issued Executive Order (EO) 14057 on Catalyzing Clean Energy Industries and Jobs Through Federal Sustainability. The EO requires the Department of Defense to transition its non-tactical vehicles to a 100% zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) fleet, including 100% of light-duty acquisitions by 2027 and 100% of medium- and heavy-duty acquisitions by 2035. This document provides considerations to comply with these requirements and transition to a ZEV fleet efficiently and quickly. It covers planning for ZEVs and electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment, suggested roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders in designing EV charging equipment, and execution issues including acquisition, installation, and ongoing fleet management.

Decarbonizing MD and HD On-Road Vehicles: ZEVs Cost Analysis Ledna, C.; Muratori, M.; Yip, A.; Jadun, P.; Hoehne, C. 3/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This study provides an economic analysis of the medium- and heavy-duty transportation sector that identifies cost-effective adoption opportunities for zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) based on total cost of driving. It looks at three different vehicle classes and eight different use cases and driving distances. With continued improvements in vehicle and fuel technologies, in line with U.S. Department of Energy targets and vetted with industry, ZEVs can reach total-cost-of-driving parity with conventional diesel vehicles by 2035 for all medium- and heavy-duty vehicle classes without incentives.

Cargo Handling Equipment at Ports Andrew Burnham 3/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory

Ports, critical to trade and economic vitality, depend on a wide range of vehicles and machinery to move goods. Historically, most port equipment has been powered by diesel, contributing to poor air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. Increasingly, however, port equipment is powered by less-polluting fuels, including electricity, CNG, LNG, and LPG. This fact sheet describes the specific types of cargo handling equipment, their functions, and the fuel types currently available to power them.

Identifying Electric Vehicles to Best Serve University Fleet Needs and Support Sustainability Goals Booth, S.; Bennett, J.; Helm, M.; Arnold, D.; Baker, B.; Clay, R.; Till, M.; Sears, T. 2/1/2022 Reports

Sawatch Labs, Denver, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

University fleets represent an enticing opportunity to explore the near-term feasibility of achieving net-zero-carbon emissions in transportation. In many instances, universities operate much like a small, self-contained ecosystem with all the same transportation needs as a larger municipality, but with a smaller geographic footprint. Their fleets often include a wide variety of vehicle types serving the campus, including low-speed vehicles (e.g., golf carts), light-duty sedans, SUVs, and pickups, as well as medium-duty trucks and delivery vehicles. The mix of vehicle and operational needs combined with broader activities related to net-zero campuses makes universities and colleges unique microcosms to determine the feasibility of and path to achieving net-zero fleets. As the availability of electric drivetrains expands beyond light-duty sedans, fleets need to understand when it will be operationally and financially appropriate to start adding electric drivetrains to their fleets. To better understand these opportunities, NREL contracted Sawatch Labs to analyze the role electric vehicles (EVs) can have in helping universities meet net-zero emissions and fleet sustainability goals they have instituted.

Charging Forward: A Toolkit for Planning and Funding Rural Electric Mobility Infrastructure 2/1/2022 Reports

Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This toolkit is meant to be a one-stop resource to help rural communities scope, plan, and fund EV charging infrastructure for light-duty electric passenger vehicles. Rural stakeholders, including states, local communities, tribes, transportation providers, nonprofits, businesses, and individuals, can use the toolkit to identify key partners for a project, take advantage of relevant planning tools, and identify available funding or financing to help make that project a reality. Armed with the resources in this toolkit, rural communities will have the tools and information they need to start planning and implementing EV infrastructure projects and ultimately realize the benefits of electric mobility.

Impacts of Increasing Electrification on State Fleet Operations and Charging Demand Booth,S.; Bennett, J.; Helm, M., Arnold, D.; Baker, B.; Clay, R.; Till, M.; Sears, T. 2/1/2022 Reports

Sawatch Labs, Denver, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

State fleets represent an enticing opportunity to explore the near-term feasibility of fleet electrification. In many instances, state fleet operations encompass a wide geographic area with fleet locations for many vehicles. Serving these wide areas will require a significant amount of energy and, in the case of electric vehicles (EVs), a significant level of charging power. The peak demand as a result of this charging demand is of interest for fleets, with impacts on both utility bills and installation costs ranking among some of the greatest concerns. The combination of a wide operational area and multiple fleet locations positions state fleets as ideal candidates to understand the impacts of vehicle charging on fleet operations. As the availability of electric drivetrains expands beyond light-duty sedans, fleets need to understand when it will be appropriate operationally and financially to start adding electric drivetrains to their fleets. Throughout this process, it will also be important to understand the charging implications of fleet electrification and the resulting impacts to facility electrical systems. To better understand these considerations, NREL contracted Sawatch Labs to analyze the role that increasing state fleet electrification may have on the charging demand at fleet parking facilities.

Supporting Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Deployment 2/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies electrify their fleets and support the deployment of charging infrastructure. To assist agencies with the transition to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through on-site and virtual EVSE Tiger Teams.

A Meta-Study of Purchase Costs for Zero-Emission Trucks Sharpe, B.; Basma, H. 2/1/2022 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This study reviews recent literature on current and projected battery-electric and hydrogen fuel cell tractor truck costs. In addition, this study provides information about the costs of key components for zero-emission trucks, including the battery pack, motor, and energy storage systems. Note: This copyrighted publication can be accessed through the International Council on Clean Transportation website.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 40 Davis, S.C.; Boundy, R.G. 2/1/2022 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 40 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (tedb.ornl.gov).

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Standards Technology Review 2/1/2022 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

Zero-emission transportation is critical to achieving California’s air quality and climate goals. To support the adoption and use of zero-emission vehicles, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Standards Regulation in 2019 to reduce barriers to accessing public charging stations. The EVSE Standards Regulation establishes minimum requirements for payment methods an EVSE must allow, facilitates roaming agreements between electric vehicle service providers, creates a more complete database of location and pricing information for consumer use, and ensures clarity in the cost of a charging session. To assess barriers drivers may face and understand whether the requirements of the Regulation, particularly the requirement that EVSE must accept both chip payment cards and contactless, “tap” cards, CARB staff conducted a Technology Review. The Technology Review included an evaluation of the availability and use of different payment methods and a survey of drivers’ experiences accessing public charging stations. This report presents the findings and recommendations from that work.

Assessing the Value of EV Managed Charging: A Review of Methodologies and Results Anwar, M.; Muratori, M.; Jadun, P.; Hale, E.; Bush, B.; Denholm, P.; Ma, O.; Podkaminer, K. 1/7/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Driven by technological progress and growing global attention for sustainability, the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is on the rise. Large-scale EV adoption would both disrupt the transportation sector and lead to far-reaching consequences for energy and electricity systems, including new opportunities for significant load growth. Unmanaged EV charging can stress existing grid infrastructure, possibly leading to operational, reliability, and planning challenges both at the bulk and distribution levels. However, effective management of EV charging can resolve these challenges and provide additional value. This report summarizes the benefits of managed EV charging, provides an overview of the landscape of existing implementations and costs of managed charging in the United States, critically reviews the state of the art of methodologies in analysis/modeling studies, and quantifies the cost and benefits of managed charging as reported in the reviewed studies. Additionally, it distills several key insights outlining the factors affecting the value of managed EV charging and identifies critical gaps and remaining challenges to fully realize effective EV-grid integration.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2020 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 12/29/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an EUI of nearly 1 billion GGE, comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2020. Clean Cities coalition and stakeholder participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, although transportation activity and resulting EUI decreased in 2020 due to the COVID 19 pandemic. Coalition-reported activities prevented nearly 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only GHG emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). The GHG benefits increased in 2020 despite a decrease in EUI because coalitions focused more on technologies with higher GHG benefits per GGE reduced and because the lifecycle of many alternative fuels such as electricity or biofuels is becoming less carbon intense. Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous outside (non-DOE) sources. The 90 project grant awards in 2020 generated $151 million in funds from coalition members and project partners in addition to $12.8 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.1 million in stakeholder dues and $3.1 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this non-DOE supplemental funding represents a 4:1 leveraging of the $38 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in 2020. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 135,700 hours pursuing their coalitions’ goals in 2020. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held the coordinator position for nearly eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,290 outreach, education, and training activities in 2020, which reached an estimated 31 million people. Activities that reached underserved communities were tracked for the first time in 2020 and accounted for 17% of all activities.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Levene, J.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 12/16/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Ride-Hailing Charging Infrastructure: Needs Assessment and Equitable Siting in Houston Hsu C.; Slowik, P. 10/21/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

The reach and use of ride-hailing services have greatly expanded in major urban areas in the United States and globally. As ride-hailing continues to grow as an important pillar of the mobility ecosystem, such fleets raise questions related to their environmental and mobility impacts, and electrification offers an opportunity to eliminate the vehicles’ local emissions. This paper quantifies the number of ride-hailing direct current fast chargers needed in Houston to support a growing electric ride-hailing fleet from 2021 through 2030. It identifies priority sites that expand infrastructure equity and access in the city, with a focus on city-owned properties. The paper also summarizes best practices in equitable clean mobility investments and discusses the policies and actions that can facilitate ride-hailing electrification and contribute to equitable outcomes.

Notes: This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Council on Clean Transportation website.

Future-Proofing Convenience Stores for EV Charging 10/12/2021 Reports

Petroleum Equipment Institute, Tulsa, Oklahoma; National Association of Convenience Stores, Alexandria, Virginia; Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

Direct current fast charging is the optimal technology for electric vehicle (EV) charging at convenience stores. This document helps convenience retailers plan for EV charging infrastructure at new liquid fueling sites. With careful planning and efficient site design, ground-up facilities can be constructed to keep fuels convenient and safe for store personnel and the public.

There's No Place Like Home: Residential Parking, Electrical Access, and Implications for the Future of EV Charging Infrastructure Ge, Y.; Simeone, C; Duvall, A.; Wood, E. 10/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The current foundation of U.S. charging infrastructure has been built upon charging at residential locations, where vehicles tend to be parked for long durations overnight. As the electric vehicle (EV) market expands beyond early adopters (typically high-income, single-family homes that have access to off-street parking) to mainstream consumers, planners must consider developing charging infrastructure solutions for households without consistent access to overnight home charging. In situations where residential off-street charging access is unattainable, a portfolio of solutions may be possible, including providing access to public charging in residential neighborhoods (on street), at workplaces, at commonly visited public locations, and (when necessary) at centralized locations via high power fast charging infrastructure (similar to existing gas stations). This report identifies charging access trends with respect to residence type and infers national residential charging access scenarios as a function of the national EV fleet size.

A Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel, Natural Gas, and Electric Vehicles Muncrief, R. 9/21/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Diesel, natural gas, and electric heavy-duty vehicles can be designed and manufactured with the capability of complying with the ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NOx) limits envisioned in the next set of California and federal heavy-duty vehicle regulations. This briefing compares the capabilities of these three powertrain types in meeting an ultra-low NOx standard across four key areas: feasibility, cost, health impacts, and climate impacts.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Infrastructure to Support a 100% Zero-Emission Tractor-Trailer Fleet in the United States by 2040 Minjares, R.; Rodríguez, F.; Sen, A.; Braun, C. 9/14/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This analysis estimates the number of charging points and hydrogen fueling stations needed to enable the transition to 100% sales of zero-emission Class 7 and Class 8 tractor-trailers by 2040 in the United States.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Evaluating EV Market Growth Across U.S. Cities Bui, A.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey, N. 9/14/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This briefing paper analyzes the development of the U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market in 2020 and the underlying state, city, and utility actions that were driving it. The paper evaluates state, local, and utility company actions to promote PEVs, and demonstrates that the states and cities with the greatest PEV market success continue to have the strongest and most comprehensive policy supports.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 9/10/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Total Cost of Ownership for Class 8 Tractors and Class 4 Parcel Delivery Trucks Hunter, C.; Penev, M.; Reznicek, E.; Lustbader, J.; Birky, A.; Zhang, C. 9/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The medium- and heavy-duty transportation sector is experiencing rapid changes in powertrain technology innovation, with recent announcements of battery electric and fuel cell electric trucks being offered. The economics of these alternative powertrain vehicles are uncertain and difficult to compare directly. This report evaluates the total cost of ownership of six different truck powertrain technologies (diesel, diesel hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, compressed natural gas, battery electric, and fuel cell electric) for three different truck vocations (Class 8 long haul, Class 8 short haul, and Class 4 parcel delivery, for three different time frames (2018, 2025, and 2050).

Need Help Planning for the Future of Electric Vehicles? 9/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

This brochure helps states find tools to make informed decisions about implementing electric vehicles (EVs) and their charging infrastructure. To do so, many states will use funds from the Environmental Mitigation Trust Agreements from the Volkswagen Clean Air Act Settlement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories provide extensive information on EVs including both community planning and charging infrastructure. This information can help states implement EV and charging infrastructure projects using settlement funds. The tools in this brochure represent a sampling of key DOE resources available to states and other jurisdictions.

Electric-Drive Vehicles 8/23/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: All-electric vehicles and Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as electric vehicles (EVs).

At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles 8/23/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. Electric vehicles (EVs) include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Power Demand of Retail Buildings Gillerana, M.; Bonnemaa, E.; Woodsa, J.; Mishraa, P,; Doebberb, I.; Huntera, C.; Mitchella, M.; Mann, M. 8/15/2021 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As electric vehicle (EV) penetration increases, charging is expected to have a significant impact on the grid. EV charging stations will greatly affect a building site’s power demand, especially with the onset of fast charging with power levels as high as 350 kilowatts per charger. This paper assesses how EV charging stations would impact a retail big box grocery store, exploring numerous station sizes, charging power levels, and utilization factors in various climate zones and seasons. It measures the effect of charging by assessing changes in monthly peak power demand, electricity usage, and annual electricity bill, computed using three distinct rate structures.

Installing and Operating Public EV Charging Infrastructure 8/6/2021 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

This report analyzes the issues site hosts are expected to encounter as they contemplate development of public electric vehicle (EV) charging by separating them into three key buckets: assessing the business case, utility engagement, and working with local authorities having jurisdiction over the site’s location. The report also presents several case studies from early adopters who’ve invested in the public EV charging space. In addition, the report includes crucial lessons learned from real world experience.

Notes:

This publication is copyrighted by Fuels Institute and can be downloaded from the Fuels Institute’s website.

Success Factors for Electric Carsharing Nicholas, M.; Bernard, M 8/2/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

Using electric vehicles for carsharing can enhance the environmental benefits of such programs. This briefing examines electric carsharing and the elements that are found in successful programs in North America and Europe. Specifically, it describes the benefits of electric carsharing, presents examples of carsharing, provides charging infrastructure insights, and identifies best practices for electric carsharing.

Fuel Cell Electric Trucks: A Vision for Freight Movement in California and Beyond 7/1/2021 Reports

California Fuel Cell Partnership, West Sacramento, California

The California Fuel Cell Partnership represents public entities and private global companies with vested interests in both battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell electric technologies. This document presents the California Fuel Cell Partnership shared vision of the fundamental role of fuel cell electric trucks in the complete transition of California’s freight movement sector to zero-emission. While the insights shared are applicable to many vehicle types, this document focuses on the largest and highest-priority, on-road freight vehicle: the Class 8 tractor.

Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Market Structure, Environmental Impact, and Electric Vehicle Readiness 7/1/2021 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, Massachusetts

This report summarizes an analysis of the U.S. medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) in-use truck fleet to identify the most common vehicle types/uses, estimate the environmental impact of each, and assess readiness for greater adoption of zero emitting technologies over the next decade. It is intended to help inform the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s deliberations involving future criteria and greenhouse gas emissions standards and policies for MD and HD engines and vehicles.

Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative 7/1/2021 Reports

Western Governors’ Association, Denver, Colorado

Oregon Governor Kate Brown launched the Electric Vehicles (EVs) Roadmap Initiative in July 2020, to examine opportunities to improve the planning and siting of EV charging infrastructure in western states. The Chair Initiative of the Governor assembled states engaged in the West Coast Electric Highway (which includes California, Oregon, and Washington) and the Regional Electric Vehicle Plan for the West (REV West, which includes Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming). Together, they assessed opportunities for enhanced coordination on voluntary technical standards related to EV infrastructure hardware, payment methods, signage, and best practices for siting and location. This report presents findings from these sessions and examines state programs and coordination opportunities, grid infrastructure planning and the role of utilities, medium-and heavy-duty EVs, EV fleets, permitting and siting practices, and economic and workforce development opportunities associated with EVs.

Electric Transportation Rate Design Principles for Regulated Utilities Jones, P., Edelston, B. 7/1/2021 Reports

Alliance for Transportation Electricifiction, Washington, D.C.

Growth in interest in electric vehicles (EVs) among policy makers in the United States is prompting utilities and state regulatory commissions to consider changes to traditional utility rate designs that more efficiently reflect the drivers of electric system costs, thereby allowing customers to better manage electric bills associated with EV charging in a manner that benefits the system. This paper proposes ratemaking and rate design principles applicable to transportation electrification where state commissions have authority to approve both investor-owned utility rates and rate design.

Assembly Bill 2127 Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Assessment Analyzing Charging Needs to Support Zero Emission Vehicles in 2030 Alexander, M.; Crisostomo, N.; Krell, W.; Lu, J.; Ramesh, R. 7/1/2021 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

Assembly Bill 2127, 2018, requires the California Energy Commission (CEC) to prepare a statewide assessment of the charging infrastructure needed to achieve the goal of five million zero-emission vehicles on the road by 2030. Executive Order N-79-20, 2020, directed the CEC to expand this assessment to support the levels of plug-in electric vehicle adoption required by the executive order. This report identifies trends and market, technical, and policy solutions that would advance transportation electrification to benefit all Californians. It outlines a vision where charging is accessible, smart, widespread, and easier than a trip to the gas station.

Electrifying Trucks: From Delivery Vans to Buses to 18-Wheelers Nadel, S.; Huether, P. 6/10/2021 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, D.C.

Electrification of trucks and buses can bring many benefits, including lower energy use, emissions, and operating costs. However, compared to conventional trucks, these vehicles currently cost more up front, often have reduced range, and must depend on limited charging infrastructure. Efforts to address these limitations are making substantial progress, and leading experts expect electric trucks to be widespread by 2040. This paper summarizes the current state of the industry, including electric truck benefits and challenges, current and imminent models, charging, electric rates, and policies to promote electric trucks.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Benefits of Transportation Electrification in a Post Pandemic World Smith, C.; Nigro, N.; Lepre, N. 6/1/2021 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

The first three months of 2021 saw early actions from the Biden administration and strong commitments to transportation electrification made by automakers, utilities, and other key players in the U.S. electric vehicle market. This activity has increased the number and breadth of pathways that policymakers can pursue to accelerate the shift towards transportation electrification and capture more of the billions of dollars in investments committed to the technology worldwide. This paper outlines three key opportunities for the country to achieve success and rapidly decarbonize the transportation sector by taking decisive action at federal level, expanding state policy frameworks, and prioritizing underserved communities.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Town of Colonie Enhanced Development Regulations: Electric Vehicle Zoning Guidance & Best Practices 5/24/2021 Reports

Capital District Clean Communities Coalition, Albany, New York; Capital District Transportation Committee, Colonie, New York; Capital District Regional Planning Commission, Colonie, New York

Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) requirements have become an area of interest to the Town of Colonie (Colonie) staff and planning board members. This report provides electric vehicle zoning guidance and best practices for Colonie codes. It includes a review of existing conditions in Colonie, a comprehensive plan and zoning audit, and general recommendations and best practices for municipalities to allow, require, and streamline the installation of EVSE.

Alternative Fuel Corridor Readiness Study for Northeastern Illinois Milburn, T. 5/23/2021 Reports

Chicago Area Clean Cities, Chicago, Illinois

This study analyzes alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) usage and infrastructure needs for the Chicago region. It maps the existing alternative fuel sites in the six-county Chicago area and throughout Illinois. The study also examines what it will take to advance the use of AFVs in the region, leveraging new federal and state policies that are expected in the years ahead. To gather insights for the report, listening sessions were conducted with key stakeholders on recommendations for where to site alternative fuel stations and critical needs for sites to be successful.

AFLEET: Assess the Impacts of Conventional and Alternative Fuel Vehicles 5/20/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET fact sheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2019 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 5/6/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an energy use impact (EUI) of over 1 billion gasoline-gallons equivalent (GGE), comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2019. Participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, as did alternative fuel use and resulting overall EUI. Clean Cities coalition activities reduce emissions as they impact energy use. Coalition-reported activities prevented nearly 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous (non-DOE) outside sources. For other Federal, State, and local agencies and private sector foundations, see funding section on page 24. The 82 project grant awards in 2019 generated $225 million in funds from coalition members and project partners along with $9.5 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.2 million in stakeholder dues and $1.6 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this supplemental funding represents nearly a 6:1 leveraging of the $38 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in Fiscal Year 2019. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 136,000 hours pursuing their coalitions' goals in 2019. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held his or her position for at least eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,525 outreach, education, and training activities in 2019, which reached an estimated 23 million people.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 5/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electrifying Transit: A Guidebook for Implementing BEBs Aamodt, A.; Cory, K.; Coney, K. 4/20/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The use of battery electric bus (BEBs) fleets is becoming more attractive to cities seeking to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. While BEB fleets may provide benefits such as lower fuel and maintenance costs, improved performance, lower emissions, and energy security, many challenges need to be overcome to support BEB deployment. These include upfront cost premiums, planning burdens, BEB range, and unfamiliarity with BEB technology. To assist stakeholders with interest in deploying BEBs, this guidebook describes the decisions and considerations required for successful BEB implementation.

Siting EVSE with Equity in Mind Huether, P. 4/1/2021 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, District of Columbia

To reduce pollution from road vehicles, states are setting policies to support transportation electrification and directing utilities to support electric vehicles with widespread charging infrastructure. States and utility commissions also recognize the need to ensure that historically underserved communities benefit from electrification. To make this happen, electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) must be sited in a way that promotes geographic, racial, and economic equity. This paper analyzes the extent to which states and utilities are including equity in their siting. Additionally, this paper provides guidance for utilities wanting to ensure that the benefits of transportation electrification are shared widely.

Clean Mobility Equity: A Playbook Lessons from California’s Clean Transportation Programs Creger, H.; Aguayo, L.; Partida-Lopez, R.; Sanchez, A. 3/25/2021 Reports

The Greenlining Institute, Oakland, California

Clean mobility programs can help fight climate change and clean the air, and improve mobility for residents of underserved communities, reduce traffic and dependence on cars, and be engines of economic empowerment that help reduce the racial wealth gap. This report reviews California’s clean mobility equity programs to better understand whether and how clean transportation programs truly address equity in a comprehensive and effective way. The report notes successes, pitfalls, and areas for improvement for clean mobility programs. It serves as both a guide for California as it continues evolving its clean mobility programs to more meaningfully center equity and as a guide for other states and the federal government as they move to develop and implement clean transportation equity programs.

User Perceptions of the Risks of Electric, Shared, and Automated Vehicles Remain Largely Unexplored Kurani, K. 2/12/2021 Reports

UC Davis, National Center for Sustainable Transportation, Davis, California

Advocates of electric, shared, and automated vehicles (e-SAVs) envision a future in which people no longer need to drive their privately owned, petroleum-fueled vehicles. Instead, for daily travel they rely on fleets of electric, automated vehicles that offer travel services, including the option to share, or “pool,” rides with strangers. The design, deployment, and operation of e-SAVs will require widespread willingness of users to share with strangers vehicles that are capable of fully automated driving. To achieve the environmental and societal goals of e-SAVs it is critical to first understand and address safety and security concerns of potential and actual users. Researchers at the University of California, Davis, reviewed the literature to understand potential users’ perceptions of safety and security risks posed by intertwined social and technical systems of e-SAVs and proposed a framework to advance research, policy, and system design. This policy brief summarizes the findings of that work and provides policy implications.

EV Charging Needs Assessment: Identifying Needs and Opportunities for EV Fast Charging in Rural and Underserved Areas of the Intermountain West Powers, C. 2/1/2021 Reports

National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, Virginia; Utah Clean Cities, Salt Lake City, Utah

Corridors of the West (CORWest) is a three-year initiative to support plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure investment and educational opportunities in rural and underserved areas of the intermountain west. A key first step under the project is to understand barriers to PEV adoption and, more specifically, direct current (DC) fast charger station deployment in rural and underserved areas of the intermountain west, and identify potential pathways for addressing these barriers. To understand barriers to EV adoption and station deployment in rural and underserved areas, the CORWest project team developed a questionnaire that was disseminated to select stakeholder groups to gather feedback. This report provides a summary of trends and typical issues being faced in the region and offers recommendations for ways to address high-priority needs and support PEV deployment and DC fast charger investment.

National Park Service Bus Electrification Study: 2020 Report Gilleran, M.; Kotz, A.; Eudy, L.; Kelly, K. 2/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes important considerations for implementing battery electric buses (BEBs) in the three national park fleets, detailing information about current buses at each fleet, electric bus demonstration vehicles, and performance evaluations of BEBs in Zion, Bryce, and Yosemite. Results include in-use data collection metrics such as average bus speed, energy usage per trip, and daily distance traveled. Also covered are effects of high heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system use to both heat and cool the buses, emissions estimations before and after use of electric buses, operating costs, electric vehicle infrastructure, maintenance, and bus driver user experience survey information.

When Might Lower-Income Drivers Benefit from EVs? Quantifying the Economic Equity Implications of EV Adoption Bauer, G.; Hsu, C.; Lutsey, N. 2/1/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), Washington, DC

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can dramatically reduce local air pollution and carbon emissions, but relatively little analysis has been done on the broader potential economic benefits as the technology matures and costs decline. As governments seek to integrate decarbonization policy with environmental justice goals, it will be critical to ensure equal access to clean technology. This report focuses on the potential benefits of equitable electrification and assesses when PEVs will become affordable more broadly across different households.

Transportation Electrification in North Carolina Smith, C. 2/1/2021 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, DC

This brief provides an overview of the state of the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market and deployment in North Carolina while also highlighting travel patterns and transit agency statistics, along with snapshots of PEV policy and program examples from other states. Statewide transportation electrification roadmaps and funding available through the Volkswagen Settlement have generated momentum in North Carolina and can be harnessed to accelerate the PEV market across the state and position it as a regional and national leader.

Final Technical Report-WestSmart EV: Western Smart Plug-in Electric Vehicle Community Partnership Campbell, James 1/19/2021 Reports

Department on Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC

The WestSmartEV (WSEV) project has accelerated adoption of electric vehicles (EV) throughout the PacifiCorp/Rocky Mountain Power’s service territory in the intermountain west by developing a large-scale, sustainable EV charging infrastructure network with coordinated EV adoption programs. The project objectives have strategically deployed 79 direct current fast charging to create two primary electric interstate highway corridors along I-15 and I-80. Additionally, it has incentivized installation of Level 2 chargers at workplace locations, incentivized the purchase of EVs, provided all electric solutions for first- and last-mile trips, provided centralized data collection, analysis, modeling, and tool development to inform investment and policy decisions, and developed education outreach materials and conducted workshops across the WSEV region. This report summarizes the WSEV project efforts.

Electrification Futures Study: Scenarios of Power System Evolution and Infrastructure Development for the United States Murphy, C.; Mai, T.; Sun, Y.; Jadun, P.; Muratori, M.; Nelson, B.; Jones, R. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona; Evolved Energy Research, San Francisco, California

This report is the fifth publication in a series of Electrification Futures Study (EFS) publications. The report presents scenarios of the U.S. electricity and energy systems through 2050. The scenarios encompass a wide range of future conditions, including the different electrification levels that were developed for the <a href=" https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/electrification_futures_study.pdf">second EFS report</a>. The scenario results include projected changes to the physical infrastructure of the U.S. power system, the utilization of that infrastructure, and estimates of other impacts of electrification to the power system and broader energy system.

The Shape of Electrified Transportation Muratori, M.; Mai, T. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

For more than a century, petroleum fuels have been relied upon to move people and goods within and between towns and cities, and on roads, railways, farms, waterways, and in the air. These fuels have provided reliable and convenient mobility options to power the modern global economy. However, these benefits have also created challenges associated with geopolitics, energy security, price volatility, and environmental impacts. Electric vehicles could dramatically disrupt the transportation energy demand landscape. Such a change comes with its own challenges and benefits. This report summarizes the trends driving vehicle electrification and explores the associated challenges and benefits.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Developing Markets for Zero Emission Vehicles in Short Haul Goods Movement Giuliano, G., Dessouky, M., Dexter, S., Fang, J., Hu, S., Steimetz, S. 12/10/2020 Reports

University of California, Davis, California

This report examines the potential market share for zero emission heavy duty trucks (ZEHDTs) via simulation modeling, case studies, interviews, and a survey. It assesses the impacts of ZEHDTs on freight operations. Additionally, it compares the costs and benefits of using diesel, natural gas hybrid, and all-electric vehicles for 2020, 2025, and 2030. Lastly, this report presents recommendations for promoting and increasing the market share of ZEHDTs and hybrids.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through the University of California, Davis National Center for Sustainable Transportation website.

Accelerating Ride-Hailing Electrification: Challenges, Benefits, and Options for State Action Hunt, J.; McKearnan, S. 12/2/2020 Reports

Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management, Boston, Massachusetts

In the United States, use of ride-hailing services has grown at a steep rate over the last decade, and this trend is expected to continue. A rapid transition in ride-hailing fleets from internal combustion engine vehicles to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) would reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants, increase consumer exposure to PEVs, deliver maintenance and fuel cost savings to drivers, and improve the business case for fast charging infrastructure by increasing utilization. This paper identifies the benefits and challenges associated with transitioning vehicles driving on transportation network company platforms to PEVs and recommends specific actions states can take to support and accelerate the transition.

Assessing the Potential for Low-Carbon Fuel Standards as a Mode of EV Support Kelly, C.: Pavlenko, N. 12/1/2020 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Low-carbon fuel standards (LCFS), which regulate the carbon intensity of fuels supplied to transportation, can provide long-term, durable funding for plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure and PEV purchasing incentives as other policies such as rebates expire or are phased-down. This study assesses the role that a national LCFS program can play in accelerating the rate of light-duty passenger PEV and charging infrastructure deployment.

Florida Electric Vehicle Roadmap Smith Burk, K.; Groover Combs, A.; Kettles, D.; Reed, K. 12/1/2020 Reports

FDACS and Central Florida Clean Cities, Tallahassee, Florida; Central Florida Clean Cities Coalition, Cocoa, Florida

In May 2019, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Office of Energy began working on a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) roadmap for the state of Florida. This roadmap provides a comprehensive investigation into the status and needs of PEV charging infrastructure in Florida for the following three to four years. This roadmap identifies PEV charging infrastructure impacts on the electric grid, solutions for any negative impacts, areas that lack PEV charging infrastructure, best practices for siting PEV charging stations, and technical or regulatory barriers to expansion of PEV charging infrastructure. It also provides recommendations that address permitting, emergency evacuation needs, and education.

Electrification Assessment of Public Vehicles in Washington Satterfield, C.; Nigro, N.; Wood, E.; Jensen, J.; Smith, C.; Desai, R.; Lepre, N.; Ge, Y. 11/30/2020 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, District of Columbia; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

Washington State is positioned to cost effectively electrify nearly all public vehicles by the year 2035. With near-term policy action and targeted investments in infrastructure, the state can accelerate ongoing efforts to advance electric vehicles (EVs) and solidify its leadership position in the EV market in the United States. This assessment evaluates the electrification potential for all publicly owned vehicles in the State of Washington. It provides Washington with comprehensive, vehicle-specific electrification cost estimates both today and in the future along with actionable information on how to efficiently move forward with fleet electrification.

Federal Workplace Charging Program Guide 11/2/2020 Reports

Federal Energy Management Program, Washington, District of Columbia

The Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act authorizes the installation, operation, and maintenance of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment for the purpose of charging privately owned vehicles (POVs) under the custody or control of the General Services Administration or other federal agencies. It requires the collection of fees to recover the costs of installing, operating, and maintaining this equipment and imposes reporting requirements. This model program guide reviews those requirements and describes when and how fees may be required to cover costs of electricity, network costs, EV charging equipment, and installations in various scenarios. This model program guide is designed to support federal agencies developing and refining workplace charging programs for employee POVs.

Summary Report on Electric Vehicles at Scale and the U.S. Electric Power System 11/1/2020 Reports

Department of Energy, D.C., United States

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can meet U.S. personal transportation needs using domestic energy resources while at the same time offering carbon emissions benefits. However, wide scale light-duty PEV adoption will necessitate assessment of and possibly modification to the U.S. electric power generation and distribution systems. This report gauges the sufficiency of both energy generation and generation capacity in the U.S. electric power system to accommodate the growing fleet of light duty PEVs.

Electrifying Freight: Pathways to Accelerating the Transition Buholtz, T.; Burger, A.; Gander, S.; Nelson, B.; Prochazka, B.; Swalnick, N 11/1/2020 Reports

Electrification Coalition, Washington, District of Columbia

The U.S. economy is heavily dependent on the functionality of our freight and goods transportation services. Road freight transportation in the United States is projected to grow steadily in the coming decades, and electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as a clean and cost-effective alternative. This report outlines the benefits of electric trucks, explains the major barriers impeding their production, sales, and deployment, and establishes the next steps that manufacturers, policymakers, fleet operators, and other stakeholders should take to facilitate and accelerate freight electrification.

Fleet-Wide Electrification Impacts Assessment for the Valley Transportation Authority Eichman, J.; Kotz, A.; Miller, E.; Kelly, K.; Ficenec, K. 11/1/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report explores the long-term electrification opportunities for the Valley Transit Authority’s (VTA) transit bus fleet. It also explores the potential for transit bus electrification at VTA as well as the economic impacts of partial and complete electrification. Further, the report includes the optimal charging, operation and lowest capital and operating cost solution to achieve different levels of electrification to meet VTA’s existing routes.

Expanding Equitable Access to EV Mobility: Examples of Innovative Policies and Programs 9/21/2020 Reports

This document describes examples of how state governments and their partners across the United States are working on improving equitable access to light-duty plug-in electric vehicle mobility in low- and moderate-income (LMI) communities. In addition, this document covers the importance of early engagement for assessing the mobility needs and gaps in LMI communities, identifying strategic approaches to expanding equitable mobility, and finding local leaders.

2020 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2020 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations. This report provides ARB’s analysis of the current status and near-term projections of FCEV deployment and station network development and the actions necessary to maintain progress and enable continued future expansion.

Hydrogen Station Permitting Guidebook Brazil Vacin, G.; Eckerle, T.; Kashuba, M. 9/1/2020 Reports

California Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz), Sacramento, California

This guidebook is comprised of six parts and is intended to help station developers and local jurisdictions navigate and streamline the infrastructure development process. It reflects the latest best practices collected from stations developers and local jurisdictions with experience in the hydrogen stations development process.

Electric Vehicle Market Status - Update Lowell, D.; Huntington, A. 9/1/2020 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, Massachusetts

This paper summarizes the current status, and projected growth, of the U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) industry over the next five to ten years. Key topics addressed include drivers of U.S. and global PEV growth, original equipment manufacturer (OEM) investments in PEV development and in building a robust charging network for drivers, announced new PEV model introductions, projected PEV sales, projected battery pack costs, and projected date of PEV price parity with internal combustion engine vehicles. The data summarized here are based on formal statements and announcements by OEMs, as well as analysis by the automotive press and by financial and market analysis firms that regularly cover the auto industry.

Update on Electric Vehicle Adoption Across U.S. Cities Bui A.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey. N. 8/31/2020 Reports

The International Council on Clean Transportation, San Francisco, California

This briefing builds upon the International Council on Clean Transportation’s annual U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market analysis of state, local, and utility actions to promote PEVs. It assesses relationships between PEV uptake and various underlying factors including incentives, charging infrastructure, model availability, access to high-occupancy vehicle lanes, and regional policy actions. The analytical focus is primarily on the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas, which collectively accounted for 55% of the nation’s population.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 8/28/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2020 (Q1). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

SMART Mobility Decision Science Capstone Report Spurlock, C.; Gopal, A.; Auld, J.; Leiby, P.; Sheppard, C.; Wenzel, T.; Belal, S.; Duvall, A.; Enam, A.; Fujita, S.; Henao, A.; Jin, L.; Kontou, E.; Lazar, A.; Needell, Z.; Rames, C.; Rashidi, T.; Sears, T.; Sim, A.; Stinson, M.; Taylor, M.; Todd-Blick, A.; Verbas, O.; Walker, V.; Ward, J.; Wong-Parodi, G.; Wu, K.; Yang, H. 8/5/2020 Reports

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California; Stanford University, Stanford, California; Youngstown State University, Youngstown, Ohio; University of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale.</p><p>This report summarizes the work of the Mobility Decision Science Pillar. The Mobility Decision Science Pillar sought to fill gaps in existing knowledge about the human role in the mobility system including travel decision-making and technology adoption in the context of future mobility. The objective was to study how underlying preferences, needs, and contextual factors might constrain or hasten future transportation system scenarios.</p>

SMART Mobility Multi-Modal Freight Capstone Report Zhao, Y.; Birky, A.; Moore, A.; Walker, V.; Stinson, M.; Smith, D.; Jones, P. 8/3/2020 Reports

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale.</p><p>This report summarizes the work of the Multi-Modal Freight Pillar. The Multi Modal Freight Pillar’s objective is to assess the effectiveness of emerging freight movement technologies and understand the impacts of the growing trends in consumer spending and e-commerce on parcel movement considering mobility, energy, and productivity.</p>

High-Potential Regions for Electric Truck Deployments 8/1/2020 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency and Rocky Mountain Institute, Basalt, Colorado

Regional haul, heavy-duty trucking operations are good candidates for electrification due to the segment’s relatively short-hauls and return-to-base operations. Many early electric truck deployments have taken place in California, but as the market matures, fleets, utilities, manufacturers, policymakers, charging companies, and other industry stakeholders are seeking assistance to prioritize regions outside California for future deployments of this technology. This guidance report proposes a three-part framework that the industry can use to prioritize regions for electric truck deployments based on technology, need, and support.

Notes: This report is copyrighted and can be accessed through North American Council for Freight Efficiency website.

Evolution of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure in the United States Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Eger, R.; Schayowitz, A. 8/1/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Fairfax, Virginia

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) has tracked alternative fueling and electric vehicle charging infrastructure in the United States since 1991. This paper explores the history of the AFDC Station Locator, which was launched in 1999, and discusses the growth of electric vehicle supply equipment. It also looks at how electric vehicle drivers access public charging, and evaluates challenges, gaps, and opportunities facing both electric vehicle drivers and the industry as a whole.

SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow Development, Implementation, and Results Capstone Report Rousseau, A.; Sheppard, C.; Auld, J.; Souza, F.; Enam, A.; Freyermuth, V.; Gardner, M.; Garikapati, V.; Needell, Z.; Stinson, M.; Verbas, O.; Wood, E. 7/28/2020 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale.</p><p>This report summarizes the work of the SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow effort. The SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow was developed to evaluate new transportation technologies such as connectivity, automation, sharing, and electrification through multi-level systems analysis that captures the dynamic interactions between technologies. By integrating multiple models across different levels of fidelity and scale, the Workflow yields insights about the influence of new mobility and vehicle technologies at the system level.</p>

SMART Mobility Advanced Fueling Infrastructure Capstone Report Smart, J.; Bi, J.; Birky, A.; Borlaug, B.; Burrell, E.; Kontou, E.; Lee, D.; Lipman, T.; Meintz, A.; Miller, E.; Mohamed, A.; Moniot, M.; Moore, A.; Motoaki, Y.; Needell Z.; Onar, O.; Rames, C.; Reinicke, N.; Roni, M.; Salisbury, S.; Sheppard, C.; Toba, A.; Walker, V.; Weigl, D.; Wood, E.; Xie, F.; Yi, Z.; Zeng T.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z. 7/22/2020 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale.</p><p>This report summarizes the work of the Advanced Fueling Infrastructure Pillar. This Pillar investigated the charging infrastructure needs of electric ride-hailing and car-sharing vehicles, automated shuttle buses, and freight-delivery truck fleets.</p>

SMART Mobility Connected and Automated Vehicles Capstone Report Rask,E.; Auld, J.; Bush, B.; Chen,Y.; Freyermuth, V.; Gohlke, D.; Gonder, J.; Greenblatt, J.; Han, J.; Holden, J.; Islam, E.; Javanmardi, M.; Jeong, J.; Karbowski, D.; Kim, N.; Lammert, M.; Leiby, P.; Lin, Z.; Lu, X.; Mohammadian, K.; Parsa, A.; Rios-Torres, J.; Rousseau, A.; Shabanpour, R.; Shladover, S.; Shen, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Sun, B.; Verbas, O.; Zhang, C. 7/22/2020 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Argonne National Laboratory Lemont, Illinois; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale. </p><p>This report summarizes the work of the Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) Pillar. This Pillar investigated the energy, technology, and usage implications of vehicle connectivity and automation and identified efficient CAV solutions.</p>

Levelized Cost of Charging Electric Vehicles in the United States Borlaug, B.; Salisbury, S.; Gerdes, M.; Muratori, M. 7/15/2020 Reports

Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, Netherlands

The cost to charge an electric vehicle (EV) varies depending on the price of electricity at different charging sites (home, workplace, or public), vehicle use, region, and time of day, and for different charging power levels and equipment and installation costs. This paper provides a detailed assessment of the 2019 levelized cost of light-duty PEV charging in the United States, considering the purchase and installation costs of charging equipment and electricity prices from real-world utility tariffs.

Notes:

This Joule article (Vol. 4, Issue 7, (July 2020): pp. 1470-1485) is copyrighted by Elsevier Inc. and can be accessed through Science Direct.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Showcases: Consumer Experience and Acceptance Singer, M. 7/2/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In 2016 the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) announced three awardees to hold plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) showcases to demonstrate available technologies and provide a hands-on consumer experience at conveniently located, brand-neutral settings. The events varied in style from long term stationary storefront settings to weekend events at a variety of regional venues. Attendees could interact with the technology through ride-and-drives and longer-term test drives. The events began in the spring of 2017 and continued through 2019.

Electric Vehicles at Scale - Phase I Analysis: High Electric Vehicle Adoption Impacts on the Western U.S. Power Grid Kintner-Meyer, M.; Davis, S.; Sridhar, S.; Bhatnagar, D.; Mahserejian, S.; Ghosal, M. 7/1/2020 Reports

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

The use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the United States has grown significantly during the last decade. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed a study on how PEVs at scale affect the electric grid as an aggregated new load. The Phase I study focused on the bulk power electricity impacts on the Western grid. This analysis addresses the following two key questions: 1) Are there sufficient resources in the U.S. bulk power grid to provide the electricity for charging a growing PEV fleet? and 2) What are the likely operational changes necessary to accommodate a growing PEV fleet?

Financial Analysis of Battery Electric Transit Buses Johnson, C.; Nobler, E.; Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 6/10/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

A baseline bus fleet and battery electric bus investment scenario was developed based on the average or common parameters of existing battery electric bus (BEB) fleets. A discounted cashflow analysis was done that found the baseline fleet to have a net present value of $785,000 and simple payback of 3.3 years. The 33 main parameters were then swung ±50% to determine their relative influence on NPV and were ranked accordingly. Then parameter volatility was estimated by dividing the range of observed values by the baseline value. The parameters that are most influential and volatile were highlighted as the ones fleet managers should focus on when determining if BEBs are a good investment option for them. These top parameters are 1) BEB purchase price, 2) purchase price of foregone diesel bus, 3) grant amount, 4) maintenance costs of foregone diesel bus, 5) annual vehicle miles traveled.

West Coast Clean Transit Corridor Initiative 6/1/2020 Reports

HDR, Omaha, Nebraska; Calstart, Pasadena, California; S Curve Stratagies, San Diego, California; Ross Stratigic, Seattle, Washington

Electric utility companies in the West Coast states of California, Oregon, and Washington have conducted the West Coast Clean Transit Corridor Initiative (WCCTCI) study to assess the charging infrastructure medium- and heavy-duty electric trucks will need as they travel along the approximately 1,300-mile-long Interstate 5 (I-5) corridor and interconnecting highways. This report documents the study findings, and provides background information on regulations, policies, and programs pertaining to vehicle electrification efforts, trends in the electric truck market, and truck traffic volumes and trucking facilities along I-5. The lessons learned from the WCCTCI can be applied to other regions and routes across the rest of the nation.

Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010-2019 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y. 6/1/2020 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report examines properties of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) sold in the United States from 2010 to 2019, exploring vehicle sales, miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, vehicle manufacturing, and battery production, among other factors. Over 1.4 million PEVs have been sold, driving over 37 billion miles on electricity since 2010, thereby reducing national gasoline consumption by 0.34% in 2019 and 1.4 billion gallons cumulatively through 2019. In 2019, PEVs used 4.1 terawatt-hours of electricity to drive 12.7 billion miles, offsetting 470 million gallons of gasoline. Since 2010, 69% of all PEVs have been assembled in the United States, and over 60 gigawatt-hours of lithium-ion batteries have been installed in vehicles to date.

The Automated Mobility District Implementation Catalog – Insights from Ten Early-Stage Deployments Young, S.; Lott J. S. 6/1/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Major disruptive technologies are set to redefine the way in which people view travel, particularly in dense urban areas. Already, ride-hailing services have redefined mobility expectations of a new generation of urban dwellers in some places around the country. Over the next few decades, the proliferation of automated vehicles1 (AVs), will be enhanced by the next generation of shared mobility. This combination of AV operations with on-demand service will provide convenience of mobility similar to that being exhibited in today’s transportation networking companies (TNCs). Shared, automated, public mobility resulting from the cross- hybridization of AVs with on-demand mobility service will bring economic and system efficiencies. Economic efficiencies may be realized by less vehicle ownership and more vehicle “usership.” Many companies are already exploring avenues for shared automated mobility through fleet operations as the wave of the future.

Grid Impact Analysis of Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Zhu, X.; Mather, B.; Mishra, P. 5/7/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This paper presents a grid impact analysis of heavy-duty electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. Authors assumed heavy-duty EVs will have battery capacities high enough to provide a range of 250 to 500 miles on a single charge. Heavy-duty EVs will require extremely fast charging rates to reduce charging time and will induce very high charging loads (at the multiple-megawatt scale) if several vehicles charge at the same time. This project develops a systematic procedure to analyze the potential impact of the placement of charging stations on the grid. Additionally, it develops initial mitigation solutions based on insights from this analysis.

Notes: This report is copyrighted by IEEE and can be accessed through IEEE.

Foundations of an Electric Mobility Strategy for the City of Mexicali Johnson, C.; Nanayakkara, S.; Cappellucci, J.; Moniot, M. 5/4/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Foundations of an Electric Mobility Strategy for the city of Mexicali aligns with numerous energy, environmental, and transport plans and will help Mexicali meet multiple related goals. Mexicali’s energy mix, with 28% renewables, already enables plugin electric vehicles (PEVs) to reduce the mass of greenhouse gases (GHGs) per km driven 2/3 below that of their conventional counterparts. This GHG benefit will increase should Mexicali take steps to further increase their share of renewables in their electricity supply. Beyond increasing renewables, Mexicali could possibly deploy PEVs so that electric load is added in the right location (depending on further analysis of substations and feeders) and at the right time (between 21:00 and 11:00) in order to minimize grid upgrade costs. There are a handful of charge timing control mechanisms –at various stages of development– that Mexicali could implement. Transport electrification can facilitate mass transit by powering buses, trains, and small vehicles that get people from their homes or work to the transit stations and vice versa. Mexicali could utilize fleets as early PEV adopters in order to gain acceptance and add electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). Recommended prioritization of different types of fleets are suggested in this report: transit buses, school buses, airport ground support equipment (GSE), refuse trucks, taxis, shuttle buses, campus vehicles, delivery trucks, utility trucks, and finally semitrailers. There are a handful of policy options that Mexicali could use to incentivize fleets to purchase PEVs, including mandates, economic incentives, energy performance contracts, waivers to access restrictions, electricity discounts, and EVSE requirements in building codes. Mexicali’s taxi fleet was an early adopter of PEVs and had experienced some challenges—mostly related to the insufficient range of the taxis due to hot weather.

Public Electric Vehicle Charging Business Models for Retail Site Hosts Satterfield, C.; Nigro, N. 4/29/2020 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

As the passenger plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market grows in the United States, public PEV charging stations will become increasingly important to serve the charging needs of millions of drivers. For retailers, PEV charging stations offer an opportunity to produce new revenue streams or expand on existing ones while also advancing broader efforts to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. This brief provides an overview of PEV market growth and the role of public charging options, along with the potential benefits to retailers of hosting PEV charging infrastructure.

Development and Demonstration of a Class 6 Range-Extended Electric Vehicle for Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation Jeffers, M.A.; Miller, E.; Kelly, K.; Kresse, J.; Li, K.; Dalton, J.; Kader, M.; Frazier, C. 4/14/2020 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Range-extended hybrids are an attractive option for medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle fleets because they offer the efficiency of an electrified powertrain with the driving range of a conventional diesel powertrain. The vehicle essentially operates as if it was purely electric for most trips, while ensuring that all commercial routes can be completed in any weather conditions or geographic terrain. Fuel use and point-source emissions can be significantly reduced, and in some cases eliminated, as many shorter routes can be fully electrified with this architecture.

Notes: This report is copyrighted and can be accessed through SAE International in United States website.

Guidebook for Deploying Zero-Emission Transit Buses Linscott, M.; Posner, A. 4/1/2020 Reports

Center for Transportation and the Environment, Atlanta, Georgia

The zero‐emission bus market, including electric buses and fuel cell electric buses, has seen significant growth in recent years. Zero-emission buses do not rely on fossil fuels for operation and have zero harmful tailpipe emissions, improving local air quality. The increase in market interest has also helped decrease product pricing. This guidebook is designed to provide transit agencies with information on current best practices for zero-emission bus deployments and lessons learned from previous deployments, industry experts, and available industry resources.

Notes: This report is copyrighted and can be accessed through the National Academy of Sciences website.

Charging Infrastructure Requirements to Support Electric Ride-Hailing in U.S. Cities Nicholas, M.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey, N. 3/24/2020 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This working paper assesses the charging infrastructure needs to support the growth of electric ride-hailing in U.S. cities. The analysis quantifies the amount and type of infrastructure needed and specifically analyzes the extent to which electric ride-hailing fleets can take advantage of underutilized public charging infrastructure capacity.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

R&D Insights for Extreme Fast Charging of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Insights from the NREL Commercial Vehicles and Extreme Fast Charging Research Needs Workshop, August 27-28, 2019 Walkowicz, K.; Meintz, A.; Farrell, J. 3/1/2020 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As battery costs have declined and battery performance has improved, the applicability of vehicle electrification has expanded beyond passenger cars to the commercial vehicle sector. However, due to the larger batteries that would be needed for the medium- and heavy-duty (MDHD) sector, the electric charging capabilities to serve these larger commercial vehicles will need to be substantially more powerful than light-duty chargers. More specifically, such 'extreme fast charging' (XFC) will likely need to reach the megawatt scale to provide a full charge in less than 30 minutes in some applications. In addition, the combined cost of electrified vehicles and charging must be competitive with the costs of petroleum-based technologies and other alternatives to encourage widespread adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) among MDHD fleets. Most of these fleets have a commercial mission and demand low total cost of ownership (TCO) (which motivates minimal refueling times) and high performance from their vehicles.

Insights on Electric Trucks for Retailers and Trucking Companies Leung, J.; Peace, J. 2/28/2020 Reports

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia

The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES) has partnered with the Retail Industry Leaders Association, Atlas Public Policy, and David Gardiner and Associates to explore the landscape and outlook for electric trucks for freight movement. This joint initiative assesses the market landscape, challenges, and opportunities for electric truck adoption among retailer shippers and their transportation partners.

Assessing Financial Barriers to the Adoption of Electric Trucks Satterfield, C.; Nigro, N. 2/20/2020 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

Medium- and heavy-duty electric vehicles (EVs) are a relatively new technology and many freight industry stakeholders lack access to independent analysis to help make informed decisions about electric trucks and charging infrastructure options. This paper assesses the market landscape, challenges, and opportunities for electric truck adoption among major shippers and their transportation partners by performing a total cost of ownership analysis for EVs under a wide range of procurement scenarios and comparing these results with those from an equivalent diesel vehicle procurement.

Public charging infrastructure for plug-in electric vehicles: What is it worth? Greene, D.L.; Kontou, E.; Borlaug, B.; Brooker, A.; Muratori, M. 2/7/2020 Journal Articles & Abstracts

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Lack of charging infrastructure is a significant barrier to the growth of the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market. Quantifying the value of public charging infrastructure can inform analysis of investment decisions and can help predict the impact of charging infrastructure on future PEV sales. This report focuses on quantifying the value of public chargers in terms of their ability to displace gasoline use for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and to enable additional electric vehicle miles for all-electric vehicles, thereby mitigating the limitations of shorter range and longer charging time.

Notes:

This Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment article (Vol. 78, January 2020, 102182) is copyrighted by Elsevier Ltd. and can be accessed through Science Direct.