Data Sources and Assumptions for the Electricity Sources and Fuel-Cycle Emissions Tool
The following data sources and assumptions were used to calculate the emissions, fuel use, and electricity sources for conventional and electric-drive vehicles in the Electricity Sources and Fuel-Cycle Emissions Tool.
These assumptions were used to show electricity sources.
|Electricity fuel mix||varies by state||thousand MWh||2022||U.S. Energy Information Administration's Open Data API for Electricity Net Generation|
Annual Vehicle Emissions
These assumptions were used to calculate the annual vehicle emissions for an average conventional, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and all-electric vehicle.
|Gasoline emissions||23.7||lbs. CO2e/gal||2019||Well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions factor derived from Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model|
|ICE gasoline efficiency||21.79||mi/gal||2019||Weighted average of projected vehicle sales from EPA Automotive Trends Report and mpg from the Fuel Economy Guide|
|HEV gasoline efficiency||39.78||mi/gal||2019||Weighted average of vehicle sales from U.S. HEV Sales by Model and mpg from the Fuel Economy Guide|
|PHEV gasoline efficiency||40.80||mi/gal||2019||Weighted average of vehicle sales from U.S. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales by Model and mpg from the Fuel Economy Guide|
|PHEV electric efficiency||3.03||mi/kWh|
|PHEV electric range||27.74||miles|
|BEV electric efficiency||3.60||mi/kWh|
|PHEV % electric VMT||56.3||% VMT||2010||SAE J2841, Appendix B, MDIUF based on PHEV electric range|
|Average annual VMT||11,579||miles||2019||Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Transportation Energy Data Book Edition 39, Table 4.3|
|Emissions from electric power||varies by state||million metric tons CO2e||2022||U.S. Energy Information Administration's Electric Power Annual|
|Energy generated from electric power||varies by state||thousand MWh|
Average Emissions from Generated Electricity
The following equation is used to calculate average emissions from generated electricity at the state and national level:
The result of this equation is used to calculate annual vehicle emissions for BEVs and PHEVs.
All-Electric Vehicle Emissions
The following equation is used to calculate emissions for all-electric vehicles (EVs) also called battery electric vehicles (BEVs):
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Emissions
The following equation is used to calculate emissions for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs):
Hybrid Electric Vehicle Emissions
The following equation is used to calculate emissions for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs):
Gasoline Vehicle Emissions
The following equation is used to calculate emissions for gasoline vehicles also called internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles: