Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
Electric Vehicles for Fleets 5/17/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric vehicles can fulfill many daily driving needs, making them a great solution for fleets. They offer several benefits and can fill roles in light-duty, medium-/heavy-duty (MD/HD), and even off-road applications. The unique fleet environment presents considerations beyond those that consumers must address before going electric. For example, fleet managers must understand the impacts of charging multiple vehicles while maintaining fleet operations. Larger MD/HD vehicles bring additional factors to consider.

Supporting Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Deployment 2/1/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies electrify their fleets and support the deployment of charging infrastructure. To assist agencies with the transition to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through on-site and virtual EVSE Tiger Teams.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Standards Technology Review 2/1/2022 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

Zero-emission transportation is critical to achieving California’s air quality and climate goals. To support the adoption and use of zero-emission vehicles, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Standards Regulation in 2019 to reduce barriers to accessing public charging stations. The EVSE Standards Regulation establishes minimum requirements for payment methods an EVSE must allow, facilitates roaming agreements between electric vehicle service providers, creates a more complete database of location and pricing information for consumer use, and ensures clarity in the cost of a charging session. To assess barriers drivers may face and understand whether the requirements of the Regulation, particularly the requirement that EVSE must accept both chip payment cards and contactless, “tap” cards, CARB staff conducted a Technology Review. The Technology Review included an evaluation of the availability and use of different payment methods and a survey of drivers’ experiences accessing public charging stations. This report presents the findings and recommendations from that work.

Electric-Drive Vehicles 8/23/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: All-electric vehicles and Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as electric vehicles (EVs).

At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles 8/23/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. Electric vehicles (EVs) include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Using Mapping Tools to Prioritize Electric Vehicle Charger Benefits to Underserved Communities Zhou, Yan; Gohlke, David; Sansone, Michael; Kuiper, Jim; Smith, Margaret P. 5/1/2022 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory; U.S. Department of Energy

This report describes the important role mapping tools play in incorporating equity goals in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of investments in electric vehicle (EV) chargers such as the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure formula program. Building upon the Justice40 Initiative, the report provides examples of how to apply mapping tools to identify priority locations for installing EV chargers with the best potential to benefit energy and environmental justice (EEJ) underserved communities. Four approaches are described: corridor charging, community charging, fleet electrification, and diversity in STEM and workforce development. The report also explores various methodologies for calculating low public-EV charger density.

Identifying Electric Vehicles to Best Serve University Fleet Needs and Support Sustainability Goals Booth, S.; Bennett, J.; Helm, M.; Arnold, D.; Baker, B.; Clay, R.; Till, M.; Sears, T. 2/1/2022 Reports

Sawatch Labs, Denver, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

University fleets represent an enticing opportunity to explore the near-term feasibility of achieving net-zero-carbon emissions in transportation. In many instances, universities operate much like a small, self-contained ecosystem with all the same transportation needs as a larger municipality, but with a smaller geographic footprint. Their fleets often include a wide variety of vehicle types serving the campus, including low-speed vehicles (e.g., golf carts), light-duty sedans, SUVs, and pickups, as well as medium-duty trucks and delivery vehicles. The mix of vehicle and operational needs combined with broader activities related to net-zero campuses makes universities and colleges unique microcosms to determine the feasibility of and path to achieving net-zero fleets. As the availability of electric drivetrains expands beyond light-duty sedans, fleets need to understand when it will be operationally and financially appropriate to start adding electric drivetrains to their fleets. To better understand these opportunities, NREL contracted Sawatch Labs to analyze the role electric vehicles (EVs) can have in helping universities meet net-zero emissions and fleet sustainability goals they have instituted.

Need Help Planning for the Future of Electric Vehicles? 9/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

This brochure helps states find tools to make informed decisions about implementing electric vehicles (EVs) and their charging infrastructure. To do so, many states will use funds from the Environmental Mitigation Trust Agreements from the Volkswagen Clean Air Act Settlement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories provide extensive information on EVs including both community planning and charging infrastructure. This information can help states implement EV and charging infrastructure projects using settlement funds. The tools in this brochure represent a sampling of key DOE resources available to states and other jurisdictions.

Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative 7/1/2021 Reports

Western Governors’ Association, Denver, Colorado

Oregon Governor Kate Brown launched the Electric Vehicles (EVs) Roadmap Initiative in July 2020, to examine opportunities to improve the planning and siting of EV charging infrastructure in western states. The Chair Initiative of the Governor assembled states engaged in the West Coast Electric Highway (which includes California, Oregon, and Washington) and the Regional Electric Vehicle Plan for the West (REV West, which includes Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming). Together, they assessed opportunities for enhanced coordination on voluntary technical standards related to EV infrastructure hardware, payment methods, signage, and best practices for siting and location. This report presents findings from these sessions and examines state programs and coordination opportunities, grid infrastructure planning and the role of utilities, medium-and heavy-duty EVs, EV fleets, permitting and siting practices, and economic and workforce development opportunities associated with EVs.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; White, E. 5/4/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2021 (Q4). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the eighth report in a series.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Levene, J.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 12/16/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 3/10/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Power Demand of Retail Buildings Gillerana, M.; Bonnemaa, E.; Woodsa, J.; Mishraa, P,; Doebberb, I.; Huntera, C.; Mitchella, M.; Mann, M. 8/15/2021 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As electric vehicle (EV) penetration increases, charging is expected to have a significant impact on the grid. EV charging stations will greatly affect a building site’s power demand, especially with the onset of fast charging with power levels as high as 350 kilowatts per charger. This paper assesses how EV charging stations would impact a retail big box grocery store, exploring numerous station sizes, charging power levels, and utilization factors in various climate zones and seasons. It measures the effect of charging by assessing changes in monthly peak power demand, electricity usage, and annual electricity bill, computed using three distinct rate structures.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Market Structure, Environmental Impact, and Electric Vehicle Readiness 7/1/2021 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, Massachusetts

This report summarizes an analysis of the U.S. medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) in-use truck fleet to identify the most common vehicle types/uses, estimate the environmental impact of each, and assess readiness for greater adoption of zero emitting technologies over the next decade. It is intended to help inform the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s deliberations involving future criteria and greenhouse gas emissions standards and policies for MD and HD engines and vehicles.

A Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel, Natural Gas, and Electric Vehicles Muncrief, R. 9/21/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Diesel, natural gas, and electric heavy-duty vehicles can be designed and manufactured with the capability of complying with the ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NOx) limits envisioned in the next set of California and federal heavy-duty vehicle regulations. This briefing compares the capabilities of these three powertrain types in meeting an ultra-low NOx standard across four key areas: feasibility, cost, health impacts, and climate impacts.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment & Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2021 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Assembly Bill 2127 Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Assessment Analyzing Charging Needs to Support Zero Emission Vehicles in 2030 Alexander, M.; Crisostomo, N.; Krell, W.; Lu, J.; Ramesh, R. 7/1/2021 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

Assembly Bill 2127, 2018, requires the California Energy Commission (CEC) to prepare a statewide assessment of the charging infrastructure needed to achieve the goal of five million zero-emission vehicles on the road by 2030. Executive Order N-79-20, 2020, directed the CEC to expand this assessment to support the levels of plug-in electric vehicle adoption required by the executive order. This report identifies trends and market, technical, and policy solutions that would advance transportation electrification to benefit all Californians. It outlines a vision where charging is accessible, smart, widespread, and easier than a trip to the gas station.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 9/10/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Town of Colonie Enhanced Development Regulations: Electric Vehicle Zoning Guidance & Best Practices 5/24/2021 Reports

Capital District Clean Communities Coalition, Albany, New York; Capital District Transportation Committee, Colonie, New York; Capital District Regional Planning Commission, Colonie, New York

Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) requirements have become an area of interest to the Town of Colonie (Colonie) staff and planning board members. This report provides electric vehicle zoning guidance and best practices for Colonie codes. It includes a review of existing conditions in Colonie, a comprehensive plan and zoning audit, and general recommendations and best practices for municipalities to allow, require, and streamline the installation of EVSE.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 5/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Florida Electric Vehicle Roadmap Smith Burk, K.; Groover Combs, A.; Kettles, D.; Reed, K. 12/1/2020 Reports

FDACS and Central Florida Clean Cities, Tallahassee, Florida; Central Florida Clean Cities Coalition, Cocoa, Florida

In May 2019, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Office of Energy began working on a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) roadmap for the state of Florida. This roadmap provides a comprehensive investigation into the status and needs of PEV charging infrastructure in Florida for the following three to four years. This roadmap identifies PEV charging infrastructure impacts on the electric grid, solutions for any negative impacts, areas that lack PEV charging infrastructure, best practices for siting PEV charging stations, and technical or regulatory barriers to expansion of PEV charging infrastructure. It also provides recommendations that address permitting, emergency evacuation needs, and education.

Used Plug-in Electric Vehicles as a Means of Transportation Equity in Low-Income Households Olumide Winjobi and Jarod C. Kelly 4/1/2021 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

This report examines improving the equity of low-income households through access to reliable means of transportation. Used plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve as a low-cost and low-maintenance means of transport for low-income households. Zero tail-pipe emissions from PEVs is also a benefit of these drivetrains compared to internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). Barriers to the adoption of the used PEVs, and incentives that may address these barriers, are reviewed.

User Perceptions of the Risks of Electric, Shared, and Automated Vehicles Remain Largely Unexplored Kurani, K. 2/12/2021 Reports

UC Davis, National Center for Sustainable Transportation, Davis, California

Advocates of electric, shared, and automated vehicles (e-SAVs) envision a future in which people no longer need to drive their privately owned, petroleum-fueled vehicles. Instead, for daily travel they rely on fleets of electric, automated vehicles that offer travel services, including the option to share, or “pool,” rides with strangers. The design, deployment, and operation of e-SAVs will require widespread willingness of users to share with strangers vehicles that are capable of fully automated driving. To achieve the environmental and societal goals of e-SAVs it is critical to first understand and address safety and security concerns of potential and actual users. Researchers at the University of California, Davis, reviewed the literature to understand potential users’ perceptions of safety and security risks posed by intertwined social and technical systems of e-SAVs and proposed a framework to advance research, policy, and system design. This policy brief summarizes the findings of that work and provides policy implications.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Summary Report on Electric Vehicles at Scale and the U.S. Electric Power System 11/1/2020 Reports

Department of Energy, D.C., United States

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can meet U.S. personal transportation needs using domestic energy resources while at the same time offering carbon emissions benefits. However, wide scale light-duty PEV adoption will necessitate assessment of and possibly modification to the U.S. electric power generation and distribution systems. This report gauges the sufficiency of both energy generation and generation capacity in the U.S. electric power system to accommodate the growing fleet of light duty PEVs.

Final Technical Report-WestSmart EV: Western Smart Plug-in Electric Vehicle Community Partnership Campbell, James 1/19/2021 Reports

Department on Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC

The WestSmartEV (WSEV) project has accelerated adoption of electric vehicles (EV) throughout the PacifiCorp/Rocky Mountain Power’s service territory in the intermountain west by developing a large-scale, sustainable EV charging infrastructure network with coordinated EV adoption programs. The project objectives have strategically deployed 79 direct current fast charging to create two primary electric interstate highway corridors along I-15 and I-80. Additionally, it has incentivized installation of Level 2 chargers at workplace locations, incentivized the purchase of EVs, provided all electric solutions for first- and last-mile trips, provided centralized data collection, analysis, modeling, and tool development to inform investment and policy decisions, and developed education outreach materials and conducted workshops across the WSEV region. This report summarizes the WSEV project efforts.

Electric Vehicle Market Status - Update Lowell, D.; Huntington, A. 9/1/2020 Reports

M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, Massachusetts

This paper summarizes the current status, and projected growth, of the U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) industry over the next five to ten years. Key topics addressed include drivers of U.S. and global PEV growth, original equipment manufacturer (OEM) investments in PEV development and in building a robust charging network for drivers, announced new PEV model introductions, projected PEV sales, projected battery pack costs, and projected date of PEV price parity with internal combustion engine vehicles. The data summarized here are based on formal statements and announcements by OEMs, as well as analysis by the automotive press and by financial and market analysis firms that regularly cover the auto industry.

Update on Electric Vehicle Adoption Across U.S. Cities Bui A.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey. N. 8/31/2020 Reports

The International Council on Clean Transportation, San Francisco, California

This briefing builds upon the International Council on Clean Transportation’s annual U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market analysis of state, local, and utility actions to promote PEVs. It assesses relationships between PEV uptake and various underlying factors including incentives, charging infrastructure, model availability, access to high-occupancy vehicle lanes, and regional policy actions. The analytical focus is primarily on the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas, which collectively accounted for 55% of the nation’s population.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 8/28/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2020 (Q1). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicles at Scale - Phase I Analysis: High Electric Vehicle Adoption Impacts on the Western U.S. Power Grid Kintner-Meyer, M.; Davis, S.; Sridhar, S.; Bhatnagar, D.; Mahserejian, S.; Ghosal, M. 7/1/2020 Reports

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

The use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the United States has grown significantly during the last decade. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed a study on how PEVs at scale affect the electric grid as an aggregated new load. The Phase I study focused on the bulk power electricity impacts on the Western grid. This analysis addresses the following two key questions: 1) Are there sufficient resources in the U.S. bulk power grid to provide the electricity for charging a growing PEV fleet? and 2) What are the likely operational changes necessary to accommodate a growing PEV fleet?

Levelized Cost of Charging Electric Vehicles in the United States Borlaug, B.; Salisbury, S.; Gerdes, M.; Muratori, M. 7/15/2020 Reports

Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, Netherlands

The cost to charge an electric vehicle (EV) varies depending on the price of electricity at different charging sites (home, workplace, or public), vehicle use, region, and time of day, and for different charging power levels and equipment and installation costs. This paper provides a detailed assessment of the 2019 levelized cost of light-duty PEV charging in the United States, considering the purchase and installation costs of charging equipment and electricity prices from real-world utility tariffs.

Notes:

This Joule article (Vol. 4, Issue 7, (July 2020): pp. 1470-1485) is copyrighted by Elsevier Inc. and can be accessed through Science Direct.

2020 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2020 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations. This report provides ARB’s analysis of the current status and near-term projections of FCEV deployment and station network development and the actions necessary to maintain progress and enable continued future expansion.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Showcases: Consumer Experience and Acceptance Singer, M. 7/2/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In 2016 the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) announced three awardees to hold plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) showcases to demonstrate available technologies and provide a hands-on consumer experience at conveniently located, brand-neutral settings. The events varied in style from long term stationary storefront settings to weekend events at a variety of regional venues. Attendees could interact with the technology through ride-and-drives and longer-term test drives. The events began in the spring of 2017 and continued through 2019.

Evolution of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure in the United States Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Eger, R.; Schayowitz, A. 8/1/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Fairfax, Virginia

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) has tracked alternative fueling and electric vehicle charging infrastructure in the United States since 1991. This paper explores the history of the AFDC Station Locator, which was launched in 1999, and discusses the growth of electric vehicle supply equipment. It also looks at how electric vehicle drivers access public charging, and evaluates challenges, gaps, and opportunities facing both electric vehicle drivers and the industry as a whole.

Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010-2019 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y. 6/1/2020 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report examines properties of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) sold in the United States from 2010 to 2019, exploring vehicle sales, miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, vehicle manufacturing, and battery production, among other factors. Over 1.4 million PEVs have been sold, driving over 37 billion miles on electricity since 2010, thereby reducing national gasoline consumption by 0.34% in 2019 and 1.4 billion gallons cumulatively through 2019. In 2019, PEVs used 4.1 terawatt-hours of electricity to drive 12.7 billion miles, offsetting 470 million gallons of gasoline. Since 2010, 69% of all PEVs have been assembled in the United States, and over 60 gigawatt-hours of lithium-ion batteries have been installed in vehicles to date.

Grid Impact Analysis of Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Zhu, X.; Mather, B.; Mishra, P. 5/7/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This paper presents a grid impact analysis of heavy-duty electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. Authors assumed heavy-duty EVs will have battery capacities high enough to provide a range of 250 to 500 miles on a single charge. Heavy-duty EVs will require extremely fast charging rates to reduce charging time and will induce very high charging loads (at the multiple-megawatt scale) if several vehicles charge at the same time. This project develops a systematic procedure to analyze the potential impact of the placement of charging stations on the grid. Additionally, it develops initial mitigation solutions based on insights from this analysis.

Notes: This report is copyrighted by IEEE and can be accessed through IEEE.

Public Electric Vehicle Charging Business Models for Retail Site Hosts Satterfield, C.; Nigro, N. 4/29/2020 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

As the passenger plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market grows in the United States, public PEV charging stations will become increasingly important to serve the charging needs of millions of drivers. For retailers, PEV charging stations offer an opportunity to produce new revenue streams or expand on existing ones while also advancing broader efforts to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. This brief provides an overview of PEV market growth and the role of public charging options, along with the potential benefits to retailers of hosting PEV charging infrastructure.

Development and Demonstration of a Class 6 Range-Extended Electric Vehicle for Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation Jeffers, M.A.; Miller, E.; Kelly, K.; Kresse, J.; Li, K.; Dalton, J.; Kader, M.; Frazier, C. 4/14/2020 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Range-extended hybrids are an attractive option for medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle fleets because they offer the efficiency of an electrified powertrain with the driving range of a conventional diesel powertrain. The vehicle essentially operates as if it was purely electric for most trips, while ensuring that all commercial routes can be completed in any weather conditions or geographic terrain. Fuel use and point-source emissions can be significantly reduced, and in some cases eliminated, as many shorter routes can be fully electrified with this architecture.

Notes: This report is copyrighted and can be accessed through SAE International in United States website.

Public charging infrastructure for plug-in electric vehicles: What is it worth? Greene, D.L.; Kontou, E.; Borlaug, B.; Brooker, A.; Muratori, M. 2/7/2020 Journal Articles & Abstracts

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Lack of charging infrastructure is a significant barrier to the growth of the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market. Quantifying the value of public charging infrastructure can inform analysis of investment decisions and can help predict the impact of charging infrastructure on future PEV sales. This report focuses on quantifying the value of public chargers in terms of their ability to displace gasoline use for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and to enable additional electric vehicle miles for all-electric vehicles, thereby mitigating the limitations of shorter range and longer charging time.

Notes:

This Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment article (Vol. 78, January 2020, 102182) is copyrighted by Elsevier Ltd. and can be accessed through Science Direct.

Electric Vehicle Capitals: Showing the Path to a Mainstream Market Hall, D.; Cui, H.; Lutsey, N. 11/20/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This briefing assesses metropolitan area-level data on plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) registrations and identifies the 25 largest PEV markets, which together represent 42% of new passenger PEV sales globally through 2018. To provide a blueprint for other governments, this briefing analyzes the incentives, charging infrastructure, and city promotion actions in these areas that are spurring PEVs into the mainstream.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Electric Vehicles: Key Trends, Issues, and Considerations for State Regulators Harper C.; McAndrews, G.; Sass Byrnett, D. 10/1/2019 Reports

National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, District of Columbia

Over the past few years, states across the country have seen increased consumer adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), thereby increasing electricity demand from the transportation sector. Electric utilities are at different stages of exploring their role in both building EV charging infrastructure and managing grid impacts, including through rate design and managed charging. As a result, many Public Utility Commissions (PUCs), the state agencies tasked with regulating utilities, are being asked to make decisions in this unfamiliar industry, sometimes without direct legislative guidance. This issue brief provides data about the trends in EV adoption, a synopsis of the types of decisions PUCs are facing, and examples of recent state regulatory approaches to EV questions.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Tiger Team Site Assessment Findings from Army Facilities Bennett, J.; Hodge, C.; Kurnik, C.; Kiatreungwattana, K.; Lynch, L.; Salasovich, J. 10/31/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report examines how the U.S. Army can cost-effectively install electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to prepare for anticipated electric vehicle acquisitions, and summarizes results from 30 EVSE site visits completed at U.S. Army garrisons from 2016 to 2019. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Army, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory deployed Tiger Teams consisting of engineers and fleet experts to review garrison charging needs and develop recommendations for installing EVSE as well as compressed natural gas stations in certain locations.

Best Practices for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Installations in the National Parks - Challenges, Lessons Learned, Installation Best Practices, and Recommendations for the National Park Service Kelly, K.; Noblet., S.; Brown, A. 12/27/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Golden, Colorado

This report captures challenges, lessons learned, and best practices from recent National Park Service (NPS) electric vehicle supply equipment projects based on interviews with NPS employees and stakeholders involved in the projects. The report summarizes notable takeaways and makes recommendations to help ensure the success of future charging installation projects. Preserving this information will be valuable for informing and ensuring the success of future charging installation efforts at national parks, as well as for organizations outside of NPS. Note that this report focuses on light-duty plug-in electric vehicle projects, though NPS is also pursuing medium- and heavy-duty electric vehicle efforts.

Comparison of Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Emissions of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Relative to a Conventional Gasoline-Powered Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Liu, X.; Reddi, K.; Elgowainy, A.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Wang, M.; Rustagi , N. 11/26/2019 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

The operation of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) is more efficient than that of gasoline conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, and produces zero tailpipe pollutant emissions. However, hydrogen production, transportation, and fueling are more energy- and emissions-intensive compared to gasoline. This report provides a well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions analysis to compare a FCEV (Toyota Mirai) with a gasoline conventional ICE vehicle (Mazda 3).

Notes:

This International Journal of Hydrogen Energy article (Vol. 45, Issue 1, (2020): pp. 972-983) is copyrighted by Elsevier Ltd. and can be accessed through Science Direct.

Curb Enthusiasm: Report for On-Street Electric Vehicle Charging 8/15/2019 Reports

NYSERDA, Albany, New York

A critical barrier to the successful large-scale adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in metropolitan areas is the availability of public access charging infrastructure. Charging PEVs in areas with limited off-street parking, where charging equipment is typically installed, becomes a perceptual and logistical barrier for prospective PEV drivers who primarily park on-street. The targeted deployment of curbside Level 2 charging stations is one of the most cost-effective and catalytic ways that local government can support a shift toward PEVs in cities. Through original research, analysis, and case studies, this report seeks to define the potential for curbside Level 2 charging station implementation in New York City and to establish guidelines to ensure success. The report and its accompanying guidebook are intended to be a resource for New York City agencies as well as local governments looking to pilot curbside charging.

Electric Vehicle Charging Station Permitting Guidebook Eckerle, T.; Brazil Vacin, G. 7/16/2019 Books & Chapters

California Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development, Sacramento, California

This guidebook is comprised of eight parts and is intended to help navigate station developers and local jurisdictions through the infrastructure development process from selecting sites for electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through the permitting and construction processes. It reflects the latest best practices collected from stations developers and local jurisdictions with experience in developing and approving EVSE. It also provides clarity and tips on implementing statewide permitting streamlining requirements in California.

Assessing the Business Case for Hosting Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in New York State 9/12/2019 Reports

New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, New York

As the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market grows, so does the demand for public charging stations. Public charging infrastructure expansion is limited by high upfront costs of equipment and installation, uncertain usage of charging services, and consumers’ willingness to pay for public charging. To date, public funding has been an important component of cost recovery and value maximization for station hosts. This white paper evaluates the business case of hosting a Level 2 charging station in New York State. In addition, the report explores scenarios that vary charging-use and revenue sources to better understand the key factors that drive profitability from hosting these stations. The goal of the report is to harness real-world experience to establish an understanding of current charging behavior and inform future efforts to expand the PEV market in New York.

Get Your Building Ready for Electric Vehicles 7/3/2019 Brochures & Fact Sheets

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

By the year 2030, there may be as many as 19 million plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) on the road in the United States, representing a market share of 10%. With effective PEV charging implementation, commercial building owners and managers can add value to properties, increase the convenience and affordability of driving PEVs for tenants and employees, and show leadership in adopting advanced, sustainable technologies. This fact sheet provides recommendations for building owners to make commercial buildings and new construction PEV-ready.

Summary of Best Practices in Electric Vehicle Ordinances Cooke, C.; Ross, B. 6/18/2019 Reports

Great Plains Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota

This document is a summary guide to electric vehicle (EV) and electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) ordinances in the United States. The guide is sorted into best practice categories and provides a summary of typical provisions used by cities for each category. Each category includes a table with key points and text examples from actual ordinances, as well as recommendations from model codes for that topic, drawn from one of several model ordinances or ordinance guidance documents that have been developed to inform cities on developing EV-ready zoning standards. This summary is provided as a reference to cities seeking to develop EV zoning standards or development regulations.

Utilities and Electric Vehicles: The Case for Managed Charging 5/9/2019 Reports

Smart Electric Power Alliance

Electric vehicles (EVs) are quickly becoming one of the largest flexible loads on the grid in certain parts of the United States. While most industry analysts see EVs as a boon for utilities, load management risks could be an issue. Managed charging allows a utility or third-party to remotely control vehicle charging by turning it up, down, or even off to better correspond to the needs of the grid, much like traditional demand response programs. This research report provides a wide-lens overview of the managed charging ecosystem, including examples of utility programs, a list of vehicle-grid integration and connected-car platform providers, a list of compatible electric vehicle supply equipment, and examples of automotive industry activities.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through Smart Electric Power Alliance's website.

2021 Zero Emission Vehicle Market Study: Volume 2: Intra-California Regions Defined by Air Districts Kurani, K. 4/14/2022 Reports

University of California, Davis, Plug-in Hybrid & Electric Vehicle Research Center, Davis, California

California set a goal to transition new light-duty vehicle sales to 100% zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs) by 2035. To assist California and the other ZEV states to monitor and manage the success of policies promoting ZEVs and ZEV fueling infrastructure deployment, this research assesses car-owning households’ responses to these new technology vehicles and new fueling behaviors. This report assesses the readiness of household consumers in California to support state goals, i.e., as goals become more ambitious and requirements on manufacturers increase, are more car-owning households poised to become ZEV buyers? The analysis explores differences within California, based on boundaries of air quality districts. This study question is addressed via comparison of two large sample surveys of car-owning households. These surveys were completed in first calendar quarters of 2019 and 2021. Both questionnaires measure consumer awareness, knowledge, assessments, and consideration of ZEVs. Note: <p> This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the eScholarship <a href="https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8738w7m3/">website</a>.</p>

Electricity Rates for Electric Vehicle Direct Current Fast Charging in the United States Muratori, M.; Kontou, E.; Eichman, J. 4/26/2019 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report assesses the electricity cost for different scenarios of direct current (DC) fast charger station size and use, based on over 7,500 commercial and industrial electricity rates available for 2017 across the United States. Results show that the cost of electricity for DC fast chargers varies dramatically, ranging from less than $0.10 to over $2 per kilowatt-hour, depending on station design and high uncertainty in use. It explores the cost drivers for low- and high-utilization stations.

Notes: This Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews article (Vol. 113 (October 2019): pp. 415-426) is copyrighted by Elsevier B.V. and only available by accessing it through Science Direct.

Impacts of Increasing Electrification on State Fleet Operations and Charging Demand Booth,S.; Bennett, J.; Helm, M., Arnold, D.; Baker, B.; Clay, R.; Till, M.; Sears, T. 2/1/2022 Reports

Sawatch Labs, Denver, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

State fleets represent an enticing opportunity to explore the near-term feasibility of fleet electrification. In many instances, state fleet operations encompass a wide geographic area with fleet locations for many vehicles. Serving these wide areas will require a significant amount of energy and, in the case of electric vehicles (EVs), a significant level of charging power. The peak demand as a result of this charging demand is of interest for fleets, with impacts on both utility bills and installation costs ranking among some of the greatest concerns. The combination of a wide operational area and multiple fleet locations positions state fleets as ideal candidates to understand the impacts of vehicle charging on fleet operations. As the availability of electric drivetrains expands beyond light-duty sedans, fleets need to understand when it will be appropriate operationally and financially to start adding electric drivetrains to their fleets. Throughout this process, it will also be important to understand the charging implications of fleet electrification and the resulting impacts to facility electrical systems. To better understand these considerations, NREL contracted Sawatch Labs to analyze the role that increasing state fleet electrification may have on the charging demand at fleet parking facilities.

Global EV Outlook 2022 5/2/2022 Reports

International Energy Agency, Paris, France

Sales of electric vehicles (EVs) doubled in 2021 from the previous year to a new record of 6.6 million. Back in 2012, just 120,000 EV were sold worldwide. In 2021, more than that many are sold each week. The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to 2030, the report examines key areas of interest such as EV and charging infrastructure deployment, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions, battery demand, and related policy developments. The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate lessons learned from leading markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders with regard to policy frameworks and market systems for EV adoption.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Energy Agency’s website.

The ABCs of Ohio EVs: A Policy Guide to Electrify Ohio 1/18/2022 Reports

Citizens Utility Board of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio

In this report, the Citizens Utility Board of Ohio examines key issues related to transportation electrification to capture the potential of electric vehicle (EV) growth and use it to optimize the state’s electric system. It includes guidelines for policy development and specific measures to help propel this emerging market transformation and ensure that everybody will benefit from EVs, whether or not they drive one. It identifies factors affecting EV market growth, assesses its ramifications for the electric grid and for consumers, advances principles to protect the interests of electricity customers, and recommends responsive state actions.

Charging Forward: A Toolkit for Planning and Funding Rural Electric Mobility Infrastructure 2/1/2022 Reports

Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This toolkit is meant to be a one-stop resource to help rural communities scope, plan, and fund EV charging infrastructure for light-duty electric passenger vehicles. Rural stakeholders, including states, local communities, tribes, transportation providers, nonprofits, businesses, and individuals, can use the toolkit to identify key partners for a project, take advantage of relevant planning tools, and identify available funding or financing to help make that project a reality. Armed with the resources in this toolkit, rural communities will have the tools and information they need to start planning and implementing EV infrastructure projects and ultimately realize the benefits of electric mobility.

Run On Less - Electric Report 1/19/2022 Reports

North American Council for Freight Efficiency, Fort Wayne, Indiana

This report documents the Run on Less - Electric demonstration by the North American Council for Freight Efficiency, which was conducted in September of 2021. It shares the methods used to select the participating fleets, routes, and equipment, and metrics that measured the 13 participating pairs of fleets and original equipment manufacturers. The demonstrations showed that for four market segments — vans and step vans, medium-duty box trucks, terminal tractors, and heavy-duty regional haul tractors — commercial battery electric vehicles are a viable option for fleets.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the North American Council for Freight Efficiency’s website.

Federal Funding is Available for EV Charging Infrastructure on the National Highway System 4/22/2022 Reports

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Washington, District of Columbia

The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) supports the Biden-Harris Administration’s goal of installing 500,000 new electric vehicle (EV) chargers by 2030. To accelerate the deployment of EV chargers, FHWA is highlighting the policies and funding available for partners in states, tribes, territories, metropolitan planning organizations, and federal land management agencies to build out EV chargers along the National Highway System. This document summarizes eligibilities under each of the funding and finance programs to plan for and build EV chargers, support workforce training for new technologies, and integrate EVs as part of strategies to address commuter, freight, and public transportation needs.

Future-Proofing Convenience Stores for EV Charging 10/12/2021 Reports

Petroleum Equipment Institute, Tulsa, Oklahoma; National Association of Convenience Stores, Alexandria, Virginia; Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

Direct current fast charging is the optimal technology for electric vehicle (EV) charging at convenience stores. This document helps convenience retailers plan for EV charging infrastructure at new liquid fueling sites. With careful planning and efficient site design, ground-up facilities can be constructed to keep fuels convenient and safe for store personnel and the public.

Model Year 2022: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 11/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel vehicles, as well as the all-electric range of plug-in electric vehicles.

Technology Solutions to Mitigate Electricity Cost for Electric Vehicle DC Fast Charging Muratori, M.; Elgqvist, E.; Cutler, D.; Eichman, J.; Salisbury, S.; Fuller, Z.; Smart, J. 3/16/2019 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho

Widespread adoption of alternative fuel vehicles is being hindered by high vehicle costs and refueling or range limitations. For plug-in electric vehicles, direct current (DC) fast charging is proposed as a solution to support long-distance travel and relieve range anxiety. However, DC fast charging has also been shown to be potentially more expensive compared to residential or workplace charging. In particular, electricity demand charges can significantly impact electricity cost for fast charging applications. This study explores technological solutions that can help reduce the electricity cost for DC fast charging.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the Elsevier ScienceDirect website.

Assessing the Value of EV Managed Charging: A Review of Methodologies and Results Anwar, M.; Muratori, M.; Jadun, P.; Hale, E.; Bush, B.; Denholm, P.; Ma, O.; Podkaminer, K. 1/7/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Driven by technological progress and growing global attention for sustainability, the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is on the rise. Large-scale EV adoption would both disrupt the transportation sector and lead to far-reaching consequences for energy and electricity systems, including new opportunities for significant load growth. Unmanaged EV charging can stress existing grid infrastructure, possibly leading to operational, reliability, and planning challenges both at the bulk and distribution levels. However, effective management of EV charging can resolve these challenges and provide additional value. This report summarizes the benefits of managed EV charging, provides an overview of the landscape of existing implementations and costs of managed charging in the United States, critically reviews the state of the art of methodologies in analysis/modeling studies, and quantifies the cost and benefits of managed charging as reported in the reviewed studies. Additionally, it distills several key insights outlining the factors affecting the value of managed EV charging and identifies critical gaps and remaining challenges to fully realize effective EV-grid integration.

On-Road Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Evaluation: Overview Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur. G.; Onorato, S. 3/14/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report presents an overview of an evaluation of on-road fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The project addressed the need for current, on-road FCEV data and sought to validate improved performance and longer durability from comprehensive sets of early FCEVs, including early market vehicles. This report provides an overview of the evaluation project and partners, describes NREL's evaluation approach, and presents a summary of the results. Detailed results for durability, fuel economy, deployment and driving behavior, and specifications are published in separate reports.

Update on electric vehicle costs in the United States through 2030 Lutsey, N.; Nicholas, M. 4/1/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This working paper assesses battery electric vehicle (EV) costs from 2020 through 2030, collecting the best battery pack and EV component cost data available through 2018. The assessment also analyzes the anticipated timing for price parity for representative EVs, crossovers, and sport utility vehicles compared to their conventional gasoline counterparts in the U.S. light-duty vehicle market.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be downloaded from the International Council on clean Transportation website.

There's No Place Like Home: Residential Parking, Electrical Access, and Implications for the Future of EV Charging Infrastructure Ge, Y.; Simeone, C; Duvall, A.; Wood, E. 10/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The current foundation of U.S. charging infrastructure has been built upon charging at residential locations, where vehicles tend to be parked for long durations overnight. As the electric vehicle (EV) market expands beyond early adopters (typically high-income, single-family homes that have access to off-street parking) to mainstream consumers, planners must consider developing charging infrastructure solutions for households without consistent access to overnight home charging. In situations where residential off-street charging access is unattainable, a portfolio of solutions may be possible, including providing access to public charging in residential neighborhoods (on street), at workplaces, at commonly visited public locations, and (when necessary) at centralized locations via high power fast charging infrastructure (similar to existing gas stations). This report identifies charging access trends with respect to residence type and infers national residential charging access scenarios as a function of the national EV fleet size.

Success Factors for Electric Carsharing Nicholas, M.; Bernard, M 8/2/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

Using electric vehicles for carsharing can enhance the environmental benefits of such programs. This briefing examines electric carsharing and the elements that are found in successful programs in North America and Europe. Specifically, it describes the benefits of electric carsharing, presents examples of carsharing, provides charging infrastructure insights, and identifies best practices for electric carsharing.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Driving and Fueling Behavior Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.; Onorato, S. 3/6/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The objectives of this project are to validate hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles in real-world settings and to identify the current status and evolution of the technology. The analysis objectively assesses progress toward targets and market needs defined by the U.S. Department of Energy and stakeholders, provides feedback to hydrogen research and development, and publishes results for key stakeholder use and investment decisions. Fiscal year 2018 objectives focused on analysis and reporting of fuel cell electric vehicle driving range, fuel economy, drive and fill behaviors, durability, fill performance, and fuel cell performance. This report specifically addresses the topics of driving range, fuel economy, drive and fill behaviors, and fill performance.

Installing and Operating Public EV Charging Infrastructure 8/6/2021 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

This report analyzes the issues site hosts are expected to encounter as they contemplate development of public electric vehicle (EV) charging by separating them into three key buckets: assessing the business case, utility engagement, and working with local authorities having jurisdiction over the site’s location. The report also presents several case studies from early adopters who’ve invested in the public EV charging space. In addition, the report includes crucial lessons learned from real world experience.

Notes:

This publication is copyrighted by Fuels Institute and can be downloaded from the Fuels Institute’s website.

Electric Transportation Rate Design Principles for Regulated Utilities Jones, P., Edelston, B. 7/1/2021 Reports

Alliance for Transportation Electricifiction, Washington, D.C.

Growth in interest in electric vehicles (EVs) among policy makers in the United States is prompting utilities and state regulatory commissions to consider changes to traditional utility rate designs that more efficiently reflect the drivers of electric system costs, thereby allowing customers to better manage electric bills associated with EV charging in a manner that benefits the system. This paper proposes ratemaking and rate design principles applicable to transportation electrification where state commissions have authority to approve both investor-owned utility rates and rate design.

Meeting 2025 Zero Emission Vehicle Goals: An Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure in Maryland Moniot, M.; Rames, C.; Wood, E. 2/20/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been enlisted to conduct a statewide assessment of the electric vehicle charging infrastructure requirements for Maryland to meet its goal of supporting 300,000 zero emission vehicles by 2025. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) was used to generate scenarios of statewide charging infrastructure to support consumer plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption based on travel patterns provided by INRIX (a commercial mapping/traffic company) that are used to characterize regional travel in Maryland and to anticipate future demand for PEV charging. Results indicate that significant expansion of Maryland's electric vehicle charging infrastructure will be required to support the state's PEV goal for 2025. Analysis shows that a fleet of 300,000 PEVs will require 17,400 workplace Level 2 plugs, 9,300 public Level 2 plugs, and 1,000 fast charge plugs. These estimates assume that future PEVs will be driven in a manner consistent with present day gasoline vehicles and that most charging will happen at residential locations. A sensitivity study explores edge cases pertaining to several assumptions, highlighting factors that heavily influence the projected infrastructure requirements. Variations in the makeup of the PEV fleet, evolving consumer charging preferences, and availability of residential charging are all shown to influence 2025 infrastructure requirements.

Siting EVSE with Equity in Mind Huether, P. 4/1/2021 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, District of Columbia

To reduce pollution from road vehicles, states are setting policies to support transportation electrification and directing utilities to support electric vehicles with widespread charging infrastructure. States and utility commissions also recognize the need to ensure that historically underserved communities benefit from electrification. To make this happen, electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) must be sited in a way that promotes geographic, racial, and economic equity. This paper analyzes the extent to which states and utilities are including equity in their siting. Additionally, this paper provides guidance for utilities wanting to ensure that the benefits of transportation electrification are shared widely.

Surat Municipal Corporation Bus Electrification Assessment Cabell Hodge, Matthew Jeffers,Jal Desai,Eric Miller, and Varsha Shah 3/11/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report examines the potential for Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC) to electrify its bus rapid transit system (BRTS) in Surat, India. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT) to collect data from SMC, log in-use GPS data of SMC buses, and analyze the results. The analysis focuses on the operational feasibility and life-cycle costs of battery electric buses (BEBs) compared to diesel buses operated on eight BRTS routes out of four bus depots.

Cost of Electric Commercial Vans and Pickup Trucks in the United States Through 2040 Mulholland, E. 1/11/2022 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This paper presents a total cost of ownership assessment of battery-electric Class 2b and 3 commercial vehicles between 2020 and 2040 benchmarked against the corresponding costs of gasoline and diesel powertrains. While electrification has been slow to emerge in this area, the relatively low daily driving range compared to other commercial vehicle classes makes this sector prime for a technology shift to zero-emission technology in the coming years.

Next-Generation Grid Communications for Residential Plug-in Electric Vehicles Patadia, S.; Rodine, C. 1/25/2019 Reports

ChargePoint, Campbell, California; California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

As residential plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging loads increase, they represent significant contributions to local distribution circuits, and if not managed, can have negative effects on local electricity grid stability. For residential PEV participation to be effective for grid stabilization, it is key to have detailed data collection, coordination at charging stations owned by different parties, sensitivity to each driver’s needs and preferences, and real-time understanding of each vehicle’s state of charge or charge necessary. This pilot project tested the technology ecosystems required to handle adding significant PEV load to the grid.

H2@Scale Program Multi-Party Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: California Hydrogen Infrastructure Research Consortium Task Sprik, S.; Buttner, W.; Koleva, M.; Onorato, S.; Peters, M.; Saur, G. 5/2/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Many stakeholders are working on hydrogen and fuel cell products, markets, requirements, mandates, and policies. California has been leading the way for hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell electric vehicle deployment. The advancements in California have identified many lessons learned for hydrogen infrastructure development, deployment, and operation. Other interested states and countries are using California’s experience as a model case, making success in California paramount to enabling market acceleration and uptake in the United States. To assist California in decisions and evaluations, as well as to verify solutions to problems impacting the industry, a hydrogen research consortium of California agency partners and national laboratories was organized. This report describes the work performed as part of this consortium between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and California agency partners and the task outcomes. The tasks included hydrogen station data analysis, insights into medium and heavy-duty vehicles running on hydrogen, hydrogen contaminant detectors for use at hydrogen refueling stations, hydrogen nozzle freeze lock evaluation, hydrogen topics for integration into the California energy management strategy, and a technical assistance project that analyzed liquid hydrogen modeling for a hydrogen station capacity tool.

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Total Cost of Ownership for Class 8 Tractors and Class 4 Parcel Delivery Trucks Hunter, C.; Penev, M.; Reznicek, E.; Lustbader, J.; Birky, A.; Zhang, C. 9/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The medium- and heavy-duty transportation sector is experiencing rapid changes in powertrain technology innovation, with recent announcements of battery electric and fuel cell electric trucks being offered. The economics of these alternative powertrain vehicles are uncertain and difficult to compare directly. This report evaluates the total cost of ownership of six different truck powertrain technologies (diesel, diesel hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, compressed natural gas, battery electric, and fuel cell electric) for three different truck vocations (Class 8 long haul, Class 8 short haul, and Class 4 parcel delivery, for three different time frames (2018, 2025, and 2050).

Clean Cities Coalitions 2020 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C. 12/29/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Clean Cities coalition activities resulted in an EUI of nearly 1 billion GGE, comprised of net alternative fuels used and energy savings from efficiency projects, in 2020. Clean Cities coalition and stakeholder participation in vehicle and infrastructure development projects remained strong, although transportation activity and resulting EUI decreased in 2020 due to the COVID 19 pandemic. Coalition-reported activities prevented nearly 5 million carbon dioxide-equivalent tons of emissions (only GHG emissions are reported here; criteria pollutants and other emissions are not included in this report). The GHG benefits increased in 2020 despite a decrease in EUI because coalitions focused more on technologies with higher GHG benefits per GGE reduced and because the lifecycle of many alternative fuels such as electricity or biofuels is becoming less carbon intense. Coalitions were successful in securing project grant awards from numerous outside (non-DOE) sources. The 90 project grant awards in 2020 generated $151 million in funds from coalition members and project partners in addition to $12.8 million in DOE grant funds. Coalitions also collected $1.1 million in stakeholder dues and $3.1 million in operational funds from host organizations. In macro terms, this non-DOE supplemental funding represents a 4:1 leveraging of the $38 million that was included in the VTO Technology Integration budget in 2020. Clean Cities coordinators spent nearly 135,700 hours pursuing their coalitions’ goals in 2020. The average coordinator is quite experienced and has held the coordinator position for nearly eight years. Coordinators logged more than 3,290 outreach, education, and training activities in 2020, which reached an estimated 31 million people. Activities that reached underserved communities were tracked for the first time in 2020 and accounted for 17% of all activities.

Increasing Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Deployment: Electricity Rate Design and Site Host Options 1/1/2019 Reports

The Brattle Group, Boston, Massachusetts for Edison Electric Institute, Washington, D.C.

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide customer, environmental, energy grid, and national security benefits. However, limited access to charging infrastructure remains a major hurdle to more rapid PEV adoption. While most PEV charging occurs at home, additional publicly located charging stations – both Level 2 and direct current (DC) fast charging stations – are needed. This paper presents a range of options to increase the deployment of DC fast charging infrastructure, either through rate design or through implementation by the site host. Given the early stages of DC fast charging infrastructure deployment, learning-by-doing is an important option to consider.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed through the Brattle Group's website.

Hydrogen Station Network Self-Sufficiency Analysis per Assembly Bill 8 10/1/2021 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

Assembly Bill 8, 2013, asks the California Air Resources Board and the California Energy Commission to evaluate hydrogen fueling station development and operation against a standard of financial self-sufficiency. A self-sufficient network demonstrates the ability to continue operations and growth without further state financial support. This self-sufficiency study evaluates the economics of potential future scenarios for growth in California’s network of hydrogen fueling stations, assesses the amount of state support that could maintain network growth and operation until the network demonstrates self-sufficiency, and estimates the timing to achieve self-sufficiency.

Evaluating EV Market Growth Across U.S. Cities Bui, A.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey, N. 9/14/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This briefing paper analyzes the development of the U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market in 2020 and the underlying state, city, and utility actions that were driving it. The paper evaluates state, local, and utility company actions to promote PEVs, and demonstrates that the states and cities with the greatest PEV market success continue to have the strongest and most comprehensive policy supports.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Quantifying the Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Gap Across U.S. Markets Nicholas; M.; Hall, D.; Lutsey, N. 1/23/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

The electrification of the United States vehicle market continues, with the most growth occurring in markets where barriers are addressed through policy, charging infrastructure, and consumer incentives. This report quantifies the gap in charging infrastructure from what was deployed through 2017 to what is needed to power more than 3 million expected electric vehicles by 2025, consistent with automaker, policy, and underlying market trends. Based on the expected growth across the 100 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas, this report estimates the amount of charging of various types that will be needed to power these vehicles.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 40 Davis, S.C.; Boundy, R.G. 2/1/2022 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 40 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (tedb.ornl.gov).

Transportation Electrification in North Carolina Smith, C. 2/1/2021 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, DC

This brief provides an overview of the state of the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market and deployment in North Carolina while also highlighting travel patterns and transit agency statistics, along with snapshots of PEV policy and program examples from other states. Statewide transportation electrification roadmaps and funding available through the Volkswagen Settlement have generated momentum in North Carolina and can be harnessed to accelerate the PEV market across the state and position it as a regional and national leader.

Lithium-Ion Battery Supply Chain for E-Drive Vehicles in the United States: 2010–2020 Yan Zhou, David Gohlke, Luke Rush, Jarod Kelly, and Qiang Dai 3/1/2021 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

Understanding the battery supply chain is particularly important for the strategic planning and development of a battery recycling infrastructure to secure critical materials supply and enable a circular economy. Building on detailed monthly sales data, this report summarizes the manufacturing and production locations of lithium-ion (Li-ion, or LIB) battery cells and packs by make and model for PEVs sold in the U.S. from 2010 to 2020. It also summarizes the annual and cumulative Li-ion battery capacity installed in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) sold in the U.S. Overall, there are about 20 different battery cell and pack manufacturers, which are currently supplying about 20 gigawatt-hours (GWh) of batteries annually for the U.S. PEV market.

Clean Cities Coalitions Overview 3/11/2022 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Vehicle Technologies Office Clean Cities Coalition Network, which advances affordable, domestic transportation fuels and technologies nationwide. More than 75 active coalitions serve as the foundation of Clean Cities, working in communities across the country to help local decision makers and fleets understand and implement alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, new mobility choices, and emerging transportation technologies. At the national level, VTO develops and promotes publications, tools, and other unique resources to support coordinators. At the local level, coalitions leverage these resources to create networks of stakeholders.

When Might Lower-Income Drivers Benefit from EVs? Quantifying the Economic Equity Implications of EV Adoption Bauer, G.; Hsu, C.; Lutsey, N. 2/1/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), Washington, DC

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can dramatically reduce local air pollution and carbon emissions, but relatively little analysis has been done on the broader potential economic benefits as the technology matures and costs decline. As governments seek to integrate decarbonization policy with environmental justice goals, it will be critical to ensure equal access to clean technology. This report focuses on the potential benefits of equitable electrification and assesses when PEVs will become affordable more broadly across different households.

Electrifying Trucks: From Delivery Vans to Buses to 18-Wheelers Nadel, S.; Huether, P. 6/10/2021 Reports

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, D.C.

Electrification of trucks and buses can bring many benefits, including lower energy use, emissions, and operating costs. However, compared to conventional trucks, these vehicles currently cost more up front, often have reduced range, and must depend on limited charging infrastructure. Efforts to address these limitations are making substantial progress, and leading experts expect electric trucks to be widespread by 2040. This paper summarizes the current state of the industry, including electric truck benefits and challenges, current and imminent models, charging, electric rates, and policies to promote electric trucks.

Fuel Cell Electric Trucks: A Vision for Freight Movement in California and Beyond 7/1/2021 Reports

California Fuel Cell Partnership, West Sacramento, California

The California Fuel Cell Partnership represents public entities and private global companies with vested interests in both battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell electric technologies. This document presents the California Fuel Cell Partnership shared vision of the fundamental role of fuel cell electric trucks in the complete transition of California’s freight movement sector to zero-emission. While the insights shared are applicable to many vehicle types, this document focuses on the largest and highest-priority, on-road freight vehicle: the Class 8 tractor.

Infrastructure to Support a 100% Zero-Emission Tractor-Trailer Fleet in the United States by 2040 Minjares, R.; Rodríguez, F.; Sen, A.; Braun, C. 9/14/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This analysis estimates the number of charging points and hydrogen fueling stations needed to enable the transition to 100% sales of zero-emission Class 7 and Class 8 tractor-trailers by 2040 in the United States.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

EV Charging Needs Assessment: Identifying Needs and Opportunities for EV Fast Charging in Rural and Underserved Areas of the Intermountain West Powers, C. 2/1/2021 Reports

National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, Virginia; Utah Clean Cities, Salt Lake City, Utah

Corridors of the West (CORWest) is a three-year initiative to support plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure investment and educational opportunities in rural and underserved areas of the intermountain west. A key first step under the project is to understand barriers to PEV adoption and, more specifically, direct current (DC) fast charger station deployment in rural and underserved areas of the intermountain west, and identify potential pathways for addressing these barriers. To understand barriers to EV adoption and station deployment in rural and underserved areas, the CORWest project team developed a questionnaire that was disseminated to select stakeholder groups to gather feedback. This report provides a summary of trends and typical issues being faced in the region and offers recommendations for ways to address high-priority needs and support PEV deployment and DC fast charger investment.

Model Year 2021: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2021 Brochures & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel vehicles, as well as the all-electric range of plug-in electric vehicles.

Benefits of Transportation Electrification in a Post Pandemic World Smith, C.; Nigro, N.; Lepre, N. 6/1/2021 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

The first three months of 2021 saw early actions from the Biden administration and strong commitments to transportation electrification made by automakers, utilities, and other key players in the U.S. electric vehicle market. This activity has increased the number and breadth of pathways that policymakers can pursue to accelerate the shift towards transportation electrification and capture more of the billions of dollars in investments committed to the technology worldwide. This paper outlines three key opportunities for the country to achieve success and rapidly decarbonize the transportation sector by taking decisive action at federal level, expanding state policy frameworks, and prioritizing underserved communities.

Electrifying Freight: Pathways to Accelerating the Transition Buholtz, T.; Burger, A.; Gander, S.; Nelson, B.; Prochazka, B.; Swalnick, N 11/1/2020 Reports

Electrification Coalition, Washington, District of Columbia

The U.S. economy is heavily dependent on the functionality of our freight and goods transportation services. Road freight transportation in the United States is projected to grow steadily in the coming decades, and electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as a clean and cost-effective alternative. This report outlines the benefits of electric trucks, explains the major barriers impeding their production, sales, and deployment, and establishes the next steps that manufacturers, policymakers, fleet operators, and other stakeholders should take to facilitate and accelerate freight electrification.

Electrification Assessment of Public Vehicles in Washington Satterfield, C.; Nigro, N.; Wood, E.; Jensen, J.; Smith, C.; Desai, R.; Lepre, N.; Ge, Y. 11/30/2020 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, District of Columbia; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Washington State University, Pullman, Washington

Washington State is positioned to cost effectively electrify nearly all public vehicles by the year 2035. With near-term policy action and targeted investments in infrastructure, the state can accelerate ongoing efforts to advance electric vehicles (EVs) and solidify its leadership position in the EV market in the United States. This assessment evaluates the electrification potential for all publicly owned vehicles in the State of Washington. It provides Washington with comprehensive, vehicle-specific electrification cost estimates both today and in the future along with actionable information on how to efficiently move forward with fleet electrification.

Clean Mobility Equity: A Playbook Lessons from California’s Clean Transportation Programs Creger, H.; Aguayo, L.; Partida-Lopez, R.; Sanchez, A. 3/25/2021 Reports

The Greenlining Institute, Oakland, California

Clean mobility programs can help fight climate change and clean the air, and improve mobility for residents of underserved communities, reduce traffic and dependence on cars, and be engines of economic empowerment that help reduce the racial wealth gap. This report reviews California’s clean mobility equity programs to better understand whether and how clean transportation programs truly address equity in a comprehensive and effective way. The report notes successes, pitfalls, and areas for improvement for clean mobility programs. It serves as both a guide for California as it continues evolving its clean mobility programs to more meaningfully center equity and as a guide for other states and the federal government as they move to develop and implement clean transportation equity programs.

Accelerating Ride-Hailing Electrification: Challenges, Benefits, and Options for State Action Hunt, J.; McKearnan, S. 12/2/2020 Reports

Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management, Boston, Massachusetts

In the United States, use of ride-hailing services has grown at a steep rate over the last decade, and this trend is expected to continue. A rapid transition in ride-hailing fleets from internal combustion engine vehicles to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) would reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants, increase consumer exposure to PEVs, deliver maintenance and fuel cost savings to drivers, and improve the business case for fast charging infrastructure by increasing utilization. This paper identifies the benefits and challenges associated with transitioning vehicles driving on transportation network company platforms to PEVs and recommends specific actions states can take to support and accelerate the transition.

Considerations for Department of Defense Implementation of Zero-Emission Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure Hodge, C.; Bennett, J.; Bentley, J.; Boyce, L. 3/1/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Bentley Energy Consulting, Oakton, Virginia

In December 2021, the president issued Executive Order (EO) 14057 on Catalyzing Clean Energy Industries and Jobs Through Federal Sustainability. The EO requires the Department of Defense to transition its non-tactical vehicles to a 100% zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) fleet, including 100% of light-duty acquisitions by 2027 and 100% of medium- and heavy-duty acquisitions by 2035. This document provides considerations to comply with these requirements and transition to a ZEV fleet efficiently and quickly. It covers planning for ZEVs and electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment, suggested roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders in designing EV charging equipment, and execution issues including acquisition, installation, and ongoing fleet management.

Federal Workplace Charging Program Guide 11/2/2020 Reports

Federal Energy Management Program, Washington, District of Columbia

The Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act authorizes the installation, operation, and maintenance of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment for the purpose of charging privately owned vehicles (POVs) under the custody or control of the General Services Administration or other federal agencies. It requires the collection of fees to recover the costs of installing, operating, and maintaining this equipment and imposes reporting requirements. This model program guide reviews those requirements and describes when and how fees may be required to cover costs of electricity, network costs, EV charging equipment, and installations in various scenarios. This model program guide is designed to support federal agencies developing and refining workplace charging programs for employee POVs.