Publications

Find publications about alternative transportation, including alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and regulated fleets.

Search Results | 100 publications
Title Author Date Category
At A Glance: Electric Vehicles (Un vistazo a los vehículos eléctricos) 8/29/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. Electric vehicles (EVs) include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). <a href="https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/vehiculos-electricos.pdf?aa2cb6edac">Access this publication in Spanish here</a>.

Notes: This document is intended to be printed double-sided on an 8-1/2 X 11 piece of paper, then folded in half once to present as a brochure.

Electric Vehicles (Conceptos básicos sobre los vehículos eléctricos) 8/29/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into two categories: All-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Together, EVs and PHEVs can also be referred to as electric vehicles (EVs). <a href="https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/basicos-vehiculos-electricos.pdf?b5eee8be5b">Access this publication in Spanish here</a>.

Electric Vehicle Fire Primer for Fleet Managers 2/16/2024 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Despite heightened media attention, the risk of an EV fire is statistically very low. Fleet managers considering EVs can learn about the potential for EV fires and measures to help reduce fire risk.

Electric Vehicle Program Designs and Strategies to Enhance Equitable Deployment Ball, J; Forrester, S; Grayson, A; Satchwell, A 12/1/2023 Reports

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

This report synthesizes and categorizes information from more than five dozen sources published between 2015 and 2023 – including national, regional, and state-level electric vehicle charging station program summaries, as well as updates, policy briefs, proposals, whitepapers, and reports – and describes three key activities to support informed decision-making for equitable electric vehicle charging station programs: cultivating partnerships, identifying a community’s unique needs, and developing an iterative program design.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2023 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 2/1/2024 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

Electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure continues to rapidly change and grow. Using data from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator, this report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2023 by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with a federal infrastructure requirement scenario. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the fifteenth report in a series.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2023 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 7/26/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

Electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure continues to rapidly change and grow. Using data from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator, this report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2023 by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with a federal infrastructure requirement scenario. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the thirteenth report in a series.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2023 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 10/16/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

Electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure continues to rapidly change and grow. Using data from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator, this report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2023 by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with a federal infrastructure requirement scenario. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the fourteenth report in a series.

Electric Vehicles for Consumers 5/2/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

More consumers are choosing electric vehicles (EVs) as new, competitively priced models with longer ranges hit the market. More public charging stations are also rapidly becoming available, and some offer quick charges to get drivers back on the road in minutes. New EVs are released all the time, with models designed to meet a wider variety of needs. To learn whether an EV is right for you, assess your driving requirements, available vehicles, and cost considerations. Easily compare costs and benefits of specific vehicles using the FuelEconomy.gov vehicle comparison tool.

Un vistazo a los vehículos eléctricos (At A Glance: Electric Vehicles) 9/15/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Los vehículos eléctricos (EV, por su sigla en inglés) incluyen los vehículos todo eléctrico, también denominados vehículos eléctricos de batería (BEV), y los vehículos eléctricos híbridos enchufables (PHEV). <a href="https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/electric-drive_vehicles.pdf?46ed6d7f2c">Accede a esta publicación en inglés aquí</a>.

Conceptos básicos sobre los vehículos eléctricos (Electric Vehicles) 12/5/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Los vehículos eléctricos (EV, por su sigla en inglés) usan la electricidad como combustible principal o para mejorar la efciencia de los diseños de vehículos convencionales. Los EV incluyen vehículos todo eléctrico, también denominados vehículos eléctricos de batería (BEV, por su sigla en inglés), y vehículos eléctricos híbridos enchufables (PHEV, por su sigla en inglés). <a href="https://afdc.energy.gov/files/u/publication/electric_vehicles.pdf?4efbe6d174">Accede a esta publicación en inglés aquí</a>

Customer Experience at Public Charging Stations and Its Effects on the Purchase and Use of Electric Vehicles 9/1/2023 Reports

Charge X Consortium, Washington, District of Columbia

This report evaluates how consumer experiences at public fast charging stations influence electric vehicle (EV) adoption, including how it impacts the likelihood of current EV drivers purchasing EVs in the future. This report discusses how a better understanding about how the customer experience impacts the adoption of EVs could help create performance metrics for public EV charging stations and ensure that EV adoption meets federal and state goals in coming years.

Recommendations for Minimum Required Error Codes for Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure 9/13/2023 Reports

This report proposes a set of Minimum Required Error Codes (MRECs) for electric vehicle (EV) chargers and recommends that the industry implement these uniformly across the North American EV charging ecosystem to streamline error reporting, interpretability, and diagnostics. The purpose of this document is to simplify the troubleshooting process and increase charging reliability for all EV users. This report serves as a recommendation for industry stakeholders, encouraging a unified methodology to define and classify a minimum required set of error codes.

Electric Vehicle Batteries and Recycling Argonne National Laboratory 12/1/2022 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

Demand for electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing. Electricity is cheaper and cleaner than conventional fuel, and EV maintenance costs are low. Also attractive are EVs' instant torque and quiet operation. In addition to advantages for individual drivers and for fleets, the multiple fuel sources used to generate the electricity that powers EVs create more energy resilience for the transportation sector, which supports national security. With this uptick in EV demand comes questions about their batteries, how they are made, their safety, and what happens to them at the end of a vehicle's life.

Electric Vehicle Managed Charging: Estimating the Potential Bulk Power System Value 8/1/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Numerous studies have estimated the potential value of EV managed charging. In this study, NREL leveraged more detailed modeling of EV adoption, use, charging, and bulk power system operations to understand the potential value. Unique to this study, NREL modeled different charging flexibility types and dispatch mechanisms—as well as participation rates among drivers in having their EV charging managed—starting from vehicle-specific descriptions of charging flexibility.

National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Formula Program Annual Report: Plan Year 2022-2023 Chu, J; Gilmore, B; Hassol, J; Jenn, A; Lommele, S; Myers, L; Richardson, H; Schroeder, A; Shah, M 7/1/2023 Reports

Joint Office of Energy and Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

The National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (NEVI) Formula Program was launched in February 2022, providing nearly $5 billion over 5 years to help states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico create a network of electric vehicle charging stations beginning with designated Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Alternative Fuel Corridors, emphasizing the Interstate Highway System. All states submitted deployment plans which were reviewed by the Joint Office of Energy and Transportation and FHWA and certified by FHWA in September 2022. This document provides an individual and collective overview of the first-year deployment plans, presents key findings from the first round of NEVI plans, and summarizes the key activities of the Joint Office.

Adoption of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Local Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions Across the U.S Wu, X; Zhou, Y; Gohlke, D 2/1/2024 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report aims to fill a research gap in the local effects of the benefits of electric vehicle (EV) adoption. The report estimates the fuel cost savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions at the state and local zip code levels, considering local fuel prices, vehicle class preferences, vehicle model years, fuel efficiencies, and driving intensities. The report found that EV adoption can result in annual savings up to $2,200. Additionally, the report found that in over 99% of U.S. zip codes, EVs result in overall savings in fuel use and GHG emissions.

Electric Vehicles for Fleets 5/17/2022 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric vehicles can fulfill many daily driving needs, making them a great solution for fleets. They offer several benefits and can fill roles in light-duty, medium-/heavy-duty (MD/HD), and even off-road applications. The unique fleet environment presents considerations beyond those that consumers must address before going electric. For example, fleet managers must understand the impacts of charging multiple vehicles while maintaining fleet operations. Larger MD/HD vehicles bring additional factors to consider.

Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-in Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010 – 2021 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, X.; Courtney, C. 11/1/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report examines properties of electric vehicles (EVs) sold in the United States from 2010 to 2021, evaluating range, energy efficiency, costs, and performance. Given the vehicle characteristics, this report estimates miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and greenhouse gas emissions attributable to EVs. It also explores vehicle manufacturing and battery production, considering supply chains from battery cells to assembly.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 5/16/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2022 (Q4). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the twelfth report in a series.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 3/9/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2022 (Q3). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the eleventh report in a series.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 12/23/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2022 (Q2). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the tenth report in a series.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2022 Brown, A.; Cappellucci, J.; Schayowitz, A.; White, E.; Heinrich, A.; Cost, E. 9/21/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2022 (Q1). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the ninth report in a series.

Electric Vehicle Charger Deployment Optimization 8/1/2022 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

As consumers begin to purchase electric vehicles (EVs) in greater volumes, the need for charging stations will increase. A one-size-fits-all deployment strategy of EV charging stations will not satisfy all needs or economic considerations. This study investigates how many charging stations and outlets may be required at various stages of the EV market development in different regions of the United States to satisfy actual demand and to instill within end users the confidence that availability will be sufficient. In addition, this study aims to better understand what types of chargers will be required at different locations to optimize deployment while reducing overall infrastructure costs and accelerating the business case for charger installation.

Connecting Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure to Commercial Buildings 1/2/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Electric vehicles (EVs) are growing in popularity and gaining meaningful market share with record sales year over year in the last decade. EV charging equipment must proportionally match the growing number of new EVs on the road for a comparable experience to gas-powered vehicles. The majority of EV charging currently happens at residential buildings. However, demand for EV charging at commercial buildings will significantly increase with wider mainstream EV adoption and as businesses return to more normal operation following COVID-19 pandemic disruptions. This document describes how EV charging equipment can be connected to commercial buildings, including considerations for facility managers, and the effects that charging will have on the buildings electrical distribution system.

Supporting Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Deployment 2/1/2022 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies electrify their fleets and support the deployment of charging infrastructure. To assist agencies with the transition to zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through on-site and virtual EVSE Tiger Teams.

Battery-Powered Bargains? Assessing Electric Vehicle Resale Value in the United States Roberson, L; Pantha, S; Helveston, J 4/17/2024 Journal Articles & Abstracts

George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia

This study analyzes the depreciation trends of all-electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) compared to conventional gasoline vehicles, based off a database of nine million pre-owned vehicles listed online between 2016 and 2022. The study found that while EVs and PHEVs have depreciated at a faster rate than gasoline vehicles, the trend is changing as newer models of EVs have had higher retention rates than older model years.

A Framework to Analyze the Requirements of a Multiport Megawatt-Level Charging Station for Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicles Mishra, P.; Miller, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Bennion, K.; Meintz, A. 5/21/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Widespread adoption of heavy-duty (HD) electric vehicles (EVs) will soon necessitate the use of megawatt (MW)-scale charging stations to charge the high capacity HD EV battery packs. While higher throughput will maximize revenue-generating operations, at high rates of charging, the station design needs to anticipate possible station traffic, average and peak power demand, and charging/waiting time targets to meet. High-voltage direct current fast charging (DCFC) is an attractive candidate for MW-scale charging stations at the time of this study but there are no precedents for such station design. We present a modeling and data analysis framework to elucidate the dependencies of a MW-scale station operation on vehicle traffic data and station design parameters and how that impacts vehicle electrification. This framework integrates an agent-based charging station model with vehicle schedules obtained through real-world, long-haul vehicle telemetry data analysis to explore the station design and operation space. We present a case study showing the application of this framework to: (i) choose optimal locations for charging infrastructure to enable vehicle electrification, (ii) simulate vehicle charging behavior to create charge demand schedules for MW-scale charging locations, (iii) analyze power/energy requirements for these stations, and (iv) optimize station design and control to increase vehicle throughput. Real-world vehicle travel data is used to generate distributions of vehicle arrival time and state of the charge (SOC) for hypothetical MW-scale charging stations. Monte Carlo simulation is used to explore various design considerations associated with MW-scale charging stations and electric vehicle battery technologies.

Review of Electric Vehicle Charger Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities, Potential Impacts, and Defenses Johnson, J.; Berg, T.; Anderson, B.; Wright, B. 5/26/2022 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Worldwide growth in electric vehicle use is prompting new installations of private and public electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). EVSE devices support the electrification of the transportation industry but also represent a cornerstone for power systems and transportation infrastructures. Cybersecurity researchers have recently identified several vulnerabilities that exist in EVSE devices, communications to electric vehicles (EVs), and upstream services, such as EVSE vendor cloud services, third party systems, and grid operators. The potential impact of attacks on these systems stretches from localized, relatively minor effects to long-term national disruptions. Fortunately, there is a strong and expanding collection of information technology and operational technology cybersecurity best practices that may be applied to the EVSE environment to secure this equipment. This paper summarizes publicly disclosed EVSE vulnerabilities, the impact of EV charger cyberattacks, and proposed security protections for EV charging technologies.

Model Year 2024: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2024 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles.

Identifying Electric Vehicles to Best Serve University Fleet Needs and Support Sustainability Goals Booth, S.; Bennett, J.; Helm, M.; Arnold, D.; Baker, B.; Clay, R.; Till, M.; Sears, T. 2/1/2022 Reports

Sawatch Labs, Denver, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

University fleets represent an enticing opportunity to explore the near-term feasibility of achieving net-zero-carbon emissions in transportation. In many instances, universities operate much like a small, self-contained ecosystem with all the same transportation needs as a larger municipality, but with a smaller geographic footprint. Their fleets often include a wide variety of vehicle types serving the campus, including low-speed vehicles (e.g., golf carts), light-duty sedans, SUVs, and pickups, as well as medium-duty trucks and delivery vehicles. The mix of vehicle and operational needs combined with broader activities related to net-zero campuses makes universities and colleges unique microcosms to determine the feasibility of and path to achieving net-zero fleets. As the availability of electric drivetrains expands beyond light-duty sedans, fleets need to understand when it will be operationally and financially appropriate to start adding electric drivetrains to their fleets. To better understand these opportunities, NREL contracted Sawatch Labs to analyze the role electric vehicles (EVs) can have in helping universities meet net-zero emissions and fleet sustainability goals they have instituted.

Grid Capacity – What is it, What Determines it, Does One Number Work, and How Does it Relate to Electric Vehicles? Tuffner, F 11/1/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

Electrical power is used in many facets of modern life and electricity demand continues to grow. The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), migration from natural gas to electric heat pumps, and other decarbonization efforts are expected to grow this demand even further. With this increased demand, questions arise on if the power grid can handle this load and questions of “grid capacity” emerge. This report discusses common questions about what grid capacity is and how EVs impact grid capacity.

Electric Vehicles at Scale - Phase I Analysis: High Electric Vehicle Adoption Impacts on the Western U.S. Power Grid Kintner-Meyer, M.; Davis, S.; Sridhar, S.; Bhatnagar, D.; Mahserejian, S.; Ghosal, M. 7/1/2020 Reports

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

The use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the United States has grown significantly during the last decade. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed a study on how PEVs at scale affect the electric grid as an aggregated new load. The Phase I study focused on the bulk power electricity impacts on the Western grid. This analysis addresses the following two key questions: 1) Are there sufficient resources in the U.S. bulk power grid to provide the electricity for charging a growing PEV fleet? and 2) What are the likely operational changes necessary to accommodate a growing PEV fleet?

Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle Management Pesaran, A; Roman, L; Kincaide, J 2/1/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As the key component powering electric vehicles (EVs), batteries are poised to play a major role in making cleaner transportation while addressing climate change and improving environmental quality. Lithium-ion batteries are currently the default choice for EV batteries, a trend that is predicted to remain well into the future. The objective of this report is to inform all EV battery stakeholders of global initiatives, challenges, and opportunities for optimum EV battery life cycle management and to encourage collaboration to support a sustainable EV battery industry well into the future. This report is divided into two major sections: (1) technical aspects of recycling and reuse and (2) regulations, initiatives, and stakeholder perspectives.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; White, E. 5/4/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private nonresidential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2021 (Q4). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with two different 2030 infrastructure requirement scenarios. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape of EV charging infrastructure. This is the eighth report in a series.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 9/10/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 3/10/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2021 Brown, A.; Levene, J.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 12/16/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2021. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Evolution of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure in the United States Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Eger, R.; Schayowitz, A. 8/1/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Fairfax, Virginia

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) has tracked alternative fueling and electric vehicle charging infrastructure in the United States since 1991. This paper explores the history of the AFDC Station Locator, which was launched in 1999, and discusses the growth of electric vehicle supply equipment. It also looks at how electric vehicle drivers access public charging, and evaluates challenges, gaps, and opportunities facing both electric vehicle drivers and the industry as a whole.

Public Electric Vehicle Charging Station Utilization in the United States Borlaug, B.; Yang, F.; Pritchard, E.; Wood, E., Gonder, J. 12/12/2022 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Energetics, Columbia, Maryland

The utilization of electric vehicle (EV) charging equipment is a key driver of charging station economics, but current trends and factors related to the utilization of public charging infrastructure in the United States are not well understood. This study analyzes EV charging data from 3,705 nationwide public Level 2 and direct current fast charging stations over 2.5 years (2019–2022), observing utilization patterns over time. This study fills a critical research gap by reporting updated public charging station utilization statistics and analysis for the U.S. market.

Electric Vehicle Efficiency Ratios for Light-Duty Vehicles Registered in the United States Singer, M; Johnson, C; Rose, E; Nobler, E; Hoopes, L 3/1/2023 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Electric vehicles (EVs) are more energy efficient than gasoline vehicles, a primary attribute enabling other benefits such as improved torque and reduced operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions. An EV efficiency ratio (EVER) represents the distance a given amount of energy propels an EV divided by the distance it propels a gasoline vehicle, which is important when calculating the financial and environmental benefits of EVs. Researchers have been indirectly estimating EVERs since at least 2007, but most estimates came from small fleets or vehicle simulators. This paper improves upon these estimates by calculating the EVER for all 2021 light-duty vehicles registered in the United States and benchmarks EVERs across various vehicle classes, drive systems, drive cycles, and horsepower-to-weight ratios.

Best Practices for Payment Systems at Public Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Moriarty, K; Smart, J 2/1/2024 Reports

Charge X Consortium, Washington, District of Columbia

This report summarizes current electric vehicle (EV) charging payment challenges and proposes solutions, including issues with EV charging networks; integration, activation, and installation; robustness of hardware; customer experience; and maintenance.

Town of Colonie Enhanced Development Regulations: Electric Vehicle Zoning Guidance & Best Practices 5/24/2021 Reports

Capital District Clean Communities Coalition, Albany, New York; Capital District Transportation Committee, Colonie, New York; Capital District Regional Planning Commission, Colonie, New York

Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) requirements have become an area of interest to the Town of Colonie (Colonie) staff and planning board members. This report provides electric vehicle zoning guidance and best practices for Colonie codes. It includes a review of existing conditions in Colonie, a comprehensive plan and zoning audit, and general recommendations and best practices for municipalities to allow, require, and streamline the installation of EVSE.

Assembly Bill 2127 Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Assessment Analyzing Charging Needs to Support Zero Emission Vehicles in 2030 Alexander, M.; Crisostomo, N.; Krell, W.; Lu, J.; Ramesh, R. 7/1/2021 Reports

California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California

Assembly Bill 2127, 2018, requires the California Energy Commission (CEC) to prepare a statewide assessment of the charging infrastructure needed to achieve the goal of five million zero-emission vehicles on the road by 2030. Executive Order N-79-20, 2020, directed the CEC to expand this assessment to support the levels of plug-in electric vehicle adoption required by the executive order. This report identifies trends and market, technical, and policy solutions that would advance transportation electrification to benefit all Californians. It outlines a vision where charging is accessible, smart, widespread, and easier than a trip to the gas station.

Using Mapping Tools to Prioritize Electric Vehicle Charger Benefits to Underserved Communities Zhou, Yan; Gohlke, David; Sansone, Michael; Kuiper, Jim; Smith, Margaret P. 5/1/2022 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory; U.S. Department of Energy

This report describes the important role mapping tools play in incorporating equity goals in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of investments in electric vehicle (EV) chargers such as the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure formula program. Building upon the Justice40 Initiative, the report provides examples of how to apply mapping tools to identify priority locations for installing EV chargers with the best potential to benefit energy and environmental justice (EEJ) underserved communities. Four approaches are described: corridor charging, community charging, fleet electrification, and diversity in STEM and workforce development. The report also explores various methodologies for calculating low public-EV charger density.

Electric Vehicle Charging for Residential and Commercial Energy Codes Salcido, V.; Tillou, M.; Franconi, E. 7/1/2021 Reports

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

This technical brief presents a compilation of information on electric vehicles (EVs), examining market trends, benefits to consumers and society, and means of expanding the EV charging infrastructure by way of energy codes for new construction. A description of the concept is provided along with supporting justification and examples of similar concepts which have been adopted by states and local jurisdictions, as well as technical information on expected costs and benefits. In addition, the brief provides sample energy code language developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory following consultations with the International Code Council that can be overlaid directly onto model energy codes for EV charging infrastructure. This brief can be a resource for stakeholders, particularly those charged with considering the impacts of proposed code updates.

Model Year 2023: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles 1/1/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document lists the model, vehicle type, engine size, and fuel economy of a variety of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: First Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 8/28/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the first calendar quarter of 2020 (Q1). Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF

The U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Standards Technology Review 2/1/2022 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

Zero-emission transportation is critical to achieving California’s air quality and climate goals. To support the adoption and use of zero-emission vehicles, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Standards Regulation in 2019 to reduce barriers to accessing public charging stations. The EVSE Standards Regulation establishes minimum requirements for payment methods an EVSE must allow, facilitates roaming agreements between electric vehicle service providers, creates a more complete database of location and pricing information for consumer use, and ensures clarity in the cost of a charging session. To assess barriers drivers may face and understand whether the requirements of the Regulation, particularly the requirement that EVSE must accept both chip payment cards and contactless, “tap” cards, CARB staff conducted a Technology Review. The Technology Review included an evaluation of the availability and use of different payment methods and a survey of drivers’ experiences accessing public charging stations. This report presents the findings and recommendations from that work.

Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 40 Davis, S.C.; Boundy, R.G. 2/1/2022 Books & Chapters

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Roltek, Inc., Clinton, Tennessee

The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 40 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (tedb.ornl.gov).

Electric Vehicle Charging Station Permitting Guidebook Hickerson, H; Goldsmith, H 1/1/2023 Reports

California Governor's Office of Business and Economic Development

This guidebook aims to streamline and simplify the deployment of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations regarding planning, permitting, installation, operation, and maintenance of EV charging stations in California, discussing context, federal and state requirements, and recommendations and best practices. The best-case scenario for the state includes local governments that are committed to having strong building standards and EV-related planning; a streamlined and transparent permitting process; a predictable energization process; and well-informed EV charging station developers.

2022 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2022 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Third Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 5/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the third calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Second Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 1/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the second calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Trends from the Alternative Fueling Station Locator: Fourth Quarter 2020 Brown, A.; Lommele, S.; Schayowitz, A.; Klotz, E. 6/1/2021 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Washington, D.C.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fueling Station Locator contains information on public and private non-residential alternative fueling stations in the United States and Canada and currently tracks ethanol (E85), biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric vehicle (EV) charging, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas, and propane stations. Of these fuels, EV charging continues to experience rapidly changing technology and growing infrastructure. This report provides a snapshot of the state of EV charging infrastructure in the United States in the fourth calendar quarter of 2020. Using data from the Station Locator, this report breaks down the growth of public and private charging infrastructure by charging level, network, and location. Additionally, this report measures the current state of charging infrastructure compared with the amount projected to meet charging demand by 2030. This information is intended to help transportation planners, policymakers, researchers, infrastructure developers, and others understand the rapidly changing landscape for EV charging.

Update on Electric Vehicle Adoption Across U.S. Cities Bui A.; Slowik, P.; Lutsey. N. 8/31/2020 Reports

The International Council on Clean Transportation, San Francisco, California

This briefing builds upon the International Council on Clean Transportation’s annual U.S. plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market analysis of state, local, and utility actions to promote PEVs. It assesses relationships between PEV uptake and various underlying factors including incentives, charging infrastructure, model availability, access to high-occupancy vehicle lanes, and regional policy actions. The analytical focus is primarily on the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan areas, which collectively accounted for 55% of the nation’s population.

Simulation-Based Assessment of Energy Consumption of Alternative Powertrains in Agricultural Tractors Lajunen, A; Kivekas, K; Freyermuth, V; Vijayagopal, R; Kim, N 2/27/2024 Journal Articles & Abstracts

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report developed simulation models for conventional, parallel hybrid electric, series hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid, and battery electric powertrain technologies for agricultural tractors, analyzing the potential energy efficiency and emissions benefits as well as technical challenges for implementing the vehicles. The study showed that both the battery electric and fuel cell hybrid tractors have higher potential to reduce energy consumption and emissions, but currently have inherent technical challenges, while the parallel hybrid and series hybrid powertrain tractors have varying energy efficiency benefits depending on the tractor size and operating cycle conditions.

Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Power Demand of Retail Buildings Gillerana, M.; Bonnemaa, E.; Woodsa, J.; Mishraa, P,; Doebberb, I.; Huntera, C.; Mitchella, M.; Mann, M. 8/15/2021 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

As electric vehicle (EV) penetration increases, charging is expected to have a significant impact on the grid. EV charging stations will greatly affect a building site’s power demand, especially with the onset of fast charging with power levels as high as 350 kilowatts per charger. This paper assesses how EV charging stations would impact a retail big box grocery store, exploring numerous station sizes, charging power levels, and utilization factors in various climate zones and seasons. It measures the effect of charging by assessing changes in monthly peak power demand, electricity usage, and annual electricity bill, computed using three distinct rate structures.

Summary Report on Electric Vehicles at Scale and the U.S. Electric Power System 11/1/2020 Reports

Department of Energy, D.C., United States

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can meet U.S. personal transportation needs using domestic energy resources while at the same time offering carbon emissions benefits. However, wide scale light-duty PEV adoption will necessitate assessment of and possibly modification to the U.S. electric power generation and distribution systems. This report gauges the sufficiency of both energy generation and generation capacity in the U.S. electric power system to accommodate the growing fleet of light duty PEVs.

Used Plug-in Electric Vehicles as a Means of Transportation Equity in Low-Income Households Olumide Winjobi and Jarod C. Kelly 4/1/2021 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

This report examines improving the equity of low-income households through access to reliable means of transportation. Used plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can serve as a low-cost and low-maintenance means of transport for low-income households. Zero tail-pipe emissions from PEVs is also a benefit of these drivetrains compared to internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). Barriers to the adoption of the used PEVs, and incentives that may address these barriers, are reviewed.

Exploring Decarbonization Pathways for USA Passenger and Freight Mobility Hoehne, C; Muratori, M; Judan, P; Bush, B; Yip, A; Ledna, C; Vimmerstedt, L; Podkaminer, K; Ma, O 10/30/2023 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

Passenger and freight travel account for 28% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions today. This report explores pathways to reduce transportation emissions under bounding assumptions on future travel behavior, technology advancement, and policies. Results show diverse routes to 80% or more well-to-wheel GHG reductions by 2050. Rapid adoption of zero-emission vehicles coupled with a clean electric grid is essential for deep decarbonization. Increased sustainable biofuel usage is also essential for decarbonizing aviation and to support legacy vehicles during the transition. Managing travel demand growth can ease this transition by reducing the need for clean electricity and sustainable fuels.

Bring Electric Vehicle Charging to Your Community: Put Federal Funding & Private Partnerships to Work Brooks, J; Aves, K; Funk, K 4/20/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

National League of Cities, Washington, District of Columbia

This report is designed for local government leaders and offers questions for local governments to consider when developing electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure. The report explores how local leaders can plan EV charging infrastructure projects, partner with utilities, leverage federal funding, and site and deploy charging infrastructure while considering safety and equity for their communities.

Need Help Planning for the Future of Electric Vehicles? 9/1/2021 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

This brochure helps states find tools to make informed decisions about implementing electric vehicles (EVs) and their charging infrastructure. To do so, many states will use funds from the Environmental Mitigation Trust Agreements from the Volkswagen Clean Air Act Settlement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories provide extensive information on EVs including both community planning and charging infrastructure. This information can help states implement EV and charging infrastructure projects using settlement funds. The tools in this brochure represent a sampling of key DOE resources available to states and other jurisdictions.

Electric Vehicles Roadmap Initiative 7/1/2021 Reports

Western Governors’ Association, Denver, Colorado

Oregon Governor Kate Brown launched the Electric Vehicles (EVs) Roadmap Initiative in July 2020, to examine opportunities to improve the planning and siting of EV charging infrastructure in western states. The Chair Initiative of the Governor assembled states engaged in the West Coast Electric Highway (which includes California, Oregon, and Washington) and the Regional Electric Vehicle Plan for the West (REV West, which includes Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming). Together, they assessed opportunities for enhanced coordination on voluntary technical standards related to EV infrastructure hardware, payment methods, signage, and best practices for siting and location. This report presents findings from these sessions and examines state programs and coordination opportunities, grid infrastructure planning and the role of utilities, medium-and heavy-duty EVs, EV fleets, permitting and siting practices, and economic and workforce development opportunities associated with EVs.

Meeting 2025 Zero Emission Vehicle Goals: An Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure in Maryland Moniot, M.; Rames, C.; Wood, E. 2/20/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been enlisted to conduct a statewide assessment of the electric vehicle charging infrastructure requirements for Maryland to meet its goal of supporting 300,000 zero emission vehicles by 2025. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) was used to generate scenarios of statewide charging infrastructure to support consumer plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption based on travel patterns provided by INRIX (a commercial mapping/traffic company) that are used to characterize regional travel in Maryland and to anticipate future demand for PEV charging. Results indicate that significant expansion of Maryland's electric vehicle charging infrastructure will be required to support the state's PEV goal for 2025. Analysis shows that a fleet of 300,000 PEVs will require 17,400 workplace Level 2 plugs, 9,300 public Level 2 plugs, and 1,000 fast charge plugs. These estimates assume that future PEVs will be driven in a manner consistent with present day gasoline vehicles and that most charging will happen at residential locations. A sensitivity study explores edge cases pertaining to several assumptions, highlighting factors that heavily influence the projected infrastructure requirements. Variations in the makeup of the PEV fleet, evolving consumer charging preferences, and availability of residential charging are all shown to influence 2025 infrastructure requirements.

Final Technical Report-WestSmart EV: Western Smart Plug-in Electric Vehicle Community Partnership Campbell, James 1/19/2021 Reports

Department on Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC

The WestSmartEV (WSEV) project has accelerated adoption of electric vehicles (EV) throughout the PacifiCorp/Rocky Mountain Power’s service territory in the intermountain west by developing a large-scale, sustainable EV charging infrastructure network with coordinated EV adoption programs. The project objectives have strategically deployed 79 direct current fast charging to create two primary electric interstate highway corridors along I-15 and I-80. Additionally, it has incentivized installation of Level 2 chargers at workplace locations, incentivized the purchase of EVs, provided all electric solutions for first- and last-mile trips, provided centralized data collection, analysis, modeling, and tool development to inform investment and policy decisions, and developed education outreach materials and conducted workshops across the WSEV region. This report summarizes the WSEV project efforts.

Assessment of Light-Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles in the United States, 2010-2019 Gohlke, D.; Zhou, Y. 6/1/2020 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois

This report examines properties of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) sold in the United States from 2010 to 2019, exploring vehicle sales, miles driven, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, vehicle manufacturing, and battery production, among other factors. Over 1.4 million PEVs have been sold, driving over 37 billion miles on electricity since 2010, thereby reducing national gasoline consumption by 0.34% in 2019 and 1.4 billion gallons cumulatively through 2019. In 2019, PEVs used 4.1 terawatt-hours of electricity to drive 12.7 billion miles, offsetting 470 million gallons of gasoline. Since 2010, 69% of all PEVs have been assembled in the United States, and over 60 gigawatt-hours of lithium-ion batteries have been installed in vehicles to date.

Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment & Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development 9/1/2021 Reports

California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California

California's Assembly Bill 8 requires the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to assess the size of the current and future fuel cell electric vehicle fleet annually, based on vehicle registrations with the Department of Motor Vehicles, auto manufacturer responses to ARB surveys of projected future sales, and current and future hydrogen fuel station locations and capacity. This information informs the state’s decisions for future funding of hydrogen fuel stations, including the number and location of stations as well as minimum technical requirements for those stations.

Community Impacts: Accessible Electric Vehicle Carshare Programs Herman, C. 6/6/2022 Reports

Forth, Portland, Oregon

Having abundant and affordable access to transportation affects an individual’s ability to live a healthy and fulfilling life. To date, a majority of carshare models have been implemented in urban, affluent areas, and have not focused on electric vehicles (EVs). A variety of EV carshare programs were evaluated with the goal of identifying and understanding best practices and challenges associated with implementing these programs in underserved locations, specifically in low-income and rural areas. This paper shares the design and results to date of several of these programs, as well as a framework for designing a carshare program.

Levelized Cost of Charging Electric Vehicles in the United States Borlaug, B.; Salisbury, S.; Gerdes, M.; Muratori, M. 7/15/2020 Reports

Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, Netherlands

The cost to charge an electric vehicle (EV) varies depending on the price of electricity at different charging sites (home, workplace, or public), vehicle use, region, and time of day, and for different charging power levels and equipment and installation costs. This paper provides a detailed assessment of the 2019 levelized cost of light-duty PEV charging in the United States, considering the purchase and installation costs of charging equipment and electricity prices from real-world utility tariffs.

Notes:

This Joule article (Vol. 4, Issue 7, (July 2020): pp. 1470-1485) is copyrighted by Elsevier Inc. and can be accessed through Science Direct.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Showcases: Consumer Experience and Acceptance Singer, M. 7/2/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In 2016 the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) announced three awardees to hold plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) showcases to demonstrate available technologies and provide a hands-on consumer experience at conveniently located, brand-neutral settings. The events varied in style from long term stationary storefront settings to weekend events at a variety of regional venues. Attendees could interact with the technology through ride-and-drives and longer-term test drives. The events began in the spring of 2017 and continued through 2019.

Public charging infrastructure for plug-in electric vehicles: What is it worth? Greene, D.L.; Kontou, E.; Borlaug, B.; Brooker, A.; Muratori, M. 2/7/2020 Journal Articles & Abstracts

University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Lack of charging infrastructure is a significant barrier to the growth of the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market. Quantifying the value of public charging infrastructure can inform analysis of investment decisions and can help predict the impact of charging infrastructure on future PEV sales. This report focuses on quantifying the value of public chargers in terms of their ability to displace gasoline use for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and to enable additional electric vehicle miles for all-electric vehicles, thereby mitigating the limitations of shorter range and longer charging time.

Notes:

This Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment article (Vol. 78, January 2020, 102182) is copyrighted by Elsevier Ltd. and can be accessed through Science Direct.

Clean Cities Coalitions 2022 Activity Report Singer, M.; Johnson, C.; Wilson, A. 1/29/2024 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) works with local Clean Cities coalitions across the country as part of its Technology Integration Program. These efforts help businesses and consumers make smarter and more informed transportation energy choices that can save energy, lower costs, provide resilience through fuel diversification, and reduce emissions. This report summarizes the success and impact of coalition activities based on data and information provided in their annual reports.

Florida Electric Vehicle Roadmap Smith Burk, K.; Groover Combs, A.; Kettles, D.; Reed, K. 12/1/2020 Reports

FDACS and Central Florida Clean Cities, Tallahassee, Florida; Central Florida Clean Cities Coalition, Cocoa, Florida

In May 2019, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ Office of Energy began working on a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) roadmap for the state of Florida. This roadmap provides a comprehensive investigation into the status and needs of PEV charging infrastructure in Florida for the following three to four years. This roadmap identifies PEV charging infrastructure impacts on the electric grid, solutions for any negative impacts, areas that lack PEV charging infrastructure, best practices for siting PEV charging stations, and technical or regulatory barriers to expansion of PEV charging infrastructure. It also provides recommendations that address permitting, emergency evacuation needs, and education.

AFLEET Assesses Vehicle, Fuel, and Infrastructure Impacts 12/13/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemony, Illinois

AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET fact sheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

Lithium-Ion Battery Supply Chain for E-Drive Vehicles in the United States: 2010–2020 Yan Zhou, David Gohlke, Luke Rush, Jarod Kelly, and Qiang Dai 3/1/2021 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory

Understanding the battery supply chain is particularly important for the strategic planning and development of a battery recycling infrastructure to secure critical materials supply and enable a circular economy. Building on detailed monthly sales data, this report summarizes the manufacturing and production locations of lithium-ion (Li-ion, or LIB) battery cells and packs by make and model for PEVs sold in the U.S. from 2010 to 2020. It also summarizes the annual and cumulative Li-ion battery capacity installed in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) sold in the U.S. Overall, there are about 20 different battery cell and pack manufacturers, which are currently supplying about 20 gigawatt-hours (GWh) of batteries annually for the U.S. PEV market.

Electric Vehicles: Key Trends, Issues, and Considerations for State Regulators Harper C.; McAndrews, G.; Sass Byrnett, D. 10/1/2019 Reports

National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, District of Columbia

Over the past few years, states across the country have seen increased consumer adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), thereby increasing electricity demand from the transportation sector. Electric utilities are at different stages of exploring their role in both building EV charging infrastructure and managing grid impacts, including through rate design and managed charging. As a result, many Public Utility Commissions (PUCs), the state agencies tasked with regulating utilities, are being asked to make decisions in this unfamiliar industry, sometimes without direct legislative guidance. This issue brief provides data about the trends in EV adoption, a synopsis of the types of decisions PUCs are facing, and examples of recent state regulatory approaches to EV questions.

Electrifying Transportation in Municipalities: A Policy Toolkit for Electric Vehicle Deployment and Adoption at the Local Level 8/30/2021 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

The Electrification Coalition, Washington, District of Columbia

This policy toolkit, designed for local governments, summarizes key policies that local agencies should consider when undergoing electric vehicle (EV) deployment projects at the city, town, and county level. The toolkit outlines policies within five categories of EV deployment: infrastructure, multi-sector, freight, fleets, and consumer. The report provides both a qualitative and quantitative summary of the policy’s impact on emissions, public health, social equity, jobs and the EV market, and details potential difficulties in policy implementation and potential costs.

Sample Cybersecurity Clauses for EV Charging Infrastructure Procurements Ross O'Neil, L; Carroll, T; Abdelhadi, E; Watson, M; Hammer, C; Psarakis, M 6/30/2023 Reports

Joint Office of Energy and Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

Electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure exhibits character traits of cloud computing, Internet of Things, and operational technology. Critically, high-level communications and interconnectedness underlie it all. The benefits of connected technologies also come with cybersecurity risks, which must be managed and are managed most effectively early in the systems engineering process. States and other EV charging infrastructure purchasers can reduce their exposure to cybersecurity risks by including sample cybersecurity procurement language clauses that clearly communicate cybersecurity requirements. This document is a tool and an informative resource to be used in conjunction with other general procurement guidance for assisting state departments of transportation in defining cybersecurity-related procurement specifications.

Public EV Charging Station Site Selection Checklist 7/1/2023 Toolkits & Fact Sheets

Joint Office of Energy and Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

The Joint Office of Energy and Transportation (Joint Office) provides technical assistance on planning and implementation of a national network of electric vehicle (EV) chargers and zero-emission fueling infrastructure, as well as zero-emission transit and school buses. There are several considerations that should be addressed when selecting a site for EV charging stations. This document is a checklist to assist with site selection for publicly available EV charging stations.

Streetlight Charging in the City Right-of-Way: A Community Perspective Blomqvist, A; Francis, S; Bouallage, M 8/1/2023 Reports

EVNoire

The Streetlight Charging in the City Right-of-Way project seeks to substantially increase access to electric vehicle (EV) charging in Kansas City, Missouri by combining charging stations with existing streetlight infrastructure. This report is an account of the community research conducted by the project team to engage residents in decision-making for charging station siting. The report details the current transportation concerns among residents, feedback from community members on the proposed charging sites, and community recommendations for additional sites.

Home Charging Access and the Implications for Charging Infrastructure Costs in the United States Pierce, L.; Slowik, P. 3/1/2023 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

As the electric vehicle market expands, substantial investment in home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure will be necessary. This analysis shows how additional efforts to expand home charging access can lead to overall reductions in the total costs required to deploy the necessary charging ecosystem.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Charged Up! TLC Electrification Report 7/1/2022 Reports

New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission, New York City, New York

The New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission (TLC) is committed to transitioning the majority of its licensed fleet to electric vehicles (EVs) by 2030. Charged Up! is TLC’s roadmap to support this movement, outlining ways to support TLC’s EV drivers, incentivize more EVs, and support the for-hire industry’s charging needs. New York City’s for-hire transportation landscape presents distinct challenges to electrification, with high daily mileage driven due to high trip volumes, drivers living in the outer boroughs and in environmental justice communities, as well as the various charging needs of industry stakeholders. Given these considerations, the report identifies policy levers and formulates recommendations to address three major barriers that currently impede the expansion of for-hire EVs.

Design Recommendations for Accessible EV Charging Stations 8/11/2022 Reports

U.S. Access Board, Washington, D.C.

This technical assistance document covers Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) accessibility requirements applicable to electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. It provides multiple recommendations for designing accessible EV charging stations by offering guidance on elements not addressed in the current ADA and ABA. This technical assistance will aid in the development of a national network of EV charging stations that is accessible to everyone, including people with disabilities. The technical assistance document is a valuable resource for those involved in the planning, designing, building, installing, and use of EV charging stations, including state and local governments, designers and developers, electrical and construction professionals, equipment manufacturers, automakers, utility providers, charge point operators and e-mobility service providers, EV owners, and people with disabilities.

Best Practices for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Installations in the National Parks - Challenges, Lessons Learned, Installation Best Practices, and Recommendations for the National Park Service Kelly, K.; Noblet., S.; Brown, A. 12/27/2019 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado; ICF, Golden, Colorado

This report captures challenges, lessons learned, and best practices from recent National Park Service (NPS) electric vehicle supply equipment projects based on interviews with NPS employees and stakeholders involved in the projects. The report summarizes notable takeaways and makes recommendations to help ensure the success of future charging installation projects. Preserving this information will be valuable for informing and ensuring the success of future charging installation efforts at national parks, as well as for organizations outside of NPS. Note that this report focuses on light-duty plug-in electric vehicle projects, though NPS is also pursuing medium- and heavy-duty electric vehicle efforts.

A Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel, Natural Gas, and Electric Vehicles Muncrief, R. 9/21/2021 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Diesel, natural gas, and electric heavy-duty vehicles can be designed and manufactured with the capability of complying with the ultra-low nitrogen oxide (NOx) limits envisioned in the next set of California and federal heavy-duty vehicle regulations. This briefing compares the capabilities of these three powertrain types in meeting an ultra-low NOx standard across four key areas: feasibility, cost, health impacts, and climate impacts.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Curb Enthusiasm: Report for On-Street Electric Vehicle Charging 8/15/2019 Reports

NYSERDA, Albany, New York

A critical barrier to the successful large-scale adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in metropolitan areas is the availability of public access charging infrastructure. Charging PEVs in areas with limited off-street parking, where charging equipment is typically installed, becomes a perceptual and logistical barrier for prospective PEV drivers who primarily park on-street. The targeted deployment of curbside Level 2 charging stations is one of the most cost-effective and catalytic ways that local government can support a shift toward PEVs in cities. Through original research, analysis, and case studies, this report seeks to define the potential for curbside Level 2 charging station implementation in New York City and to establish guidelines to ensure success. The report and its accompanying guidebook are intended to be a resource for New York City agencies as well as local governments looking to pilot curbside charging.

The Role of Demand-Side Incentives and Charging Infrastructure on Plug-in Electric Vehicle Adoption: Analysis of US States. Paper No. 074032 Narassimhan, E.; Johnson, C. 7/13/2018 Journal Articles & Abstracts

Tufts University, Medford, Massachussets; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

In the U.S., over 400 state and local incentives have been issued to increase the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) since 2008. This article quantifies the influence of key incentives and enabling factors like charging infrastructure and receptive demographics on PEV adoption. The study focuses on three central questions. First, do consumers respond to certain types of state level vehicle purchase incentives? Second, does the density of public charging infrastructure increase PEV purchases? Finally, does the impact of various factors differ for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and vehicle attributes within each category? Based on a regression of vehicle purchase data from 2008 to 2016, we found that tax incentives and charging infrastructure significantly influence per capita PEV purchases. Within tax incentives, rebates are generally more effective than tax credits. BEV purchases are more affected by tax incentives than PHEVs. The correlation of public charging and vehicle purchases increases with the battery-only driving range of a PHEV, while decreasing with increasing driving range of BEVs. Results indicate that early investments in charging infrastructure, particularly along highways; tax incentives targeting BEVs at the lower end of the price premium and PHEVs with higher battery only driving range, and better reflection of the environmental cost of owning gasoline vehicles are likely to increase PEV adoption in the U.S.

Notes:

This journal article (Environmental Research Letters, Volume 13, Number 7) is copyrighted by IOP Publishing and can be downloaded from the IOPScience website.

Electric Vehicle Capitals: Showing the Path to a Mainstream Market Hall, D.; Cui, H.; Lutsey, N. 11/20/2019 Reports

International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, D.C.

This briefing assesses metropolitan area-level data on plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) registrations and identifies the 25 largest PEV markets, which together represent 42% of new passenger PEV sales globally through 2018. To provide a blueprint for other governments, this briefing analyzes the incentives, charging infrastructure, and city promotion actions in these areas that are spurring PEVs into the mainstream.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on The International Council on Clean Transportation's website.

Development and Demonstration of a Class 6 Range-Extended Electric Vehicle for Commercial Pickup and Delivery Operation Jeffers, M.A.; Miller, E.; Kelly, K.; Kresse, J.; Li, K.; Dalton, J.; Kader, M.; Frazier, C. 4/14/2020 Journal Articles & Abstracts

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

Range-extended hybrids are an attractive option for medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle fleets because they offer the efficiency of an electrified powertrain with the driving range of a conventional diesel powertrain. The vehicle essentially operates as if it was purely electric for most trips, while ensuring that all commercial routes can be completed in any weather conditions or geographic terrain. Fuel use and point-source emissions can be significantly reduced, and in some cases eliminated, as many shorter routes can be fully electrified with this architecture.

Notes: This report is copyrighted and can be accessed through SAE International in United States website.

Grid Impact Analysis of Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Zhu, X.; Mather, B.; Mishra, P. 5/7/2020 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This paper presents a grid impact analysis of heavy-duty electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. Authors assumed heavy-duty EVs will have battery capacities high enough to provide a range of 250 to 500 miles on a single charge. Heavy-duty EVs will require extremely fast charging rates to reduce charging time and will induce very high charging loads (at the multiple-megawatt scale) if several vehicles charge at the same time. This project develops a systematic procedure to analyze the potential impact of the placement of charging stations on the grid. Additionally, it develops initial mitigation solutions based on insights from this analysis.

Notes: This report is copyrighted by IEEE and can be accessed through IEEE.

Public Electric Vehicle Charging Business Models for Retail Site Hosts Satterfield, C.; Nigro, N. 4/29/2020 Reports

Atlas Public Policy, Washington, D.C.

As the passenger plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market grows in the United States, public PEV charging stations will become increasingly important to serve the charging needs of millions of drivers. For retailers, PEV charging stations offer an opportunity to produce new revenue streams or expand on existing ones while also advancing broader efforts to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. This brief provides an overview of PEV market growth and the role of public charging options, along with the potential benefits to retailers of hosting PEV charging infrastructure.

Electric Mobility Opportunities for Brooklyn Park, Minnesota Weigl, D; Bopp, K; Rosner, N 1/1/2024 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This report outlines steps that Brooklyn Park, Minnesota can take through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Communities Local Energy Action Program in order to expand electric mobility access for its residents, particularly those residents who are most historically underserved. The report provides an overview of different options for increasing mobility for residents, including personal electric vehicles, electric carshares, electric micro mobility, and on demand services. The report additionally highlights the importance of ongoing community engagement and education.

SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow Development, Implementation, and Results Capstone Report Rousseau, A.; Sheppard, C.; Auld, J.; Souza, F.; Enam, A.; Freyermuth, V.; Gardner, M.; Garikapati, V.; Needell, Z.; Stinson, M.; Verbas, O.; Wood, E. 7/28/2020 Reports

Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

<p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Consortium is a multiyear, multi-laboratory collaborative, managed by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, dedicated to further understanding the energy implications and opportunities of advanced mobility technologies and services. The first three-year research phase of SMART Mobility occurred from 2017 through 2019 and included five research pillars: Connected and Automated Vehicles, Mobility Decision Science, Multi-Modal Freight, Urban Science, and Advanced Fueling Infrastructure. A sixth research thrust integrated aspects of all five pillars to develop a SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow to evaluate new transportation technologies and services at scale.</p><p>This report summarizes the work of the SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow effort. The SMART Mobility Modeling Workflow was developed to evaluate new transportation technologies such as connectivity, automation, sharing, and electrification through multi-level systems analysis that captures the dynamic interactions between technologies. By integrating multiple models across different levels of fidelity and scale, the Workflow yields insights about the influence of new mobility and vehicle technologies at the system level.</p>

User Perceptions of the Risks of Electric, Shared, and Automated Vehicles Remain Largely Unexplored Kurani, K. 2/12/2021 Reports

UC Davis, National Center for Sustainable Transportation, Davis, California

Advocates of electric, shared, and automated vehicles (e-SAVs) envision a future in which people no longer need to drive their privately owned, petroleum-fueled vehicles. Instead, for daily travel they rely on fleets of electric, automated vehicles that offer travel services, including the option to share, or “pool,” rides with strangers. The design, deployment, and operation of e-SAVs will require widespread willingness of users to share with strangers vehicles that are capable of fully automated driving. To achieve the environmental and societal goals of e-SAVs it is critical to first understand and address safety and security concerns of potential and actual users. Researchers at the University of California, Davis, reviewed the literature to understand potential users’ perceptions of safety and security risks posed by intertwined social and technical systems of e-SAVs and proposed a framework to advance research, policy, and system design. This policy brief summarizes the findings of that work and provides policy implications.

Policies that Impact the Acceleration of Electric Vehicle Adoption Kettles, C. 9/26/2018 Reports

Electric Vehicle Transportation Center, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, Florida

To better understand the influence of policy initiatives that relate to electric vehicles (EVs) have on accelerated deployment, this project focused on a number of successful public and private initiatives and policies designed to encourage the adoption of EVs and related infrastructure. This report highlights programs that have influenced adoption, provides a critique of best practices, and includes references to databases EV policy initiatives.

Impacts of Increasing Electrification on State Fleet Operations and Charging Demand Booth,S.; Bennett, J.; Helm, M., Arnold, D.; Baker, B.; Clay, R.; Till, M.; Sears, T. 2/1/2022 Reports

Sawatch Labs, Denver, Colorado; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

State fleets represent an enticing opportunity to explore the near-term feasibility of fleet electrification. In many instances, state fleet operations encompass a wide geographic area with fleet locations for many vehicles. Serving these wide areas will require a significant amount of energy and, in the case of electric vehicles (EVs), a significant level of charging power. The peak demand as a result of this charging demand is of interest for fleets, with impacts on both utility bills and installation costs ranking among some of the greatest concerns. The combination of a wide operational area and multiple fleet locations positions state fleets as ideal candidates to understand the impacts of vehicle charging on fleet operations. As the availability of electric drivetrains expands beyond light-duty sedans, fleets need to understand when it will be appropriate operationally and financially to start adding electric drivetrains to their fleets. Throughout this process, it will also be important to understand the charging implications of fleet electrification and the resulting impacts to facility electrical systems. To better understand these considerations, NREL contracted Sawatch Labs to analyze the role that increasing state fleet electrification may have on the charging demand at fleet parking facilities.

Charging Forward: A Toolkit for Planning and Funding Urban Electric Mobility Infrastructure 5/1/2023 Reports

Department of Transportation, Washington, District of Columbia

This toolkit is meant to be a one-stop resource to help urban communities scope, plan, and fund electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure for light-duty electric passenger vehicles. Urban stakeholders, including states, local communities, transportation providers, nonprofits, businesses, and individuals, can use the toolkit to identify key partners for a project, take advantage of relevant planning tools, and identify available funding or financing to help make that project a reality. Armed with the resources in this toolkit, urban communities will have the tools and information they need to start planning and implementing EV infrastructure projects and ultimately realize the benefits of electric mobility.

Evaluation of Policies for EV Charging Infrastructure Deployment 2/1/2022 Reports

Fuels Institute, Alexandria, Virginia

To help guide federal, state, and local policymakers in the development of policies and programs focused on electric vehicle (EV) charging station deployment, this study evaluates the effectiveness of various policy approaches in contributing to deployments and broader EV charging market development. Using both statistical analysis and interviews of policymakers and business leaders across key states, this study aims to identify the major existing U.S. policies adopted between 2016 and 2020, to evaluate the effectiveness of these policies, to evaluate the relationship between policies and the development of the broader EV charging market, and to identify opportunities for future policy formulation.

Notes:

This copyrighted publication can be accessed on the Fuels Institute website.

National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis Wood, E.; Rames, C.; Muratori, M.; Raghavan, S.; Melaina, M. 9/1/2017 Reports

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

This document describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.