Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
What's Afoot in DOE's Clean Cities? AFLEET! 10/9/2019 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET factsheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

Telematics and Data Science: Informing Energy-Efficient Mobility Daley, R.; Helm, M. 8/6/2019 Reports

Sawatch Group, LLC, Denver, Colorado

Fleets exploring the possibility of adding plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) seek an efficient, data-driven means to estimate both expenditures for vehicle and charging infrastructure and the appropriate placement of them to help ensure the cost-effective adoption of these technologies. Exploring data collection and analytic methodologies across different telematics providers offers the opportunity to better understand the strengths, weaknesses, and possibilities for employing different methods of data collection, including smartphone-based telematics and more traditional telematics with hardware installed on a vehicle’s onboard diagnostics port. This report presents results of five pilot programs that collected data from the operation of conventional light-duty fleet vehicles to generate estimates for transitioning these fleet vehicles to PEVs, implementing charging infrastructure, and establishing management practices to maximize the benefits of these new fleet technologies.

Electric Vehicle Charging Station Permitting Guidebook Eckerle, T.; Brazil Vacin, G. 7/16/2019 Books & Chapters

California Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development, Sacramento, California

This guidebook is comprised of eight parts and is intended to help navigate station developers and local jurisdictions through the infrastructure development process from selecting sites for electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through the permitting and construction processes. It reflects the latest best practices collected from stations developers and local jurisdictions with experience in developing and approving EVSE. It also provides clarity and tips on implementing statewide permitting streamlining requirements in California.

Summary of Best Practices in Electric Vehicle Ordinances Cooke, C.; Ross, B. 6/18/2019 Reports

Great Plains Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota

This document is a summary guide to electric vehicle (EV) and electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) ordinances in the United States. The guide is sorted into best practice categories and provides a summary of typical provisions used by cities for each category. Each category includes a table with key points and text examples from actual ordinances, as well as recommendations from model codes for that topic, drawn from one of several model ordinances or ordinance guidance documents that have been developed to inform cities on developing EV-ready zoning standards. This summary is provided as a reference to cities seeking to develop EV zoning standards or development regulations.

Clean Cities Coalitions Overview 6/11/2019 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Office Clean Cities coalitions, which advance affordable, domestic transportation fuels and technologies nationwide. Nearly 100 coalitions serve as the foundation of Clean Cities, working in communities across the country to help local decision makers and fleets understand and implement alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, new mobility choices, and emerging transportation technologies. At the national level, VTO develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources to support coordinators. At the local level, coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

The Surge of Electric Vehicles in United States Cities 6/10/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This briefing paper analyzes 2018 plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) uptake in the United States and the policy factors that are driving it. The paper catalogs 43 unique city, state, and utility PEV promotion actions and their implementation across the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas in 2018. The work identifies best practices across various state and local policies, public and workplace charging infrastructure, consumer incentives, model availability, and the share of new vehicles that are PEV.

Fuel Diversification to Improve Transportation Resilience: A Backgrounder Johnson, C. 6/6/2019 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Transportation fuel (like most other necessities) can be made more resilient to natural disasters by improving the redundancy of its supply, increasing local storage, strategizing access to that storage, expediting resupply, and improving the efficiency at which that fuel is used for transportation purposes. Alternative fuels such as natural gas, propane, and electricity have very different sources and distribution, and therefore add resilience to the fuel supply through redundancy. However, it is important to examine the inter-dependencies of these fuels and timing that may present vulnerabilities during a hurricane. This workshop presented a variety of perspectives to assist in making Tampa Bay's transportation system more resilient through the strategic use of alternative fuels.

Vehicle Electrification: Federal and State Issues Affecting Deployment Canis. B.; Clark, C.E.; Sherlock, M.F. 6/3/2019 Reports

Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C.

Motor vehicle electrification has emerged in the past decade as a potentially viable alternative to internal combustion engines. Although only a small proportion of the current motor vehicle fleet is electrified, interest in passenger vehicle electrification has accelerated in several major industrial countries, including the United States, parts of Europe, and China. Despite advances in technology, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) continue to be significantly more expensive than similarly sized vehicles with internal combustion engines. For this reason, governments in many countries have adopted policies to promote development and sales of PEVs. This report discusses federal and state government policies in the United States to support electrification of light vehicles and transit buses, as well as proposals to reduce or eliminate such support.

Foothill Transit Agency Battery Electric Bus Progress Report, Data Period Focus: Jul. 2018 through Dec. 2018 Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/28/2019 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare the performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through June 2018. This report extends the data analysis through the end of 2018. The data period focus of this report is July 2018-December 2018. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every 6 months through 2020.

Impact of Time-Varying Passenger Loading on Conventional and Electrified Transit Bus Energy Consumption Liu; L.; Kotz, A.; Salapaka, A.; Miller, E.; Northrop, W.F. 5/24/2019 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Transit bus passenger loading changes significantly over the course of a workday. Therefore, time-varying vehicle mass as a result of passenger load becomes an important factor in instantaneous energy consumption. Battery-powered electric transit buses have restricted range and longer 'fueling' time compared with conventional diesel-powered buses; thus, it is critical to know how much energy they require. Our previous work has shown that instantaneous transit bus mass can be obtained by measuring the pressure in the vehicle's airbag suspension system. This paper leverages this novel technique to determine the impact of time-varying mass on energy consumption. Sixty-five days of velocity and mass data were collected from in-use transit buses operating on routes in the Twin Cities, MN metropolitan area. The simulation tool Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator was modified to allow both velocity and mass as time-dependent inputs. This tool was then used to model an electrified and conventional bus on the same routes and determine the energy use of each bus. Results showed that the kinetic intensity varied from 0.27 to 4.69 mi-1 and passenger loading ranged from 2 to 21 passengers. Simulation results showed that energy consumption for both buses increased with increasing vehicle mass. The simulation also indicated that passenger loading has a greater impact on energy consumption for conventional buses than for electric buses owing to the electric bus's ability to recapture energy. This work shows that measuring and analyzing real-time passenger loading is advantageous for determining the energy used by electric and conventional diesel buses.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2017 Activity Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 5/14/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) national network of Clean Cities Coalitions advance the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to promote the use of domestic fuels within transportation. The nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, bring together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to use alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. To ensure success, coalitions leverage a robust set of expert resources and tools provided by national laboratories and DOE. Each year, Clean Cities coordinators submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online tool that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels; use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs); IR initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the submitted data to determine how broadly energy use in the U.S. has shifted due to coalition activities, which are summarized in this report.

Electricity Rates for Electric Vehicle Direct Current Fast Charging in the United States Muratori, M.; Kontou, E.; Eichman, J. 4/26/2019 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report assesses the electricity cost for different scenarios of direct current (DC) fast charger station size and use, based on over 7,500 commercial and industrial electricity rates available for 2017 across the United States. Results show that the cost of electricity for DC fast chargers varies dramatically, ranging from less than $0.10 to over $2 per kilowatt-hour, depending on station design and high uncertainty in use. It explores the cost drivers for low- and high-utilization stations.

Notes: This Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews article (Vol. 113 (October 2019): pp. 415-426) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Feasibility Analysis of Taxi Fleet Electrification using 4.9 Million Miles of Real-World Driving Data; SAE Paper No. 2019-01-0392 Moniot, M.; Rames, C.; Burrell, E. 4/2/2019 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Ride hailing activity is rapidly increasing, largely due to the growth of transportation network companies such as Uber and Lyft. However, traditional taxi companies continue to represent an important mobility option for travelers. Columbus Yellow Cab, a taxi company in Columbus, Ohio, offers traditional line-of-sight hailing as well as digital hailing through a mobile app. Data from Columbus Yellow Cab was provided to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to analyze the potential for taxi electrification. Columbus Yellow Cab data contained information describing both global positioning system trajectories and taxi meter information. The data spanned a period of 13 months, containing approximately 70 million global system positioning system points, 840 thousand trips, and 170 unique vehicles. A variety of scenarios were evaluated using Columbus Yellow Cab data and the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) to understand challenges and opportunities associated with operating an electrified taxi fleet. Two main factors-access to home charging and vehicle specifications-are shown to be major variables affecting successful electric fleet operation. The analysis indicates that 95.7% of taxi travel days can be successfully completed by a 250-mile-range electric vehicle assuming access to overnight and public charging infrastructure. However, when no overnight access is available to fleet vehicles, only 39.9% of taxi travel days are possible with 250-mile range electric vehicles. An additional scenario, reducing the vehicle range from 250 miles to 100 miles (while controlling for infrastructure access and permitting overnight charging) resulted in only 34.4% of taxi travel days being completed.

Update on electric vehicle costs in the United States through 2030 Lutsey, N.; Nicholas, M. 4/1/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This working paper assesses battery electric vehicle (EV) costs from 2020 through 2030, collecting the best battery pack and EV component cost data available through 2018. The assessment also analyzes the anticipated timing for price parity for representative EVs, crossovers, and sport utility vehicles compared to their conventional gasoline counterparts in the U.S. light-duty vehicle market.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the International Council on clean Transportation website.

Technology Solutions to Mitigate Electricity Cost for Electric Vehicle DC Fast Charging Muratori, M.; Elgqvist, E.; Cutler, D.; Eichman, J.; Salisbury, S.; Fuller, Z.; Smart, J. 3/16/2019 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

Widespread adoption of alternative fuel vehicles is being hindered by high vehicle costs and refueling or range limitations. For plug-in electric vehicles, direct current (DC) fast charging is proposed as a solution to support long-distance travel and relieve range anxiety. However, DC fast charging has also been shown to be potentially more expensive compared to residential or workplace charging. In particular, electricity demand charges can significantly impact electricity cost for fast charging applications. This study explores technological solutions that can help reduce the electricity cost for DC fast charging.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the Elsevier ScienceDirect website.

Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010 - 2018 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y. 3/15/2019 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report examines properties of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) sold in the United States from 2010 to 2018, exploring vehicle sales, miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, vehicle manufacturing, and battery production, among other factors. Over one million PEVs have been sold, driving over 25 billion miles on electricity since 2010, thereby reducing national gasoline consumption by 0.23% in 2018 and 950 million gallons cumulatively through 2018. In 2018, PEVs used 2.8 terawatt-hours of electricity to drive 8.6 billion miles, offsetting 320 million gallons of gasoline. The majority of these vehicles were assembled in the United States, and over 42 gigawatt-hours of lithium-ion batteries have been installed in vehicles.

On-Road Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Evaluation: Overview Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur. G.; Onorato, S. 3/14/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents an overview of an evaluation of on-road fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The project addressed the need for current, on-road FCEV data and sought to validate improved performance and longer durability from comprehensive sets of early FCEVs, including early market vehicles. This report provides an overview of the evaluation project and partners, describes NREL's evaluation approach, and presents a summary of the results. Detailed results for durability, fuel economy, deployment and driving behavior, and specifications are published in separate reports.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Driving and Fueling Behavior Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.; Onorato, S. 3/6/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The objectives of this project are to validate hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles in real-world settings and to identify the current status and evolution of the technology. The analysis objectively assesses progress toward targets and market needs defined by the U.S. Department of Energy and stakeholders, provides feedback to hydrogen research and development, and publishes results for key stakeholder use and investment decisions. Fiscal year 2018 objectives focused on analysis and reporting of fuel cell electric vehicle driving range, fuel economy, drive and fill behaviors, durability, fill performance, and fuel cell performance. This report specifically addresses the topics of driving range, fuel economy, drive and fill behaviors, and fill performance.

Meeting 2025 Zero Emission Vehicle Goals: An Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure in Maryland Moniot, M.; Rames, C.; Wood, E. 2/20/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been enlisted to conduct a statewide assessment of the electric vehicle charging infrastructure requirements for Maryland to meet its goal of supporting 300,000 zero emission vehicles by 2025. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) was used to generate scenarios of statewide charging infrastructure to support consumer plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption based on travel patterns provided by INRIX (a commercial mapping/traffic company) that are used to characterize regional travel in Maryland and to anticipate future demand for PEV charging. Results indicate that significant expansion of Maryland's electric vehicle charging infrastructure will be required to support the state's PEV goal for 2025. Analysis shows that a fleet of 300,000 PEVs will require 17,400 workplace Level 2 plugs, 9,300 public Level 2 plugs, and 1,000 fast charge plugs. These estimates assume that future PEVs will be driven in a manner consistent with present day gasoline vehicles and that most charging will happen at residential locations. A sensitivity study explores edge cases pertaining to several assumptions, highlighting factors that heavily influence the projected infrastructure requirements. Variations in the makeup of the PEV fleet, evolving consumer charging preferences, and availability of residential charging are all shown to influence 2025 infrastructure requirements.

Assessing Ride-Hailing Company Commitments to Electrification Slowik, P.; Fedirko, L.; Lutsey, N. 2/7/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington D.C.; ClimateWorks Foundation, Denver, Colorado

This briefing assesses electric vehicle adoption among five of the world’s largest ride-hailing companies. It discusses company-specific electric vehicle adoption, examines plans for future growth, and catalogs the unique actions that companies are exploring to promote electric ride-hailing on their platforms.

Next-Generation Grid Communications for Residential Plug-in Electric Vehicles Patadia, S.; Rodine, C. 1/25/2019 Reports

ChargePoint, Campbell, California; California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

As residential plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging loads increase, they represent significant contributions to local distribution circuits, and if not managed, can have negative effects on local electricity grid stability. For residential PEV participation to be effective for grid stabilization, it is key to have detailed data collection, coordination at charging stations owned by different parties, sensitivity to each driver’s needs and preferences, and real-time understanding of each vehicle’s state of charge or charge necessary. This pilot project tested the technology ecosystems required to handle adding significant PEV load to the grid.

2019 Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 37 Davis, S.C.; Boundy, R.G. 1/25/2019 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 37 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs.

Quantifying the Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Gap Across U.S. Markets Nicholas; M.; Hall, D.; Lutsey, N. 1/23/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

The electrification of the United States vehicle market continues, with the most growth occurring in markets where barriers are addressed through policy, charging infrastructure, and consumer incentives. This report quantifies the gap in charging infrastructure from what was deployed through 2017 to what is needed to power more than 3 million expected electric vehicles by 2025, consistent with automaker, policy, and underlying market trends. Based on the expected growth across the 100 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas, this report estimates the amount of charging of various types that will be needed to power these vehicles.

Model Year 2019 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates 12/19/2018 Reports

U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

Zero-Emission Bus Evaluation Results: County Connection Battery Electric Buses Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 12/10/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT's) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) supports the research, development, and demonstration of low- and zero-emission technology for transit buses. FTA funds research projects with a goal of facilitating commercialization of advanced technologies for transit buses that will increase efficiency and improve transit operations. DOT's Research, Development, and Technology Office (OST-R) also has an interest in zero-emission bus (ZEB) technology deployment and commercialization. OST-R is coordinating and collaborating with FTA on the evaluation process and results by providing funding to cover additional evaluations. FTA and OST-R are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct in-service evaluations of advanced technology buses developed under its programs. NREL uses a standard evaluation protocol for evaluating the advanced technologies deployed under the FTA programs. FTA seeks to provide results from new technologies being adopted by transit agencies. The eight evaluations selected to date include battery electric buses (BEBs) and fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) from different manufacturers operating in fleets located in both cold and hot climates. The purpose of this report is to present the results from Central Contra Costa Transit Authority (County Connection) deployment of four BEBs in Concord, California. NREL's evaluation of the BEBs at County Connection was funded by OST-R.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2016 Activity Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 10/10/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) national network of Clean Cities Coalitions advance the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to promote the use of domestic fuels within transportation. The nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, bring together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to use alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. To ensure success, coalitions leverage a robust set of expert resources and tools provided by national laboratories and DOE. Each year, Clean Cities coordinators submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online tool that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels; use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs); IR initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the submitted data to determine how broadly energy use in the U.S. has shifted due to coalition activities, which are summarized in this report.

Foothill Transit Agency Battery Electric Bus Progress Report, Data Period Focus: Jan. 2018 through Jun. 2018 Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 10/8/2018 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare the performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through December 2017. This report extends the data analysis through June 2018. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every six months through 2020. performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through December 2017. This report extends the data analysis through June 2018. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every six months through 2020.

Policies that Impact the Acceleration of Electric Vehicle Adoption Kettles, C. 9/26/2018 Reports

Electric Vehicle Transportation Center, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, Florida

To better understand the influence of policy initiatives that relate to electric vehicles (EVs) have on accelerated deployment, this project focused on a number of successful public and private initiatives and policies designed to encourage the adoption of EVs and related infrastructure. This report highlights programs that have influenced adoption, provides a critique of best practices, and includes references to databases EV policy initiatives.

The Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation 8/24/2018 Brochures & Fact Sheets

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

This fact sheet provides an overview of California’s zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) regulation, which is designed to achieve the state’s long-term emission reduction goals by requiring manufacturers to offer for sale specific numbers of the very cleanest cars available. The ZEV regulation has been adopted by other states.

Demonstrating Plug-in Electric Vehicles Smart Charging and Storage Supporting the Grid Gadh, R. 8/23/2018 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

This report presents the development and deployment of a PEV charging system consisting of smart charging, vehicle-to-grid, vehicle-to-building, demand response, and power quality sustainable capabilities. The goal of this system is to achieve grid resiliency and economic benefit to PEV fleet owners. As a result of the project, the research team from the University of California, Los Angeles validated the viability of bi-directional electric vehicle infrastructure, as well as the associated air quality improvements and financial benefits from the system.

Electrification Futures Study: Scenarios of Electric Technology Adoption and Power Consumption for the United States Mai, T.; Jadun, P.; Logan, J.; McMillan, C.; Muratori, M.; Steinberg, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Jones, R.; Haley, B.; Nelson, B. 8/8/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report is the second publication in a series of Electrification Futures Study publications. The report presents scenarios of electric end-use technology adoption and resulting electricity consumption in the United States. The scenarios reflect a wide range of electricity demand growth through 2050 that result from various electric technology adoption and efficiency projections in the transportation, residential and commercial buildings, and industrial sectors.

Workplace Charge Management with Aggregated Building Loads Jun, M.; Meintz, A. 8/1/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This paper was presented at the 2018 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo (ITEC), 13-15 June 2018, Long Beach, California. It describes a workplace charge management system developed to control plug-in electric vehicle charging stations based on aggregated building loads. A system to collect information from drivers was also developed for better charge management performance since the present AC charging station standard does not provide battery state of charge information. First, simulations with uncontrolled charging data were conducted to investigate several scenarios and control methods, and then one method with the most power curtailment during peak load was selected for verification tests. This paper illustrates load reduction test results for 36 charging stations and real-time campus net load data.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be viewed and purchased on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers's website.

Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) Validation Report Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.; Moniot, M. 7/27/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) captures the most important factors influencing vehicle power demands and performs large-scale fuel efficiency calculations very quickly. These features make FASTSim well suited to evaluate a representative distribution of real-world fuel efficiency over a large quantity of in-use driving profiles, which have become increasingly available in recent years owing to incorporation of global positioning system data collection into various travel surveys and studies. In addition, by being open source, computationally lightweight, freely available, and free from expensive third-party software requirements, analyses conducted using FASTSim may be easily replicated and critiqued in an open forum. This is highly desirable for situations in which technical experts seek to reach consensus over questions about what vehicle development plans or public interest strategies could maximize fuel savings and minimize adverse environmental impacts with an evolving vehicle fleet. While FASTSim continues to be refined and improved on an on-going basis, this report compiles available runs using versions of the tool from the past few years to provide illustrative comparison of the model results against measured data.

2018 Annual Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 7/23/2018 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state's decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

The Role of Demand-Side Incentives and Charging Infrastructure on Plug-in Electric Vehicle Adoption: Analysis of US States. Paper No. 074032 Narassimhan, E.; Johnson, C. 7/13/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Tufts University, Medford, Massachussets; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In the U.S., over 400 state and local incentives have been issued to increase the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) since 2008. This article quantifies the influence of key incentives and enabling factors like charging infrastructure and receptive demographics on PEV adoption. The study focuses on three central questions. First, do consumers respond to certain types of state level vehicle purchase incentives? Second, does the density of public charging infrastructure increase PEV purchases? Finally, does the impact of various factors differ for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and vehicle attributes within each category? Based on a regression of vehicle purchase data from 2008 to 2016, we found that tax incentives and charging infrastructure significantly influence per capita PEV purchases. Within tax incentives, rebates are generally more effective than tax credits. BEV purchases are more affected by tax incentives than PHEVs. The correlation of public charging and vehicle purchases increases with the battery-only driving range of a PHEV, while decreasing with increasing driving range of BEVs. Results indicate that early investments in charging infrastructure, particularly along highways; tax incentives targeting BEVs at the lower end of the price premium and PHEVs with higher battery only driving range, and better reflection of the environmental cost of owning gasoline vehicles are likely to increase PEV adoption in the U.S.

Notes:

This journal article (Environmental Research Letters, Volume 13, Number 7) is copyrighted by IOP Publishing and can be downloaded from the IOPScience website.

Empirical Analysis of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Under Cold Temperatures Motoaki, Y.; Yi, W.; Salisbury, S. 7/1/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Systems Engineering, Ithaca, New York

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the effects of temperature on direct current fast charger (DCFC) charging rate and discusses the impact of such effects on wider adoptions of electric vehicles. The authors conducted statistical analysis on the effects of temperature and constructed an electric vehicle charging model that can show the dynamics of DCFC charging process under different temperatures. The results indicate that DCFC charging rate can deteriorate considerably in cold temperatures. These findings may be used as a reference to identify and assess the regions that may suffer from slow charging.

Notes: This Energy Policy article (Vol. 122 (2018): pp. 162-168) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Elsevier's website.

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). SAE Paper No. 2018-37-0026 Chowdhury, S.; Leitzel, L.; Zima, M.; Santacesaria, M.; Titov, G.; Lustbader, J.; Rugh, J.; Winkler, J.; Khawaja, A.; Govindarajalu, M. 5/30/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Mahle Behr Troy Inc., Troy, Michigan; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorardo; FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, Michigan

The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal subsystem loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below -10 degrees C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs. Demonstrated on a 2015 Fiat 500e BEV, this system integrates a semi-hermetic refrigeration loop with a coolant network and serves three functions: (1) heating and/or cooling vehicle traction components (battery, power electronics, and motor) (2) heating and cooling of the cabin, and (3) waste energy harvesting and re-use. The modes of operation allow a heat pump and air conditioning system to function without reversing the refrigeration cycle to improve thermal efficiency. The refrigeration loop consists of an electric compressor, a thermal expansion valve, a coolant-cooled condenser, and a chiller, the latter two exchanging heat with hot and cold coolant streams that may be directed to various components of the thermal system. The coolant-based heat distribution is adaptable and saves significant amounts of refrigerant per vehicle. Also, a coolant-based system reduces refrigerant emissions by requiring fewer refrigerant pipe joints. The authors present bench-level test data and simulation analysis and describe a preliminary control scheme for this system.

Foothill Transit Agency Battery Electric Bus Progress Report, Data Period Focus: Jan. 2017 through Dec. 2017 Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/16/2018 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare the performance and the operating costs of the BEBs to that of conventional technology buses and to track progress over time. Previous reports documented results from April 2014 through December 2016. This report extends the data analysis through December 2017. NREL plans to publish progress reports on the Foothill Transit fleet every six months through 2020.

Electric School Bus Pilot Project Evaluation 4/20/2018 Reports

Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, Vermont

This report provides an overview of a Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources pilot project to test electric school buses in school transportation operations. Through this project, three electric school buses were deployed at three school districts around the state and bus operations and reliability tracked for approximately one year. The project was designed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with using electric school buses as a strategy to provide safe, reliable, cost effective school transportation. Key findings and recommendations are also provided.

Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-0667 Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Kontou, E.; Motoaki, Y.; Smart, J.; Zhou, Z. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

Today's electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations. Results suggest that the hypothetical transportation network company fleet increases daily vehicle miles traveled per EV with less overall down time, resulting in increased demand for DCFC. Sites with overhead service lines are recommended for hosting DCFC stations to minimize the need for trenching underground service lines. A negative relationship was found between cost per unit of energy and fast charging utilization, underscoring the importance of prioritizing utilization over installation costs when siting DCFC stations. Although this preliminary analysis of the impacts of new mobility paradigms on alternative fueling infrastructure requirements has produced several key results, the complexity of the problem warrants further investigation.

Range Extension Opportunities While Heating a Battery Electric Vehicle. SAE Paper No. 2018-01-0066 Meyer, J.J.; Lustbader, J.; Agathocleous, N.; Vespa, A.; Rugh, J.; Titov, G. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

Hanon Systems, Carey, Ohio; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc, Chino, California

The Kia Soul battery electric vehicle (BEV) is available with either a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) heater or an R134a heat pump (HP) with PTC heater combination (1). The HP uses both ambient air and waste heat from the motor, inverter, and on-board-charger (OBC) for its heat source. Hanon Systems, Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory jointly, with financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy, developed and proved-out technologies that extend the driving range of a Kia Soul BEV while maintaining thermal comfort in cold climates. Improved system configuration concepts that use thermal storage and waste heat more effectively were developed and evaluated. Range extensions of 5%-22% at ambient temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C to -18 degrees C were demonstrated. This paper reviews the three-year effort, including test data of the baseline and modified vehicles, resulting range extension, and recommendations for future actions.

Development of 80- and 100- Mile Work Day Cycles Representative of Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation Duran, A.; Li, K.; Kresse, J.; Kelly, K. 4/3/2018 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Cummins Inc, Columbus, Indiana

When developing and designing new technology for integrated vehicle systems deployment, standard cycles have long existed for chassis dynamometer testing and tuning of the powertrain. However, to this day with recent developments and advancements in plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle technology, no true 'work day' cycles exist with which to tune and measure energy storage control and thermal management systems. To address these issues and in support of development of a range-extended pickup and delivery Class 6 commercial vehicle, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in collaboration with Cummins analyzed 78,000 days of operational data captured from more than 260 vehicles operating across the United States to characterize the typical daily performance requirements associated with Class 6 commercial pickup and delivery operation. In total, over 2.5 million miles of real-world vehicle operation were condensed into a pair of duty cycles, an 80-mile cycle and a 100-mile cycle representative of the daily operation of U.S. class 3-6 commercial pickup and delivery trucks. Using novel machine learning clustering methods combined with mileage-based weighting, these composite representative cycles correspond to 90th and 95th percentiles for daily vehicle miles traveled by the vehicles observed. In addition to including vehicle speed vs time drive cycles, in an effort to better represent the environmental factors encountered by pickup and delivery vehicles operating across the United States, a nationally representative grade profile and key status information were also appended to the speed vs. time profiles to produce a 'work day' cycle that captures the effects of vehicle dynamics, geography, and driver behavior which can be used for future design, development, and validation of technology.

California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projections: 2017-2025 - Future Infrastructure Needs for Reaching the State's Zero Emission-Vehicle Deployment Goals Bedir, A.; Crisostomo, N.; Allen, J.; Wood, E.; Rames, C. 3/27/2018 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report analyzes plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure needs in California from 2017 to 2025 in a scenario where the State's zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) deployment goals are achieved by household vehicles. The statewide infrastructure needs are evaluated by using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool, which incorporates representative statewide travel data from the 2012 California Household Travel Survey. The infrastructure solution presented in this assessment addresses two primary objectives: (1) enabling travel for battery electric vehicles and (2) maximizing the electric vehicle-miles traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis is performed at the county-level for each year between 2017 and 2025 while considering potential technology improvements. The results from this study present an infrastructure solution that can facilitate market growth for PEVs to reach the State's ZEV goals by 2025. The overall results show a need for 99k-130k destination chargers, including workplaces and public locations, and 9k-25k fast chargers. The results also show a need for dedicated or shared residential charging solutions at multi-family dwellings, which are expected to host about 120k PEVs by 2025. An improvement to the scientific literature, this analysis presents the significance of infrastructure reliability and accessibility on the quantification of charger demand.

Impact of Uncoordinated Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on Residential Power Demand Muratori, M. 3/6/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the Nature Energy website.

Charging Electric Vehicles in Smart Cities: An EVI-Pro Analysis of Columbus, Ohio Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Muratori, M.; Raghavan, S.; Young, S. 2/7/2018 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

With the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) worked with the City of Columbus, Ohio, to develop a plan for the expansion of the region's network of charging stations to support increased adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the local market. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection (EVI-Pro) model was used to generate scenarios of regional charging infrastructure to support consumer PEV adoption. Results indicate that approximately 400 Level 2 plugs at multi-unit dwellings and 350 Level 2 plugs at non-residential locations are required to support Columbus' primary PEV goal of 5,300 PEVs on the road by the end of 2019. This analysis finds that while consumer demand for fast charging is expected to remain low (due to modest anticipated adoption of short-range battery electric vehicles), a minimum level of fast charging coverage across the city is required to ease consumer range anxiety concerns by providing a safety net for unexpected charging events. Sensitivity analyses around some key assumptions have also been performed; of these, consumer preference for PHEV versus BEV and for their electric driving range, ambient conditions, and availability of residential charging at multi-unit dwellings were identified as key determinants of the non-residential PEV charging infrastructure required to support PEV adoption. The results discussed in this report can be leveraged by similar U.S. cities as part of a strategy to accelerate PEV adoption in the light-duty vehicle market.

New EVSE Analytical Tools/Models: Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) Wood, E.; Rames, C. Muratori, M. 1/29/2018 Presentations

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This presentation addresses the fundamental question of how much charging infrastructure is needed in the United States to support PEVs. It complements ongoing EVSE initiatives by providing a comprehensive analysis of national PEV charging infrastructure requirements. The result is a quantitative estimate for a U.S. network of non-residential (public and workplace) EVSE that would be needed to support broader PEV adoption. The analysis provides guidance to public and private stakeholders who are seeking to provide nationwide charging coverage, improve the EVSE business case by maximizing station utilization, and promote effective use of private/public infrastructure investments.

Impacts of Electrification of Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States, 2010-2017 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y. 1/25/2018 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; US Department of Energy, Washington D.C.

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are among the fastest growing drivetrains in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the aggregate impact of PEVs is important when exploring electricity use and petroleum consumption. This report examines the sales of PEVs in the United States from 2010 to 2017, exploring vehicle sales, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and battery production.

Electric Vehicle Charger Selection Guide 1/11/2018 Reports

Redwood Coast Energy Authority, Eureka, California; Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, California; Siskiyou County Economic Development Council, Yreka, California; Local Government Commission/Civic Spark, Sacramento, California

The goal of this guide is to help site hosts and others learn about, evaluate, and compare the features of EV charging equipment to assist them in selecting a charger for their application. Additionally, this guide provides an overview of electric vehicle charger equipment, how it works, and considerations when making a purchase.

Navigation API Route Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment on Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data for Conventional Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint Zhu, L.; Holden, J.; Gonder, J. 12/22/2017 Conference Papers & Proceedings

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The green routing strategy instructing a vehicle to select a fuel-efficient route benefits the current transportation system with fuel-saving opportunities. This paper introduces a navigation API route fuel-saving evaluation framework for estimating fuel advantages of alternative API routes based on large-scale, real-world travel data for conventional vehicles (CVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The navigation APIs, such Google Directions API, integrate traffic conditions and provide feasible alternative routes for origin-destination pairs. This paper develops two link-based fuel-consumption models stratified by link-level speed, road grade, and functional class (local/non-local), one for CVs and the other for HEVs. The link-based fuel-consumption models are built by assigning travel from a large number of GPS driving traces to the links in TomTom MultiNet as the underlying road network layer and road grade data from a U.S. Geological Survey elevation data set. Fuel consumption on a link is calculated by the proposed fuel consumption model. This paper envisions two kinds of applications: 1) identifying alternate routes that save fuel, and 2) quantifying the potential fuel savings for large amounts of travel. An experiment based on a large-scale California Household Travel Survey GPS trajectory data set is conducted. The fuel consumption and savings of CVs and HEVs are investigated. At the same time, the trade-off between fuel saving and time saving for choosing different routes is also examined for both powertrains.

Electric Ground Support Equipment at Airports Johnson, C. 12/12/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Airport ground support equipment (GSE) is used to service airplanes between flights. Services include refueling, towing airplanes or luggage/freight carts, loading luggage/freight, transporting passengers, loading potable water, removing sewage, loading food, de-icing airplanes, and fire-fighting. Deploying new GSE technologies is a promising opportunity in part because the purchasers are generally large, technologically sophisticated airlines, contractors, or airports with centralized procurement and maintenance departments. Airlines could particularly benefit from fuel diversification since they are highly exposed to petroleum price volatility. GSE can be particularly well-suited for electrification because it benefits from low-end torque and has frequent idle time and short required ranges.

Utility Investment in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Key Regulatory Considerations Allen, P.; Van Horn, G.; Goetz, M.; Bradbury, J.; Zyla, K. 11/13/2017 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, LLC, Concord, Massachusetts; Georgetown Climate Center, Washington, D.C.

The report provides an overview of the accelerating electrification of the transportation sector and explores the role of state utility regulators in evaluating potential investments by electric utilities in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure. The report identifies key considerations for regulators, including the amount of charging infrastructure needed to support PEVs, ways that regulators can help ensure equitable access to charging infrastructure, and opportunities to maximize the benefits of utility investment in charging infrastructure.

The Barriers to Acceptance of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: 2017 Update Singer, M. 11/9/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities, private researchers, and organizations worldwide are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the forms of gasoline and diesel. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one such technology. This report, an update to the previous version published in December 2016, details findings from a study in February 2017 of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround PEVs. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, enhance mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J. 10/17/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

Enabling Fast Charging - Introduction and Overview Michelbacher, C.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham. A.; Carlson, B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A. Mohanpurkar, M.; Pesaran, A.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Tanim, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Zhang, J. 10/13/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with guidance from VTO, initiated this study to understand the technical, cost, infrastructure, and implementation barriers associated with high rate charging up to 350 kW.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 214-215) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - A Battery Technology Gap Assessment Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Jansen, A.N.; Tanim, T.; Dufek, E.J.; Pesaran, A.; Burnham, A.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Hardy, K.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Michelbacher, C.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Nelson, P.A.; Robertson, D.C.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Zhang. J. 10/13/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 250-262) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - Vehicle Considerations Meintz, A.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Kreutzer, C.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham, A.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Francfort, J.; Hardy, K.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Markel, A.; Michelbacher, C.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Pesaran, A.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Stephens, T.; Tanim, T. 10/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 216-227) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - Battery Thermal Considerations Keyser, M.; Pesaran, A.; Li, Q.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Dufek, E.; Shirk, M.; Meintz, A.; Kreuzer, C.; Michelbacher, C.; Burnham, A.; Stephens, T.; Francfort, J.; Carlson, B.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Hardy, K.; Dias, F.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D. Jansen, A.N.; Tanim, T.; Anthony Markel. A. 10/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 228-236) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Enabling Fast Charging - Infrastructure and Economic Considerations Burnham, A.; Dufek, E.J.; Stephens, T.; Francfort, J.; Michelbacher, C.; Carlson, R.B.; Zhang, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Dias, F.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D.; Hardy, K.; Shirk, M.; Hovsapian, R.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Jansen, A.N.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Pesaran, A.; Tanim, T.R. 10/10/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehicle service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. extreme fast charging (XFC); electric vehicle infrastructure; battery electric vehicles; demand charges; total cost of ownership, economicsIn so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.

Notes: This Journal of Power Sources article (Vol. 367 (2017): pp. 237-249) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

From Gas to Grid: Building Charging Infrastructure to Power Electric Vehicle Demand Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C. 10/3/2017 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

This report identifies the key hurdles that have inhibited the growth of charging infrastructure, and explains how they might be overcome, along with the best practices for siting chargers and designing electricity tariffs for EV charging stations.

Notes: This copyrighted publication is available on the Rocky Mountain Institute website.

Enabling Fast Charging: A Technology Gap Assessment Howell, D.; Boyd, S.; Cunningham, B.; Gillard, S.; Slezak, L.; Ahmed, S.; Bloom, I.; Burnham, A.; Hardy, K.; Jansen, A.N.; Nelson, P.A.; Robertson, D.C.; Stephens, T.; Vijayagopal, R.; Carlson, R.B.; Dias, F.; Dufek, E.J.; Michelbacher, C.J.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Scoffield, D.; Shirk, M.; Tanim, T.; Keyser, M.; Kreuzer, C.; Li, O.; Markel, A.; Meintz, A.; Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Zhang, J. 10/1/2017 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In this report, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory teamed with Argonne National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to identify technical gaps to implementing an extreme fast charging network in the United States. This report highlights technical gaps at the battery, vehicle, and infrastructure levels.

Electric-Drive Vehicles 9/11/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

Transportation Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Technology and Market Assessment Birky, A.K.; Laughlin, M.; Tartaglia, K.; Price, R.; Lin, Z. 9/1/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oakridge, Tennessee

This report focuses on electrification of government, commercial, and industrial fleets and provides the background necessary to understand the potential for electrification in these markets. Specifically, it covers the challenges and opportunities for electrification in the service and goods and people movement fleets to guide policy makers and researchers in identifying where federal investment in electrification could be most beneficial.

National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Muratori, M.; Raghavan, S.; Melaina, M. 9/1/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

Fuel Consumption Sensitivity of Conventional and Hybrid Electric Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles to Driving Style Thomas, J.; Huff, S.; West, B.; and Chambon, P. 8/11/2017 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation. The vehicle energy model focused on the limitations of regenerative braking in combination with varying levels of driving-style aggressiveness to show that this could account for greater FE variation in an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle. A closely matched pair of gasoline-fueled sedans, one an HEV and the other having a conventional powertrain, was chosen for both modeling and chassis dynamometer experimental comparisons. Results indicate that the regenerative braking limitations could be a main contributor to the greater HEV FE variation under the range of drive cycles considered. The complete body of results gives insight into the range of fuel use penalties that results from aggressive driving and why the variation can be larger on a percent basis for an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle, while the absolute fuel use penalty for aggressive driving is generally larger for conventional vehicles than HEVs.

Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 6/30/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

Considerations for Corridor and Community DC Fast Charging Complex System Design Francfort, J.; Salisbury, S.; Smart, J.; Garetson, T.; Karner, D. 6/15/2017 Reports

Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls Idaho; Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, Arizona

This report focuses on direct current fast charger (DCFC) systems and how they can be deployed to provide convenient charging for plug-in electric vehicle drivers. First, the report shares lessons learned from previous DCFC deployment and data collection activities. Second, it establishes considerations and criteria for designing and upgrading DCFC complexes. Third, it provides cost estimates for hypothetical high-power DCFC complexes that meet simplified design requirements. Finally, it presents results for a business case analysis that shed light on the financial challenges associated with DCFCs.

Public Sector Fleet EV Procurement Examples: A Case Study of Three All-Electric Vehicle Procurements Conducted by the U.S. Navy, City of New Bedford, and City of Seattle Nigro, N. 6/6/2017 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, EV Smart Fleets

The deployment of EVs helps fleets to reduce air pollution from vehicle emissions and lower operating costs associated with maintenance and fueling. However, EV procurement by fleets has been limited by the higher up-front purchase costs and lack of availability of EVs compared to their gasoline counterparts, as well as the availability of charging infrastructure. Despite the existing barriers, many state and local public fleets have successfully integrated EVs to their fleets, and have used innovative procurement strategies to reduce the acquisition costs of EVs. This case study explores EV procurements conducted by the U.S. Navy, the City of New Bedford in Massachusetts, and the City of Seattle in Washington State—examples of public fleet procurements that captured financial incentives to reduce the vehicles’ upfront cost.

Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston Eudy, L. 5/22/2017 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results Eudy, L.; Jeffers, M. 5/22/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary results from a fleet of 3 BEBs operated by King County Metro in Seattle, Washington.

Capturing the Federal EV Tax Credit for Public Fleets: A Case Study of Multi-Jurisdictional EV Fleet Procurement in Alameda County, California Nigro, N. 4/26/2017 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, EV Smart Fleets

Alameda County, California, led a collective purchase of 90 EVs for ten county and municipal public fleets. The aggregate procurement resulted in the purchase of 64 Ford Focus EV sedans and 23 Nissan LEAF EV sedans. The jurisdictions also conducted aggregate procurements for EV charging stations and charging station installations. This publication provides an overview of the procurement process and details how it was successful in attracting bids from local vendors for the purchase of EVs, while reducing vehicle purchase administrative costs for participating fleets.

Implementing Workplace Charging within Federal Agencies Smith, M. 4/19/2017 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland

This case study, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office, draws from available information and lessons learned from federal agencies that have piloted plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) workplace charging programs. It can be challenging for organizations to involve all the key stakeholders needed to develop a charging program, but engaging them at an early stage can simplify the process of setting an adequate plan for the workplace. Key stakeholders may include workplace charging managers, facilities managers, parking managers, employee PEV drivers, legal counsel, employee benefits managers, and union representatives.</p><p>Multiple PEV charging stations are available on the GSA schedule. Agencies will need to select the charging station type and design that is most appropriate for each specific worksite - Level 1, Level 2, or DC Fast Charging. In addition, the GSA Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA) can help reduce upfront costs, which will help keep the reimbursement fees within the threshold of what employees are willing to pay.

EVgo Fleet and Tariff Analysis; Phase I: California Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C. 4/4/2017 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Louisville, Colorado

Public direct current (DC) fast chargers are anticipated to play an important role in accelerating plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and mitigating emissions. This project analyzed charging session data in 2016 from all 230 EVgo DCFC stations in California to determine the key factors that contribute to the electricity costs and alternatives that may be available to reduce those costs, and to provide guidance for future rate design discussions.

Battery Electric Buses - State of the Practice Hanlin, J.; Reddaway, D.; Lane, J. 1/26/2017 Books & Chapters

Transportation Research Board Transit Cooperative Research Programs, Washington, D.C.

This synthesis report documents current practices of transit systems for deploying battery electric buses, including planning, procurement, infrastructure installation, and operations and maintenance. The report is intended for transit agencies that are interested in understanding the potential benefits and challenges associated with the introduction and operation of battery electric buses. It is also valuable to manufacturers trying to better meet the needs of their customers and to federal, state, and local funding agencies and policy makers.

Notes:

This copyrighted National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine publication can be downloaded from the National Academies Press website.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 2 1/13/2017 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Regional Charging Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Massachusetts Wood, E.; Raghavan, S.; Rames, C.; Eichman, J.; Melaina, M. 1/6/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Given the complex issues associated with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and options in deploying charging infrastructure, there is interest in exploring scenarios of future charging infrastructure deployment to provide insight and guidance to national and regional stakeholders. The complexity and cost of PEV charging infrastructure pose challenges to decision makers, including individuals, communities, and companies considering infrastructure installations. The value of PEVs to consumers and fleet operators can be increased with well-planned and cost-effective deployment of charging infrastructure. This will increase the number of miles driven electrically and accelerate PEV market penetration, increasing the shared value of charging networks to an expanding consumer base. Given these complexities and challenges, the objective of the present study is to provide additional insight into the role of charging infrastructure in accelerating PEV market growth. To that end, existing studies on PEV infrastructure are summarized in a literature review. Next, an analysis of current markets is conducted with a focus on correlations between PEV adoption and public charging availability. A forward-looking case study is then conducted focused on supporting 300,000 PEVs by 2025 in Massachusetts. The report concludes with a discussion of potential methodology for estimating economic impacts of PEV infrastructure growth.

Transforming the Nation’s Electricity System: the Second Installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review 1/6/2017 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Policy, Washington, D.C.

On January 6, 2017, the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) Task Force released the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review report titled “Transforming the Nation’s Electricity System.” The second installment (QER 1.2) finds the electricity system is a critical and essential national asset, and it is a strategic imperative to protect and enhance the value of the system through modernization and transformation. QER 1.2 analyzes trends and issues confronting the Nation’s electricity sector out to 2040, examining the entire electricity system from generation to end use, and within the context of three overarching national goals: (1) enhance economic competitiveness; (2) promote environmental responsibility; and (3) provide for the Nation’s security.</p><p>The report, which provides 76 recommendations that enable sector modernization and transformation, provides the building blocks for longer-term, planned changes and activities undertaken in conjunction with state and local governments, policymakers, industry, and other stakeholders.

Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/28/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

Field Evaluation of Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Trucks Prohaska, R.; Simpson, M.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.; Smith, K.; Walkowicz, K. 12/16/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report focuses on medium-duty electric delivery vehicles operated by Frito-Lay North America (FLNA) at its Federal Way, Washington, distribution center. The 100% electric drive system is an alternative to conventional diesel delivery trucks and reduces both energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific electric vehicle (EV) technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source. In addition to characterizing the in-use performance of the EVs compared to the conventional diesels, detailed facility load data were collected at the main building power feed as well as from each of the 10 EV chargers to better understand the broader implications associated with commercial EV deployment. These facility loads were incorporated into several modeling scenarios to demonstrate the potential benefits of integrating onsite renewables.

Workplace Charging Challenge - Progress Update 2016: A New Sustainable Commute 12/12/2016 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

In June 2016, the Workplace Charging Challenge distributed its third annual survey to 295 partners with the goal of tracking partners' progress and identifying trends in workplace charging. This document summarizes findings from the survey and highlights accomplishments of the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge.

Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles - National Benchmark Report (Second Edition) Singer, M. 12/8/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report details broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Understanding consumer sentiments can influence the prioritization of development efforts by identifying barriers to, and opportunities for, the broad acceptance of new technologies. The data detailed in this report represents the first two years of similar studies that are planned to be completed annually, allowing for tracking of public perception associated with PEV deployment efforts. This report is intended to support the evaluation of whether advancing vehicle technologies and changing vehicle availability align with evolving consumer expectations and interests over time.

National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Volume I Melaina, M.; Bush, B.; Eichman, J.; Wood, E.; Stright, D.; Krishnan, V.; Keyser, D.; Mai, T.; McLaren, J. 12/1/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can reduce household fuel expenditures by substituting electricity for gasoline while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum imports. A scenario approach is employed to provide insights into the long-term economic value of increased PEV market growth across the United States. The analytic methods estimate fundamental costs and benefits associated with an economic allocation of PEVs across households based upon household driving patterns, projected vehicle cost and performance attributes, and simulations of a future electricity grid. To explore the full technological potential of PEVs and resulting demands on the electricity grid, very high PEV market growth projections from previous studies are relied upon to develop multiple future scenarios.

Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry Lommele, S.; Ryder, C. 10/10/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, ICF International; Golden, Colorado, Fairfax, Virginia

In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public wellbeing and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Clean Cities Project Awards Kelly, K. 10/3/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each Clean Cities project award under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act included a diverse group of stakeholders who worked together to lay the foundation for their communities to adopt alternative fuels and petroleum reduction strategies. This document provides a snapshot of the impact of each project and highlights the partners and Clean Cities coalitions who helped transform local and regional transportation markets through 25 projects impacting 45 states.

Sample Employee Survey for Workplace Charging Planning Committee, N. 8/29/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy

Employers considering whether workplace charging is right for their organization or employers considering how many plug-in electric vehicle charging stations to install will want to start by assessing employee demand. Partners in the Workplace Charging Challenge set a minimum goal of providing charging access for a portion of PEV-driving employees and a best practice goal of meeting all PEV-driving employee demand. This sample employee survey will help employers to assess interest in workplace charging, and determine the appropriate type and amount of charging stations to install.

At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles 7/13/2016 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace Smith, M. 7/1/2016 Reports

Energetics Incorporated

Level 1 charging (110-120 V) can be a good fit for many workplace charging programs. For electric vehicles typically purchased by most employees, Level 1 charging often has sufficient power to fully restore vehicle driving range during work hours.

Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging Lommele, S.; Dafoe, W. 6/29/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As stewards of an electric grid that is available almost anywhere people park, utilities that support workplace charging are uniquely positioned to help their commercial customers be a part of the rapidly expanding network of charging infrastructure. Utilities understand the distinctive challenges of their customers, have access to technical information about electrical infrastructure, and have deep experience modeling and managing demand for electricity. This case study highlights the experiences of two utilities with workplace charging programs.

Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Resources Fitzgerald, G.; Nelder, C.; and Newcomb, J. 6/15/2016 Reports

Rocky Mountain Institute, Boulder, Colorado

Several key forces are combining to accelerate the pace of EV adoption, such as customer interest, increased scale of production, and availability of charging infrastructure. This report focuses on the changing incentives and emerging technological options that are shifting the way utilities and other grid operators perceive EV charging opportunities. Together, these two sets of forces are creating new opportunities and increased scale for smart EV-charging solutions. It also covers the important questions that emerge for regulators, policymakers, and utilities.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Rocky Mountain Institute's website.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1 6/13/2016 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Global EV Outlook 2016 5/31/2016 Reports

International Energy Agency, Paris, France

In 2015, the global threshold of one million EVs on the road was exceeded, an achievement resulting from lowered vehicle costs, extended vehicle range, and reduced consumer barriers. However, EVs account for a small fraction of the global vehicle stock for almost all transport modes. This report aims to provide an update on recent developments in EV registrations, EV stock estimates, and the availability and characteristics of electric vehicle charging equipment. It also touches upon recent research and policy support.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the International Energy Agency's website.

Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type McLaren, J.; Miller, J.; O'Shaughnessy, E.; Wood, E.; Shapiro, E. 4/11/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policy-makers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual level of emission reduction associated with the electrification of the transport sector is dependent on the contexts that determine when and where drivers charge electric vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios.

Assessment of Vehicle Sizing, Energy Consumption and Cost through Large Scale Simulation of Advanced Vehicle Technologies Moawad, A.; Kim, N.; Shidore, N.; Rousseau, A. 3/28/2016 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports new technologies to increase energy security in the transportation sector at a critical time for global petroleum supply, demand, and pricing. VTO works in collaboration with industry and research organizations to identify the priority areas of research needed to develop advanced vehicle technologies to reduce and eventually eliminate petroleum use, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide from carbon-based fuels. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the benefits of the DOE-VTO for a wide range of vehicle applications, powertrain configurations and component technologies for different timeframes and quantify the potential future petroleum displacement up to 2045, as well as the cost evolution. While it is not possible to simulate all the different combinations, more than 2000 vehicles were simulated in the study.

Drive Electric Vermont Case Study Wagner, F.; Roberts, D.; Francfort, J.; White, S. 3/21/2016 Reports

Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, Maryland; Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, Vermont; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

The U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is working to identify barriers and opportunities to plugin electric vehicle (PEV) adoption. The Department of Energy developed a case study with Drive Electric Vermont to identify the lessons learned and best practices for successful PEV and charging infrastructure deployment in small and midsize communities. This is a snapshot of the findings.

Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles - National Benchmark Report Singer, M. 2/2/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the form of gasoline and diesel. In order to make these technologies most appealing to the marketplace, they must take consumer sentiment into account. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround the advanced vehicle technologies of plug-in electric vehicles and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, provide mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results Eudy, L.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Post, M. 1/27/2016 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report Johnson, C.; Singer, M. 12/22/2015 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2 12/18/2015 Newsletters

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

Workplace Charging Challenge, Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In 12/1/2015 Reports

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

This Program Review takes an unprecedented look at the state of workplace charging in the United States -- a report made possible by U.S. Department of Energy leadership and valuable support from our partners as they share their progress in developing robust workplace charging programs. Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 250 participants are accelerating the development the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations at more than 440 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

Costs Associated with Non-Residential Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment 11/30/2015 Reports

New West Technologies, LLC, Englewood, Colorado

As more drivers purchase plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), there is a growing need for a network of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to provide power to those vehicles. PEV drivers will primarily charge their vehicles using residential EVSE, but there is also a need for non-residential EVSE in workplace, public, and fleet settings. This report provides information about the costs associated with purchasing, installing, and owning non-residential EVSE.

Plugged In: How Americans Charge Their Electric Vehicles 9/1/2015 Reports

Idano National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

The U.S. Department of Energy's EV Project and the ChargePoint America project, combined, formed the largest PEV infrastructure demonstration in the world. Between Jan. 1, 2011, and Dec. 31, 2013, this combined project installed nearly 17,000 alternating current (AC) Level 2 charging stations for residential and commercial use and over 100 dual-port direct current (DC) fast chargers in 22 regions across the United States. This report is a summary of the findings from these projects.